50 Works

Data from: Demonstrating multiple benefits from periodically harvested fisheries closures

Jordan S. Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Timothy J. Langlois, Shaun K. Wilson, Crow White, Rebecca Weeks & Stacy D. Jupiter
1.Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are one of the most common forms of fisheries management in Melanesia, demonstrating multiple objectives, including sustaining fish stocks and increasing catch efficiency to support small-scale fisheries. No studies have comprehensively assessed their ability to provide short-term fisheries benefits across the entire harvest regime. 2.We present a novel analytical framework to guide a meta-analysis and assist future research in conceptualizing and assessing the potential of PHCs to deliver benefits for multiple...

Data from: Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

Jessica A. Goodheart, Adam L. Bazinet, Ángel Valdés, Allen G. Collins & Michael P. Cummings
Background: The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of...

Data from: Big wigs and small wigs: Time, sex, size and shelter affect cohabitation in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima)

Nicole L. Hack & Vikram K. Iyengar
Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera), an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation) or...

Data from: Landscape and environmental influences on Mycobacterium ulcerans distribution among aquatic sites in Ghana

Shannon M. Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A. Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M. Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boayke, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance Waller, Lance A. Waller & Daniel Boakye
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the...

Leaf hair tufts function as Domatia for mites in Quercues agrifolia (Fagaceae)

Dena Grossenbacher
An identifying feature of Quercus agrifolia Ne ́e (Fagaceae) is the presence of hair tufts on lower leaf surfaces. In other plant species, hair tufts act as domatia for arthropods such as mites, which in turn feed on leaf fungi or small herbivores and possibly benefit plant health. However, this mutualistic relationship remains untested in Q. agrifolia. In this study two primary questions were addressed within a natural stand of Q. agrifolia in San Luis...

Data from: Genomic evidence for panmixia of eastern and western North American migratory monarch butterflies

V Talla, AA Pierce, KL Adams, TJB De Man, S Nallu, FX Villablanca, MR Kronforst & JC De Roode
Monarch butterflies are known for their spectacular annual migration in eastern North America, with millions of monarchs flying up to 4,500 kilometers to overwintering sites in central Mexico. Monarchs also live west of the Rocky Mountains, where they travel shorter distances to overwinter along the Pacific Coast. Monarch numbers have recently dwindled, and monarch migration may be on the brink of extinction. It is often assumed that eastern and western monarchs form distinct evolutionary units...

Natural and anthropogenic noise increase vigilance and decrease foraging behaviors in song sparrows

Kate Sweet, Benjamin Sweet, Dylan Gomes, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Animals glean information about risk from their habitat. The acoustic environment is one such source of information, and is an important, yet understudied ecological axis. Although anthropogenic noise has become recently ubiquitous, risk mitigation behaviors have likely been shaped by natural noise over millennia. Listening animals have been shown to increase vigilance and decrease foraging in both natural and anthropogenic noise. However, direct comparisons could be informative to conservation and understanding evolutionary drivers of behavior...

Data from: The relationship between geographic range extent, sea surface temperature and adult traits in coastal temperate fishes

Maurice Codespoti Goodman, Shawn Michelle Hannah & Benjamin Isaac Ruttenberg
Aim: We use publicly available data to assess the influence of ocean basin, various biological traits and sea surface temperature on biogeographic range extent for temperate, continental shelf fish species spanning 141 families. Location: Coastal waters of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Taxon: Teleost Fishes (Infraclass Teleostei). Methods: We assess the relationship between species range extent and depth range, maximum body length, schooling behaviour and use of multiple habitats for 1,251 species of northern, temperate, continental...

Data from: Optimized fishing through periodically harvested closures

Paul G. Carvalho, Stacy D. Jupiter, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Jordan Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Rebecca Weeks, Austin Humphries & Crow White
1. Periodically harvested closures are a widespread, centuries-old form of fisheries management that protects fish between pulse harvests and can generate high harvest efficiency by reducing fish wariness of fishing gear. However, the ability for periodic closures to also support high fisheries yields and healthy marine ecosystems is uncertain, despite increased promotion of periodic closures for managing fisheries and conserving ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. 2. We developed a bioeconomic fisheries model that considers changes in...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

The phantom chorus: birdsong boosts human well-being in protected areas

Clinton Francis
Spending time in nature is known to benefit human health and well-being, but evidence is mixed as to whether biodiversity or perceptions of biodiversity contribute to these benefits. Perhaps more importantly, little is known about the sensory modalities by which humans perceive biodiversity and obtain benefits from their interactions with nature. Here, we used a “phantom bird song chorus” consisting of hidden speakers to experimentally increase audible birdsong biodiversity during “on” and “off” (i.e., ambient...

Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent

Clinton Francis, Masayuki Senzaki, Jesse Barber, Jenny Phillips, Neil Carter, Caren Cooper, Mark Ditmer, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher McClure, Daniel Mennitt, Luke Tyrrell, Jelena Vukomanovic & Ashley Wilson
Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night-lighting across our planet is of increasing conservation concern Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here, we leverage a large citizen science dataset paired with high-resolution noise and light data from across the contiguous United States to assess...

Data and MATLAB files for: Timescale analyses of fluctuations in coexisting populations of a native and invasive tree squirrel

Robert Desharnais, Alan Muchlinski, Janel Ortiz, Ruby Alvidrez & Brian Gatza
1. Competition from invasive species is an increasing threat to biodiversity. In Southern California, the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus, WGS) is facing increasing competition from the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger, FS), an invasive congener. 2. We used spectral methods to analyze 140 consecutive monthly censuses of WGS and FS within a 11.3 ha section of the California Botanic Garden. Variation in the numbers for both species and their synchrony was distributed across long timescales...

Data from: Acoustic adaptation to city noise through vocal learning by a songbird

Dana Lynn Moseley, Graham Earnest Derryberry, Jennifer Nicole Phillips, Julie Elizabeth Danner, Raymond Michael Danner, David Andrew Luther & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Anthropogenic noise imposes novel selection pressures, especially on species that communicate acoustically. Many animals – including insects, frogs, whales, and birds – produce sounds at higher frequencies in areas with low-frequency noise pollution. Although there is support for animals changing their vocalizations in real time in response to noise (i.e., immediate flexibility), other evolutionary mechanisms for animals that learn their vocalizations remain largely unexplored. We hypothesize that cultural selection for signal structures less masked by...

Data from: Vocal traits and diet explain avian sensitivities to anthropogenic noise

Clinton D. Francis
Global population growth has caused extensive human-induced environmental change, including a near-ubiquitous transformation of the acoustical environment due to the propagation of anthropogenic noise. Because the acoustical environment is a critical ecological dimension for countless species to obtain, interpret and respond to environmental cues, highly novel environmental acoustics have the potential to negatively impact organisms that use acoustics for a variety of functions, such as communication and predator/prey detection. Using a comparative approach with 308...

Data from: Agricultural practices for food safety threaten pest control services for fresh produce

Daniel S. Karp, Rebekah Moses, Sasha Gennet, Matthew S. Jones, Shimat Joseph, Leithen K. M'Gonigle, Lauren C. Ponisio, William E. Snyder & Claire Kremen
Over the past decade, several foodborne disease outbreaks provoked widespread reforms to the fresh produce industry. Subsequent concerns about wildlife vectors and contaminated manures created pressure on growers to discontinue use of manure-based composts and remove nearby semi-natural vegetation. Despite widespread adoption, impacts of these practices on ecosystem services such as pest control have not been assessed. We used a landscape-scale field experiment to quantify associations between compost applications, semi-natural vegetation, pest control services and...

Data from: Chronic anthropogenic noise disrupts glucocorticoid signaling and has multiple effects on fitness in an avian community

Nathan J. Kleist, Robert P. Guralnick, Alexander Cruz, Christopher A. Lowry & Clinton D. Francis
Anthropogenic noise is a pervasive pollutant that decreases environmental quality by disrupting a suite of behaviors vital to perception and communication. However, even within populations of noise-sensitive species, individuals still select breeding sites located within areas exposed to high noise levels, with largely unknown physiological and fitness consequences. We use a study system in the natural gas fields of northern New Mexico to test the prediction that exposure to noise causes glucocorticoid-signaling dysfunction and decreases...

Warming waters beget smaller fish: evidence for reduced size and altered morphology in a desert fish following anthropogenic temperature change

Sean Lema, Samantha Bock, Morgan Malley & Emma Elkins
Poikilothermic organisms are predicted to show reduced body sizes as they experience warming environments under a changing global climate. Such a shrinking of size is expected under scenarios where rising temperatures increase cellular reaction rates and basal metabolic energy demands, therein requiring limited energy to be shifted from growth. Here, we provide evidence that the ecological changes associated with warming may not only lead to shrinking body size, but also trigger shifts in morphology. We...

Data from: Suffering in receivers: negative effects of noise persist regardless of experience in female anurans

Masayuki Senzaki, Taku Kadoya, Clinton D. Francis, Nobuo Ishiyama & Futoshi Nakamura
1. Anthropogenic noise is widespread, and growing evidence suggests that it can negatively affect animals through many different mechanisms including masking of cues and signals, distraction, and aversion to noise. 2. Acoustic masking has received the most attention from researchers and recent evidence suggests that masking effects can be mitigated by alteration of signal frequencies or amplitudes by signalers. Additionally, alteration can be a learned response via prior experience with noise exposure. However, it remains...

Data for: Phantom rivers filter birds and bats by acoustic niche

Dylan Gomes, Cory Toth, Hunter Cole, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Natural sensory environments, despite strong potential for structuring systems, have been neglected in ecological theory. Here, we test the hypothesis that intense natural acoustic environments shape animal distributions and behavior by broadcasting whitewater river noise in montane riparian zones for two summers. We find that both birds and bats avoid areas with high sound levels, while birds avoid frequencies that overlap with birdsong, and bats avoid higher frequencies more generally. Behaviorally, intense sound levels decrease...

Life history and environment predict variation in testosterone across vertebrates

Jerry Husak, Matthew Fuxjager, Michele A. Johnson, Maren Vitousek, Jeremy Donald, Clinton David Francis, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Bonnie Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B. Martin, Eliot Miller, Laura Schoenle & Tony Williams
Endocrine systems act as key intermediaries between organisms and their environments. This interaction leads to high variability in hormone levels, but we know little about the ecological factors that influence this variation within and across major vertebrate groups. We study this topic by assessing how various social and environmental dynamics influence testosterone levels across the entire vertebrate tree of life. Our analyses show that breeding season length and mating system are the strongest predictors of...

Recruiting Engagement through Readings + Media in Architectural Technology Education

Carmen Trudell
The Architectural Technology Fundamentals course has always included reading assignments – usually chapters from a textbook loaded with technical information, data, and a bit of history. In 2020, underpinned by historic shifts in expectations for architectural education, we took a critical look at our teaching and targeted the reading assignment as an opportunity to teach with equity and about equity. The readings have consistently ranked as the least effective learning mode, falling well behind the...

Data for: Testing an invasion mechanism for Eucalyptus globulus: is there evidence of allelopathy?

Jenn Yost, Kristen Nelson, Dena Grossenbacher, Sarah Bisbing & Matt Ritter
Premise of study- Sparse understory communities, in association with non-native tree species, are often attributed to allelopathy, the chemical inhibition of one plant by another. However, allelopathy is a difficult ecological phenomenon to demonstrate with many studies showing conflicting results. Eucalyptus globulus, a native tree to Australia, is one of the most widely planted trees around the world. Sparse understories are common beneath E. globulusplantations and are often attributed to allelopathy, but the ecological impacts...

“You Cannot Slaughter Ideas”

Arlo Elliott
Existing historiography of Latin America has highlighted the role of liberalism in the 19th century formation of modern states, but it is typically viewed as historically discontinuous with the subsequent violence of the 20th century. Narrowing the focus to Argentina, we see historians like Jeremy Adelman asserting that the promise and successes of the early liberal republics were historically isolated from the brutal military rule that would emerge following the Peronist era. More intellectual histories...

Transgenerational plasticity and the capacity to adapt to low salinity in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica

Joanna Griffiths, Kevin Johnson, Kyle Sirovy, Mark Yeats, Francis Pan, Jerome La Peyre & Morgan Kelly
Salinity conditions in oyster breeding grounds in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to drastically change due to increased precipitation from climate change and anthropogenic changes to local hydrology. We determined the capacity of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to adapt via standing genetic variation or acclimate through transgenerational plasticity. We outplanted oysters to either a low or medium salinity site in Louisiana for two years. We then crossed adult parents using a North Carolina...

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