673 Works

Concerning the Spectacular Austerities

Brian Bouldrey

Trends in prevalence and incidence of scabies from 1990 to 2017: findings from the global Burden of disease study 2017

Wei Zhang, Yujiao Zhang, Lina Luo, Wenyong Huang, Xiaoping Shen, Xian Dong, Wen Zeng & Hongguang Lu
Scabies remains a significant public health concern globally, affecting people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic groups. The epidemic characteristics of scabies are yet unravelled, especially in high-income countries and elderly population. In this study, we sought to investigate incidence and prevalence and their trends of scabies worldwide from 1990 to 2017 via the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The prevalence and incidence of scabies tend to a moderate increase after age 70....

Trends in Prevalence and Incidence of Scabies from 1990 to 2017: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Wei Zhang, Yujiao Zhang, Lina Luo, Wenyong Huang, Xiaoping Shen, Xian Dong, Wen Zeng & Hongguang Lu
Scabies remains a significant public health concern globally, affecting people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic groups. The epidemic characteristics of scabies are yet unraveled, especially in high-income countries and elderly population. In this study, we sought to investigate incidence and prevalence and their trends of scabies worldwide from 1990 to 2017 via the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2017. The prevalence and incidence of age-standardized rate (ASR) of scabies tend to a moderate...

Data from: Persistent firing in LEC III neurons is differentially modulated by learning and aging

Carmen Lin, Venus Sherathiya, M Matthew Oh & John Disterhoft
Whether and how persistent firing in lateral entorhinal cortex layer III (LEC III) supports temporal associative learning is still unknown. In this study, persistent firing was evoked in vitro from LEC III neurons from young and aged rats that were behaviorally naïve or trained on trace eyeblink conditioning. Persistent firing ability from neurons from behaviorally naïve aged rats was lower compared to neurons from young rats. Neurons from learning impaired aged animals also exhibited reduced...

Reproductive hormones mediate changes in the gut microbiome during pregnancy and lactation in Phayre’s leaf monkeys

Elizabeth Mallott, Carola Borries, Andreas Koenig, Amy Lu & Katherine R. Amato
Studies in multiple host species have shown that gut microbial diversity and composition change during pregnancy and lactation. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these shifts are not well understood. Here, we use longitudinal data from wild Phayre’s leaf monkeys to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in reproductive hormone concentrations contribute to gut microbial shifts during pregnancy. We described the microbial taxonomic composition of 91 fecal samples from 15 females (n=16 cycling, n=36 pregnant, n=39 lactating)...

Data from: Random heteropolymers preserve protein function in foreign environments

Brian Panganiban, Baofu Qiao, Tao Jiang, Christopher DelRe, Mona M. Obadia, Trung Dac Nguyen, Anton A. A. Smith, Aaron Hall, Izaac Sit, Marquise G. Crosby, Patrick B. Dennis, Eric Drockenmuller, Monica Olvera De La Cruz & Ting Xu
The successful incorporation of active proteins into synthetic polymers could lead to a new class of materials with functions found only in living systems. However, proteins rarely function under the conditions suitable for polymer processing. On the basis of an analysis of trends in protein sequences and characteristic chemical patterns on protein surfaces, we designed four-monomer random heteropolymers to mimic intrinsically disordered proteins for protein solubilization and stabilization in non-native environments. The heteropolymers, with optimized...

Data from: A transcriptome screen for positive selection in domesticated breadfruit and its wild relatives (Artocarpus spp.)

Kristen M. Laricchia, Matthew G. Johnson, Diane Ragone, Evelyn W. Williams, Nyree J.C. Zerega, Norman J. Wickett & Nyree J. C. Zerega
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Underutilized crops, such as breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) have the potential to improve global food security. Humans have artificially selected many cultivars of breadfruit since its domestication began approximately 3,500 years ago. The goal of this research is to identify transcriptomic signals of positive selection and to develop genomic resources that may facilitate the development of improved breadfruit cultivars in the future. METHODS: A reference transcriptome of breadfruit was assembled de...

Supplemental materials for: Peri- and post-pubertal estrogen exposures of female mice optimize uterine responses later in life

Sylvia Hewitt, Marleny Carmona, Grace Foley, Lauren Donoghue, Sydney Lierz, Wipawee Winuthayanon & Kenneth Korach
At birth, all female mice, including those that either lack estrogen receptor α (ERα-knockout) or that express mutated forms of ERα (AF2ERKI), have a hypoplastic uterus. However, uterine growth and development that normally accompanies pubertal maturation does not occur in ERα-knockout or AF2ERKI mice, indicating ERα mediated estrogen signaling is essential for this process. Mice that lack Cyp19 (aromatase, ArKO mice), an enzyme critical for estrogen (E2) synthesis, are unable to make E2, and lack...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda

Lisa Hirschhorn, Miriam Frisch, Jovial Thomas Ntawukuriryayo, Amelia VanderZanden, Kateri Donahoe, Kedest Mathewos, Felix Sayinzoga & Agnes Binagwaho
Exemplars U5M Interview Guide: This is an example of the semi-structured interview guide used for key informant interviews described in the article, "Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda." Extended data (supplemental) tables and figures: These are the supplemental tables and figures to accompany the article, "Development and application of a hybrid implementation research framework to understand success in reducing under-5 mortality in Rwanda."...

Data from: Head-to-head comparison of three experimental methods of quantifying competitive fitness in C. elegans

Timothy A. Crombie, Sayran Saber, Ayush Shekhar Saxena, Robyn Egan & Charles F. Baer
Organismal fitness is relevant in many contexts in biology. The most meaningful experimental measure of fitness is competitive fitness, when two or more entities (e.g., genotypes) are allowed to compete directly. In theory, competitive fitness is simple to measure: an experimental population is initiated with the different types in known proportions and allowed to evolve under experimental conditions to a predefined endpoint. In practice, there are several obstacles to obtaining robust estimates of competitive fitness...

Data from: Diverse and complex muscle spindle afferent firing properties emerge from multiscale muscle mechanics

Kyle Blum, Brian Horslen, Kenneth Campbell, Brian Horslen, Paul Nardelli, Stephen Housley, Timothy Cope & Lena Ting
Despite decades of research, we lack a mechanistic framework capable of predicting how movement-related signals are transformed into the diversity of muscle spindle afferent firing patterns observed experimentally, particularly in naturalistic behaviors. Here, a biophysical model demonstrates that well-known firing characteristics of mammalian muscle spindle Ia afferents – including movement history dependence, and nonlinear scaling with muscle stretch velocity – emerge from first principles of muscle contractile mechanics. Further, mechanical interactions of the muscle spindle...

Data from: Experimental warming in the field delays phenology and reduces body mass and survival: implications for the persistence of a pollinator under climate change

Paul J. CaraDonna, James L. Cunningham & Amy M. Iler
1. Climate change is rapidly altering thermal environments across the globe. The effects of increased temperatures in already warm environments may be particularly strong because organisms are likely to be near their thermal safety margins, with limited tolerance to additional heat stress. 2. We conduct an in situ field experiment over two years to investigate the direct effects of temperature on an early-season solitary bee in a warm, arid region of the Southwestern USA. Our...

Design and evaluation of glutathione responsive glycosylated camptothecin nanosupramolecular prodrug

Wenhua Li, Zhong Chen, Xiaoying Liu, Mingming Lian, Haisheng Peng & Changmei Zhang
A novel tumor-targeted glutathione responsive Glycosylated-Camptothecin nanosupramolecular prodrug (CPT-GL NSp) was designed and fabricated via a disulfide bond. The effects of glycoligand with different polarities on solubility, self-assembly, stability, cellular uptake, and glutathione responsive cleaving were explored, and an optimal glycosylated ligand was selected for nanosupramolecular prodrug. It has been found that CPT-GL NSp exhibited higher drug loading than traditional nanoparticles. Among of which maltose modified NSp had the strongest anti-tumor effects than that of...

The invasion paradox dissolves when using phylogenetic and temporal perspectives

Adrienne Ernst, Rebecca Barak, Andrew Hipp, Andrea Kramer, Hannah Marx & Daniel Larkin
1. Elton’s prediction that higher biodiversity leads to denser niche-packing and thus higher community resistance to invasion has long been studied, with species richness as the predominant measure of diversity. However, few studies have explored how phylogenetic and functional diversity, which should represent niche space more faithfully than taxonomic diversity, influence community invasibility, especially across longer time frames and over larger spatial extents. 2. We used a 15-year, 150-site grassland dataset to assess relationships between...

Protective effect of Qingre Huoxue decoction against myocardial infarction via PI3K/Akt autophagy pathway based on UPLC-MS, network pharmacology, and in vivo evidence

Zheng Jin, Wenbo Zhang, Yuan Luo, Xiushen Li, Lijin Qing, Qiang Zuo, Junfeng Fang & Wei Wu
Qingre Huoxue (QRHX) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to prevent and treat myocardial infarction (MI). This study elucidates the possible mechanisms of QRHX in preventing or treating MI in a rat model. The chemical constituents of QRHX were identified by UPLC-MS. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the Sham (normal saline), Model (normal saline), QRHX-L, QRHX-M and QRHX-H group (n = 10 per group). QRHX decoction was administered by gavage to...

β-galactosidase GALA from Bacillus circulans with high transgalactosylation activity

Yaru Yan, Weishi Guan, Xiaoyi Li, Kaier Gao, Xinxin Xu, Bo Liu, Wei Zhang & Yuhong Zhang
β-galactosidase catalyzes lactose hydrolysis and transfers reactions to produce prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) with potential applications in the food industry and pharmaceuticals. However, there is still a need for improved transgalactosylation activity of β-galactosidases and reaction conditions of GOS production in order to maximize GOS output and reduce production costs. In this study, a β-galactosidase gene, galA, from Bacillus circulans was expressed in Pichia pastoris, which not only hydrolyzed lactose but also had strong...

Caltech Mouse Social Interactions (CalMS21) Dataset

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Multi-agent behavior modeling aims to understand the interactions that occur between agents. We present a multi-agent dataset from behavioral neuroscience, the Caltech Mouse Social Interactions (CalMS21) Dataset. Our dataset consists of trajectory data of social interactions, recorded from videos of freely behaving mice in a standard resident-intruder assay. To help accelerate behavioral studies, the CalMS21 dataset provides benchmarks to evaluate the performance of automated behavior classification methods in three settings: (1) for training on large...

Time Series Data for Chicago, 1840-1973

Wesley G. Skogan
This study presents time-series demographic, economic, and political data for Chicago, covering each year from 1840 to 1973. Included are election returns, indicators of ethnic and racial composition of the city, political structure, municipal court operations, judicial recruitment, police activities, and selected municipal expenditures. Economic variables measure employment, unemployment, and manufacturing activities. National and local election returns and data on ethnic composition are also provided for individual city wards for each decade between 1890 and...

Mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Buqingshan Complex of the East Kunlun Orogen, northern Tibetan Plateau: remnants of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

Yuangang Yue, Yunpeng Dong, Shengsi Sun, Dengfeng He, Bo Hui, Xiang Ren, Bin Zhang & Weidong He
The Buqingshan Complex, the eastern part of the Muztagh–Buqingshan–Anemaqen ophiolitic mélange zone (MBAM), contains a series of oceanic rocks that represent the remnants of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Field investigations reveal that the mafic-ultramafic rocks consist mainly of serpentinite, diabase, massive basalt, and pillow basalt. The serpentinites show similar geochemical characteristics to abyssal peridotites, which is probably the residual part of the depleted upper mantle after 17–20% melt extraction. The mafic rocks have geochemical affinities similar...

Mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Buqingshan Complex of the East Kunlun Orogen, northern Tibetan Plateau: remnants of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

Yuangang Yue, Yunpeng Dong, Shengsi Sun, Dengfeng He, Bo Hui, Xiang Ren, Bin Zhang & Weidong He
The Buqingshan Complex, the eastern part of the Muztagh–Buqingshan–Anemaqen ophiolitic mélange zone (MBAM), contains a series of oceanic rocks that represent the remnants of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Field investigations reveal that the mafic-ultramafic rocks consist mainly of serpentinite, diabase, massive basalt, and pillow basalt. The serpentinites show similar geochemical characteristics to abyssal peridotites, which is probably the residual part of the depleted upper mantle after 17–20% melt extraction. The mafic rocks have geochemical affinities similar...

Energy expenditure does not explain step length-width choices during walking

Stephen Antos, Konrad Kording & Keith Gordon
Healthy young adults have a most preferred walking speed, step length, and step width that are close to energetically optimal. However, people can choose to walk with a multitude of different step lengths and widths, which can vary in both energy expenditure and preference. Here we further investigate step length-width preferences and their relationship to energy expenditure. In line with a growing body of research, we hypothesized that people's preferred stepping patterns would not be...

Genetic and fitness measurements of Brighamia accessions for APPS

Jeremie Fant, Seana Walsh & Jeremy Foster
Premise of the study: Living collections maintained for generations are at risk of diversity loss, inbreeding, and adaptation to cultivation. To address these concerns the zoo community uses pedigrees to track individuals and implement crosses that maximize founder contributions and minimize inbreeding. Using a pedigree management approach in an exceptional plant, we demonstrate how conducting such strategic crosses can minimize genetic issues that have arisen under current practices. Methods: We performed crosses between these collections...

Network pharmacology and in vitro experimental verification to explore the mechanism of Sanhua decoction in the treatment of ischaemic stroke

Wei Zhang, Li Zhang, Wen jun Wang, Shanbo Ma, Mingming Wang, Minna Yao, Ruili Li, Wei wei Li, Xian Zhao, Dongmei Hu, Yi Ding & Jingwen Wang
Stroke is an illness with high morbidity, disability and mortality that presents a major clinical challenge. Sanhua decoction (SHD) has been widely used to treat ischaemic stroke in the clinic. However, the potential mechanism of SHD remains unknown. To elucidate the multitarget mechanism of SHD in ischaemic stroke through network pharmacology and bioinformatics analyses. Network pharmacology and experimental validation approach was used to investigate the bioactive ingredients, critical targets and potential mechanisms of SHD against...

Network pharmacology and in vitro experimental verification to explore the mechanism of Sanhua decoction in the treatment of ischaemic stroke

Wei Zhang, Li Zhang, Wen jun Wang, Shanbo Ma, Mingming Wang, Minna Yao, Ruili Li, Wei wei Li, Xian Zhao, Dongmei Hu, Yi Ding & Jingwen Wang
Stroke is an illness with high morbidity, disability and mortality that presents a major clinical challenge. Sanhua decoction (SHD) has been widely used to treat ischaemic stroke in the clinic. However, the potential mechanism of SHD remains unknown. To elucidate the multitarget mechanism of SHD in ischaemic stroke through network pharmacology and bioinformatics analyses. Network pharmacology and experimental validation approach was used to investigate the bioactive ingredients, critical targets and potential mechanisms of SHD against...

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