109 Works

Detection dogs in nature conservation: a database on their worldwide deployment with a review on breeds used and their performance compared to other methods

Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth, Wiebke Harms & Anne Berger
Over the last century, dogs have been increasingly used to detect rare and elusive species or traces of them. The use of wildlife detection dogs (WDD) is particularly well established in North America, Europe and Oceania, and projects deploying them have increased worldwide. However, if they are to make a significant contribution to conservation and management, their strengths, abilities, and limitations should be fully identified. We reviewed the use of WDD with particular focus on...

Focus on: Bioenergie im Strom- und Wärmemarkt

Daniela Thrän & Diana Pfeiffer

CO2-Zertifikate für die Festlegung atmosphärischen Kohlenstoffs in Böden: Methoden, Maßnahmen und Grenzen

Martin Wiesmeier, Stefanie Mayer, Carsten Paul, Katharina Helming, Axel Don, Uwe Franko, Markus Franko & Ingrid Kögel-Knabner
Agrarböden besitzen durch den Aufbau von organsicher Bodensubstanz (Humus), die zu etwa 58% aus Kohlenstoff (Corg) besteht, ein großes Potential zur Kohlenstoffbindung. Positive Anstrengungen im Humusmanagement könnten daher einen wesentlichen Beitrag für den Klimaschutz leisten. Für Landwirtinnen und Landwirte stellen so genannte CO2-Zertifikate für den Aufbau von Corg („Humuszertifikate“) einen zusätzlichen Anreiz dar, humusfördernde Bewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen umzusetzen. Diese CO2-Zertifikate werden von privatwirtschaftlichen Initiativen und Unternehmen im Bereich des freiwilligen CO2-Markts vergeben. Insbesondere im Bereich der Landwirtschaft...

Pilzarten und ihre pflanzlichen Wirte im Klimawandel

Mika Tarkka & Jakob Hildebrandt
Viele parasitäre Baumpilze können von der Schwächung von Bäumen durch Trockenstress profitieren. Pilzsammler, die neben Mykorrhizapilzen auch parasitäre Baumpilze sammeln, mögen sich daran erfreuen. Doch ist dabei nicht zu verkennen, dass pflanzenpathogene Pilze derzeit einen starken Anpassungsdruck in Forst- und Landwirtschaft ausüben.

Data from: Intraspecific trait variation increases species diversity in a trait-based grassland model

Michael Crawford, Florian Jeltsch, Felix May, Volker Grimm & Ulrike E. Schlägel
Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is thought to play a significant role in community assembly, but the magnitude and direction of its influence are not well understood. Although it may be critical to better explain population persistence, species interactions, and therefore biodiversity patterns, manipulating ITV in experiments is challenging. We therefore incorporated ITV into a trait- and individual-based model of grassland community assembly by adding variation to the plants’ functional traits, which then drive life-history trade-offs....

Data from: A model-derived short-term estimation method of effective size for small populations with overlapping generations

Annegret Grimm, Bernd Gruber, Marion Hoehn, Katrin Enders & Klaus Henle
If not actively managed, small and isolated populations lose their genetic variability and the inbreeding rate increases. Combined, these factors limit the ability of populations to adapt to environmental changes, increasing their risk of extinction. The effective population size (Ne) is proportional to the loss of genetic diversity and therefore of considerable conservation relevance. However, estimators of Ne that account for demographic parameters in species with overlapping generations require sampling of populations across generations, which...

Data from: Predicting forest management effects on oak–rodent mutualisms

Teresa Morán-López, Thorsten Wiegand, Juan Manuel Morales, Fernando Valladares & Mario Díaz
Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus are the main dispersers of acorns in highly managed Mediterranean holm-oak woodlands. Mice mobilize and cache acorns to store them for winter consumption. They carry acorns away from potential competitors, face predation risks during mobilization, and cache acorns in areas where pilfering risks are low. However, mice can act either as net predators or as moderately efficient dispersers, depending on the way landscape management affects intraspecific competition for acorns and shelter...

Data from: Plant species richness negatively affects root decomposition in grasslands

Hongmei Chen, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Hans De Kroon, Christine Fischer, Arthur Gessler, Anke Hildebrandt, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Christian Wirth & Alexandra Weigelt
Plant diversity enhances many ecosystem functions, including root biomass production, which drives soil carbon input. Although root decomposition accounts for a large proportion of carbon input for soil, little is known about plant diversity effect on this process. Plant diversity may affect root decomposition in two non-exclusive ways: by providing roots of different substrate quality (e.g. root chemistry) and/or by altering the soil environment (e.g. microclimate). To disentangle these two pathways, we conducted three decomposition...

Data from: Life in leaf litter: novel insights into community dynamics of bacteria and fungi during litter decomposition

Witoon Purahong, Tesfaye Wubet, Guillaume Lentendu, Michael Schloter, Marek J. Pecyna, Danuta Kapturska, Martin Hofrichter, Dirk Krüger & François Buscot
Microorganisms play a crucial role in the biological decomposition of plant litter in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the permanently changing litter quality during decomposition, studies of both fungi and bacteria at a fine taxonomic resolution are required during the whole process. Here we investigated microbial community succession in decomposing leaf litter of temperate beech forest using pyrotag sequencing of the bacterial 16S and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes. Our results reveal that...

Data from: Multi-trophic guilds respond differently to changing elevation in a subtropical forest

Julia Binkenstein, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Thorsten Assmann, Francois Buscot, Alexandra Erfmeier, Keping Ma, Katherina A. Pietsch, Karsten Schmidt, Thomas Scholten, Tesfaye Wubet, Helge Bruelheide, Andreas Schuldt & Michael Staab
Negative relationships between species richness and elevation are common and attributed to changes in single environmental properties associated to elevation, such as temperature and habitat area. However, research has lacked taxonomic breadth and comprehensive elevation studies that consider multiple groups from different trophic levels are rare. We thus analysed 24 groups of plants, arthropods, and microorganisms grouped into six trophic guilds (predators, detritivores, herbivores, plants, bacteria and fungi) along a relatively short elevational gradient (~600...

Data from: Trait variation in response to varying winter temperatures, diversity patterns and signatures of selection along the latitudinal distribution of the widespread grassland plant Arrhenatherum elatius

Stefan G. Michalski, Andrey V. Malyshev & Juergen Kreyling
Across Europe, genetic diversity can be expected to decline toward the North because of stochastic and selective effects which may imply diminished phenotypic variation and less potential for future genetic adaptations to environmental change. Understanding such latitudinal patterns can aid provenance selection for breeding or assisted migration approaches. In an experiment simulating different winter temperatures, we assessed quantitative trait variation, genetic diversity, and differentiation for natural populations of the grass Arrhenatherum elatius originating from a...

Trait data of European and Maghreb butterflies

Joseph Middleton Welling, Leonardo Dapporto Dapporto, Enrique García-Barros, Martin Wiemers, Piotr Nowicki, Elisa Plazio, Simona Bonelli, Michele Zaccagno, Martina Šašić, Jana Lipárová, Oliver Schweiger, Alexander Harpke, Martin Musche, Josef Settele, Reto Schmucki & Tim Shreeve
Trait-based analyses explaining the different responses of species and communities to environmental changes are increasing in frequency. European butterflies are an indicator group that responds rapidly to environmental changes with extensive citizen science contributions to documenting changes of abundance and distribution. Species traits have been used to explain long- and short-term responses to climate, land-use and vegetation changes. Studies are often characterised by limited traits sets being used, with risks that the relative roles of...

Data from: Patterns of size variation in bees at a continental scale: does Bergmann’s rule apply?

Maxence Gérard, Maryse Vanderplanck, Markus Franzen, Michael Kuhlmann, Simon G. Potts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger & Denis Michez
Body size latitudinal clines have been widley explained by the Bergmann’s rule in homeothermic vertebrates. However, there is no general consensus in poikilotherms organisms in particular in insects that represent the large majority of wildlife. Among them, bees are a highly diverse pollinators group with high economic and ecological value. Nevertheless, no comprehensive studies of species assemblages at a phylogenetically larger scale have been carried out even if they could identify the traits and the...

Data from: Interspecific competition alters leaf stoichiometry in 20 grassland species

Jordan Guiz, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Nina Hacker, Lionel Hertzog, Yvonne Oelmann, Christiane Roscher, Cameron Wagg & Helmut Hillebrand
The extensive use of traits in ecological studies over the last few decades to predict community functions has revealed that plant traits are plastic and respond to various environmental factors. These plant traits are assumed to predict how plants compete and capture resources. Variation in stoichiometric ratios both within and across species reflects resource capture dynamics under competition. However, the impact of local plant diversity on species-specific stoichiometry remains poorly studied. Here, we analyze how...

Biodiversity facets, canopy structure and surface temperature of grassland communities

Claudia Regina Guimaraes-Steinicke, Alexandra Weigelt, Raphaël Prouxl, Thomas Lanners, Nico Eisenhauer, Joaquín Duque-Lazo, Björn Reu, Christiane Roscher, Cameron Wagg, Nina Buchmann & Christian Wirth
Canopy structure is an important driver of the energy budget of the grassland ecosystem and is, at the same time, altered by plant diversity. Diverse plant communities typically have taller and more densely packed canopies than less diverse communities. With this, they absorb more radiation, have a higher transpiring leaf surface, and are better coupled to the atmosphere which leads to cooler canopy surfaces. However, whether plant diversity generally translates into a cooling potential remains...

Checkliste zur Unterstützung der Helmholtz-Zentren bei der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware

Reinhard Messerschmidt, Heinz Pampel, Felix Bach, Wolfgang zu Castell, Michael Denker, Ants Finke, Bernadette Fritzsch, Martin Hammitzsch, Uwe Konrad, Yvonne Leifels, Christoph Möhl, Marco Nolden, Markus Scheinert, Tobias Schlauch, Thomas Schnicke & Dirk Steglich
Mit der voranschreitenden Digitalisierung von Forschung und Lehre steigt die Zahl an Software-Lösungen, die an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen entstehen und zur Erkenntnisgewinnung genutzt werden. Die – unter dem Stichwort Open Science geforderte – Zugänglichkeit und Nachnutzung von wissenschaftlichen Ergebnissen kann in vielen Fachgebieten nur sichergestellt werden, wenn neben Forschungsdaten auch Programmcode offen zugänglich gemacht wird. Die vorliegende Handreichung richtet sich an Entscheider*innen in den Helmholtz-Zentren, die sich mit der Implementierung von Richtlinien für nachhaltige Forschungssoftware befassen....

Plant history and soil history jointly influence the selection environment for plant species in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment

Peter Dietrich, Nico Eisenhauer, Peter Otto & Christiane Roscher
Long-term biodiversity experiments have shown increasing strengths of biodiversity effects on plant productivity over time. However, little is known about rapid evolutionary processes in response to plant community diversity, which could contribute to explaining the strengthening positive relationship. To address this issue, we performed a transplant experiment with offspring of seeds collected from four grass species in a 14-year old biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We used two- and six-species communities and removed the vegetation of...

Mimetic host shifts in a social parasite of ants: Behavioural study

K. Schönrogge, J.A. Thomas, G.W. Elmes, M. Sielezniew, A. Stankiewicz-Fiedurek, D. Simcox & J. Settele
This dataset derives from cross-over experiments using ant worker rescue behaviour towards caterpillars of the socially parasitic butterfly from two host-ecotypes. The data comprise datasets collected from four 4 experiments 3 hours after testing and from 4 experiments 7 days later. They all include nest numbers, the order of retrieval ranked by the attention of nurse ants to the ant pupae, large larvae and small larvae and the adult Maculinea rebeli. The data give the...

CO2 certificates for carbon sequestration in soils: methods, management practices and limitations

Martin Wiesmeier, Stefanie Mayer, Carsten Paul, Katharina Helming, Axel Don, Uwe Franko, Markus Steffens & Ingrid Kögel-Knabner

INCREASING CORAL RESILIENCE TO BLEACHING THROUGH MICROBIOME MANIPULATION

Raquel Peixoto, Phillipe Rosado, Deborah Leite, Gustavo Duarte, Ricardo Chaloub, Guillaume Jospin, Jonathan Eisen, David Bourne, Ulisses Da Rocha, João Saraiva & Francisco Dini-Andreote
Although the early coral reef-bleaching warning system (NOAA/USA) is established, there is no feasible treatment that can minimize temperature bleaching and/or disease impacts on corals in the field. Here, we present the first attempts to extrapolate the widespread and well-established use of bacterial consortia to protect or improve health in other organisms (e.g., humans and plants) to corals. Manipulation of the coral-associated microbiome was facilitated through addition of a consortium of native (isolated from Pocillopora...

Data from: Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism

Jonathan Silvertown, Laurence Cook, Robert Cameron, Mike Dodd, Kevin McConway, Jenny Worthington, Peter Skelton, Christian Anton, Oliver Bossdorf, Bruno Baur, Menno Schilthuizen, Benoît Fontaine, Helmut Sattmann, Giorgio Bertorelle, Maria Correia, Cristina Oliveira, Beata Pokryszko, Małgorzata Ożgo, Arturs Stalažs, Eoin Gill, Üllar Rammul, Péter Sólymos, Zoltan Féher & Xavier Juan
Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis). This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern...

Data from: The making of a rapid plant invader: genetic diversity and differentiation in the native and invaded range of Senecio inaequidens

Susanne Lachmuth, Walter Durka & Frank M Schurr
To become invasive, exotic species have to succeed in the consecutive phases of introduction, naturalization and invasion. Each of these phases leaves traces in genetic structure, which may affect the species' success in subsequent phases. We examine this interplay of genetic structure and invasion dynamics in the South African Ragwort (Senecio inaequidens), one of Europe's fastest plant invaders. We used AFLP and microsatellite markers to analyze 19 native African and 32 invasive European populations. In...

Data from: Diversity measures in environmental sequences are highly dependent on alignment quality—data from ITS and new LSU primers targeting basidiomycetes

Dirk Krüger, Danuta Kapturska, Christiane Fischer, Rolf Daniel & Tesfaye Wubet
The ribosomal DNA comprised of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions is widely used as a fungal marker in molecular ecology and systematics but cannot be aligned with confidence across genetically distant taxa. In order to study the diversity of Agaricomycotina in forest soils, we designed primers targeting the more alignable 28S (LSU) gene, which should be more useful for phylogenetic analyses of the detected taxa. This paper compares the performance of the established ITS1F/4B primer pair, which...

Data from: Characterization of unexplored deadwood mycobiome in highly diverse subtropical forests using culture-independent molecular technique

Witoon Purahong, Katherina A. Pietsch, Guillaume Lentendu, Ricardo Schöps, Helge Bruelheide, Christian Wirth, François Buscot & Tesfaye Wubet
The deadwood mycobiome, also known as wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), are among the key players in wood decomposition, having a large impact on nutrient cycling in forest soils. However, our knowledge of WIF richness and distribution patterns in different forest biomes is limited. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to characterize the deadwood mycobiome of two tree species with greatly different wood characteristics (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) in...

Data from: Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents

Jeremy T. Kerr, Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Stuart M. Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R. Colla, Leif L. Richardson, David L. Wagner, Lawrence F. Gall, Derek S. Sikes & Alberto Pantoja
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change–related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species’ northern...

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