45 Works

Modelled potential carbon storage based on land cover and published carbon storage values in urban landscapes of the South Midlands

D.R. Grafius, R. Corstanje & J. A. Harris
This dataset shows potential carbon storage as modelled for the urban areas of Milton Keynes/Newport Pagnell, Bedford, and Luton/Dunstable, UK. The modelling approach used the ‘InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs) 3.1.0’ ecosystem service model suite, raster land cover maps at two spatial resolutions (5 m and 25 m) and published literature values for carbon storage by land cover. The resulting data are presented in the form of two ‘GeoTIFF’ raster map files...

Microbial biomass measurements from an upland grassland liming experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
These measurements of soil microbial biomass carbon, soil basal respiration rate and metabolic quotient were taken from an experiment set up at the University of Sheffield, using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site at Sourhope. The work was part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, which was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James...

Measurements of nutrient cycling within grassland mycorrhizal mycelial networks [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
This dataset includes data collected during two related experiments measuring nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) in roots and shoots. The measurements enable functional studies of natural communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) mycelia in soil. The experiment was carried out at the University of Sheffield using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site at Sourhope in Scotland. The work was part of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme, which was established in 1999 and was centred upon...

Measurements of carbon-14 transfer from plants to soil within mesh cores [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, J.R. Leake & D.J. Read
This dataset includes measurements of carbon-14 transfer from plants to soil within mesh cores. Measurements were taken in roots, shoots, soil and from respiration. Mesh cores were either static or rotated to provide plus and minus mycorrhizal mycelial systems. Carbon-14 was traced through cores as respiration using KOH (Potassium hydroxide) traps. The experiment was carried out at the University of Sheffield using soil from the NERC Soil Biodiversity site in Scotland. The work was part...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity data from a grassland microcosm experiment [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

D. Johnson, P.J. Vandenkoornhuyse, J.R. Leake, L. Gilbert, Booth, R.E., , J.P Grime, J.P.W. Young & D.J. Read
These arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity data were collected in 2000 as part of an investigation in an unfertilized limestone grassland soil supporting different synthesized vascular plant assemblages that had developed for three years. The experimental treatments comprised: bare soil; monocultures of the non mycotrophic sedge Carex flacca; monocultures of the mycotrophic grass Festuca ovina; and a species-rich mixture of four forbs, four grasses and four sedges. The experiment was undertaken in microcosms, set up...

Data from: The pyriform egg of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) is more stable on sloping surfaces

Tim R. Birkhead, Jamie E. Thompson, R. Montgomerie & Robert Montgomerie
The adaptive significance of avian egg shape is a long-standing problem in biology. For many years, it was widely believed that the pyriform shape of the Common Murre (Uria aalge) egg allowed it to either “spin like a top” or “roll in an arc,” thereby reducing its risk of rolling off the breeding ledge. There is no evidence in support of either mechanism. Two recent alternative hypotheses suggest that a pyriform egg confers mechanical strength...

Data from: Individual variation and the source-sink group dynamics of extra-group paternity in a social mammal

Paula H. Marjamaki, Hannah L. Dugdale, Deborah A. Dawson, Robbie A. McDonald, Richard Delahay, Terry Burke & Alastair J. Wilson
Movement of individuals, or their genes, can influence eco-evolutionary processes in structured populations. We have limited understanding of the extent to which spatial behaviour varies among groups and individuals within populations. Here we use genetic pedigree reconstruction in a long-term study of European badgers (Meles meles) to characterise the extent of extra-group paternity, occurring as a consequence of breeding excursions, and to test hypothesised drivers of variation at multiple levels. We jointly estimate parentage and...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily M. Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram, Roger K. Butlin & Emily Moriarty Lemmon
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: Strong responses from weakly interacting species

Sean Tuck, Janielle Porter, Mark Rees, Lindsay A. Turnbull & Sean L. Tuck
The impact of species loss from competitive communities partly depends on how populations of the surviving species respond. Predicting the response should be straightforward using models that describe population growth as a function of competitor densities; but these models require accurate estimates of interaction strengths. Here, we quantified how well we could predict responses to competitor removal in a community of annual plants, using a combination of observation and experiment. It was straightforward to fit...

Data from: Inter- and intra-specific genomic divergence in Drosophila montana shows evidence for cold adaptation

Darren J. Parker, R. Axel W. Wiberg, Urmi Trivedi, Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Karim Gharbi, Roger K. Butlin, Anneli Hoikkala, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K Butlin, Darren J Parker, Venera I Tyukmaeva, R Axel W Wiberg & Michael G Ritchie
D. montana gff fileGenome annotation file for D. montana genome (Accession number: LUVX00000000)D.mont_freeze_v1.4.gff.txt

Data from: Correlates of rate heterogeneity in avian ecomorphological traits

Angela M. Chira, Christopher R. Cooney, Jen A. Bright, Elliot J.R. Capp, Emma C. Hughes, Chris J.A. Moody, Lara O. Nouri, Zoe K. Varley, Gavin H. Thomas, J. A. Bright, A. M. Chira, C. R. Cooney, E. J. R. Capp, E. C. Hughes, C. J. A. Moody, L. O. Nouri, Z. K. Varley & G. H. Thomas
Heterogeneity in rates of trait evolution is widespread, but it remains unclear which processes drive fast and slow character divergence across global radiations. Here, we test multiple hypotheses for explaining rate variation in an ecomorphological trait (beak shape) across a globally distributed group (birds). We find low support that variation in evolutionary rates of species is correlated with life history, environmental mutagenic factors, range size, number of competitors, or living on islands. Indeed, after controlling...

Data from: Analyzing contentious relationships and outlier genes in phylogenomics

Joseph F. Walker, Joseph W. Brown, Stephen A. Smith, Joseph W Brown, Joseph F Walker & Stephen A Smith
Recent studies have demonstrated that conflict is common among gene trees in phylogenomic studies, and that less than one percent of genes may ultimately drive species tree inference in supermatrix analyses. Here, we examined two datasets where supermatrix and coalescent-based species trees conflict. We identified two highly influential “outlier” genes in each dataset. When removed from each dataset, the inferred supermatrix trees matched the topologies obtained from coalescent analyses. We also demonstrate that, while the...

Data from: Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, dominance drive, and sex-chromosome introgression at secondary contact zones: a simulation study

Luca Sciuchetti, Christophe Dufresnes, Elisa Cavoto, Alan Brelsford & Nicolas Perrin
Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) incompatibilities involving sex chromosomes have been proposed to account for Haldane’s rule (lowered fitness among hybrid offspring of the heterogametic sex) as well as Darwin’s corollary (asymmetric fitness costs with respect to the direction of the cross). We performed simulation studies of a hybrid zone to investigate the effects of different types of DM incompatibilities on cline widths and positions of sex-linked markers. From our simulations, X-Y incompatibilities generate steep clines for both...

Data from: An endemic flora of dispersed spores from the Middle Devonian of Iberia

Alexander J. Askew & Charles H. Wellman
Diverse assemblages of dispersed spores have been recovered from Middle Devonian rocks in northern Spain, revealing a significant endemism in the flora. Middle Devonian Iberia was part of a relatively isolated island complex (Armorican Terrane Assemblage), separated by considerable tracts of ocean from Laurussia to the northwest and Gondwana to the southeast. The Middle Devonian deposits of the Cantabrian Zone of northern Spain are entirely marine and comprise a thick clastic unit sandwiched between extensive...

Data from: What can mixed-species flock movement tell us about the value of Amazonian secondary forests? insights from spatial behavior

Karl Mokross, Jonathan R. Potts, Cameron L. Rutt & Philip C. Stouffer
The value of secondary forest for rainforest species remains an important question for conservation in the 21st century. Here, we describe the spatial behavior of understory mixed-species flocks in a heterogeneous landscape in central Amazonia. Understory mixed-species flocks represent a diverse, highly organized component of the rich Amazonian avifauna. We recorded movements within 26 flock home ranges in primary forest, secondary forest, interfaces between forest types, and forest fragments. We describe frequency and movement orientation...

Data from: Rewilding in the English Uplands: policy and practice

Christopher J. Sandom, Benedict Dempsey, David Bullock, Adrian Ely, Paul Jepson, Stefan Jimenez-Wisler, Adrian Newton, Nathalie Pettorelli & Rebecca A. Senior
Rewilding is gaining momentum as a new approach to restore and conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services, despite being imprecisely defined, controversial, and with limited explicit empirical supporting evidence (Lorimer et al., 2015; Pettorelli et al., 2018; Svenning et al., 2016). In a case study region (the English uplands), we discuss what rewilding means to practitioners and policy makers; the risks, opportunities, and barriers to implementation, and potential paths for policy and practice.

Data from: Local and system-wide adaptation is influenced by population connectivity

Patrik Nosil, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffery L. Feder, Samuel M. Flaxman, Zachariah Gompert, Jeffrey L. Feder & Zach Gompert
Complex systems can be conceptualized and studied as networks of nodes with varying connectivity between nodes. In well-connected systems, local disturbance of individual nodes can be countered by input from neighbouring nodes, buffering the system against local change. Thus, pronounced change in a well-connected system may not occur until the system hits a threshold or ‘tipping point’ that drives a shift to an alternative, system-wide state. In contrast, poorly connected systems are more prone to...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Meredith Doellman, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Mary Glover, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell … & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Genomic associations with bill length and disease reveal drift and selection across island bird populations

Claire Armstrong, David S. Richardson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Clemens Kuepper, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Matt Clark, Terry Burke & Lewis G. Spurgin
Island species provide excellent models for investigating how selection and drift operate in wild populations, and for determining how these processes act to influence local adaptation and speciation. Here, we examine the role of selection and drift in shaping genomic and phenotypic variation across recently separated populations of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii), a passerine bird endemic to three archipelagos in the Atlantic. We first characterised genetic diversity and population structuring, which supported previous inferences of...

Data from: Riparian reserves help protect forest bird communities in oil palm dominated landscapes

Simon L. Mitchell, David P. Edwards, Henry Bernard, David Coomes, Tommaso Jucker, Zoe G. Davies & Matthew J. Struebig
1. Conversion of forest to oil palm agriculture is a significant and continuing threat to tropical biodiversity. Despite this, little is known about the value of riparian reserves in oil palm and how these conservation set-asides might best be managed to maintain biodiversity. 2. We characterised bird communities of 28 sites in an oil palm-forest mosaic in Sabah, Malaysia using 6104 encounters from 840 point counts. Sites included oil palm riparian reserves of various vegetation...

Data from: Stress‐induced secondary leaves of a boreal deciduous shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) overwinter then regain activity the following growing season

Jarle W. Bjerke, Grzegorz Wierzbinski, Hans Tømmervik, Gareth K. Phoenix & Stef Bokhorst
The ericoid shrub Vaccinium myrtillus is one of several deciduous boreal plants that respond to larval defoliation by compensatory production of a new set of leaves within the same growing season soon after defoliation. This new set is termed as ‘secondary leaves’. The physiological performance and longevity of secondary leaves is poorly understood. Following a multi‐year larval outbreak in boreal Norway, we therefore monitored the fate of the secondary leaves from 2014 to 2016. We...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: A trade-off between thickness and length in the zebra finch sperm mid-piece

Tania Mendonca, Timothy R. Birkhead, Ashley J. Cadby, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Nicola Hemmings & Tim R. Birkhead
The sperm mid-piece has traditionally been considered to be the engine that powers sperm. Larger mid-pieces have therefore been assumed to provide greater energetic capacity. However, in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, a recent study showed a surprising negative relationship between mid-piece length and sperm energy content. Using a multidimensional approach to study mid-piece structure, we tested whether this unexpected relationship can be explained by a trade-off between mid-piece length and mid-piece thickness and/or cristae...

Data from: Whisker touch sensing guides locomotion in small, quadrupedal mammals

Robyn A. Grant, Vicki Breakell & Tony J. Prescott
All small mammals have prominent facial whiskers that they employ as tactile sensors to guide navigation and foraging in complex habitats. Nocturnal, arboreal mammals tend to have the longest and most densely-packed whiskers, and semi-aquatic mammals have the most sensitive. Here we present evidence to indicate that many small mammals use their whiskers to tactually guide safe foot positioning. Specifically, in eleven, small, non-flying mammal species we demonstrate that forepaw placement always falls within the...

Data from: Large and fast human pyramidal neurons associate with intelligence

Natalia A Goriounova, Djai B Heyer, René Wilbers, Matthijs B Verhoog, Michele Giugliano, Christophe Verbist, Joshua Obermayer, Amber Kerkhofs, Harriët Smeding, Maaike Verberne, Sander Idema, Johannes C Baayen, Anton W Pieneman, Christiaan PJ De Kock, Martin Klein & Huibert D Mansvelder
It is generally assumed that human intelligence relies on efficient processing by neurons in our brain. Although gray matter thickness and activity of temporal and frontal cortical areas correlate with IQ scores, no direct evidence exists that links structural and physiological properties of neurons to human intelligence. Here, we find that high IQ scores and large temporal cortical thickness associate with larger, more complex dendrites of human pyramidal neurons. We show in silico that larger...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    45

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    45

Affiliations

  • University of Sheffield
    45
  • University of Oxford
    5
  • University of Gothenburg
    4
  • University of Notre Dame
    3
  • University of Leeds
    3
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of York
    3
  • Notre Dame University
    3
  • VU Amsterdam
    2
  • Rice University
    2
  • Johns Hopkins University
    2
  • Earlham Institute
    2
  • University of Lausanne
    2
  • State University of New York
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2