40 Works

Data from: Landscape and environmental influences on Mycobacterium ulcerans distribution among aquatic sites in Ghana

Shannon M. Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A. Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M. Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boayke, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance Waller, Lance A. Waller & Daniel Boakye
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the...

Data from: Demonstrating multiple benefits from periodically harvested fisheries closures

Jordan S. Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Timothy J. Langlois, Shaun K. Wilson, Crow White, Rebecca Weeks & Stacy D. Jupiter
1.Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are one of the most common forms of fisheries management in Melanesia, demonstrating multiple objectives, including sustaining fish stocks and increasing catch efficiency to support small-scale fisheries. No studies have comprehensively assessed their ability to provide short-term fisheries benefits across the entire harvest regime. 2.We present a novel analytical framework to guide a meta-analysis and assist future research in conceptualizing and assessing the potential of PHCs to deliver benefits for multiple...

Data from: Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

Jessica A. Goodheart, Adam L. Bazinet, Ángel Valdés, Allen G. Collins & Michael P. Cummings
Background: The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of...

Data from: Big wigs and small wigs: Time, sex, size and shelter affect cohabitation in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima)

Nicole L. Hack & Vikram K. Iyengar
Animal aggregations can occur for a variety of abiotic factors, such as resource limitation, or biotic factors, including group foraging and protection from predators. In our study, we examined whether time, sex, body size or shelter availability affected aggregation behavior of the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima (Order Dermaptera), an insect found globally at high densities under driftwood. Specifically, we monitored the distribution of two individuals in arenas with either two shelters (no habitat limitation) or...

Data from: Genomic evidence for panmixia of eastern and western North American migratory monarch butterflies

V Talla, AA Pierce, KL Adams, TJB De Man, S Nallu, FX Villablanca, MR Kronforst & JC De Roode
Monarch butterflies are known for their spectacular annual migration in eastern North America, with millions of monarchs flying up to 4,500 kilometers to overwintering sites in central Mexico. Monarchs also live west of the Rocky Mountains, where they travel shorter distances to overwinter along the Pacific Coast. Monarch numbers have recently dwindled, and monarch migration may be on the brink of extinction. It is often assumed that eastern and western monarchs form distinct evolutionary units...

Leaf hair tufts function as Domatia for mites in Quercues agrifolia (Fagaceae)

Dena Grossenbacher
An identifying feature of Quercus agrifolia Ne ́e (Fagaceae) is the presence of hair tufts on lower leaf surfaces. In other plant species, hair tufts act as domatia for arthropods such as mites, which in turn feed on leaf fungi or small herbivores and possibly benefit plant health. However, this mutualistic relationship remains untested in Q. agrifolia. In this study two primary questions were addressed within a natural stand of Q. agrifolia in San Luis...

Data from: Optimized fishing through periodically harvested closures

Paul G. Carvalho, Stacy D. Jupiter, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Jordan Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Rebecca Weeks, Austin Humphries & Crow White
1. Periodically harvested closures are a widespread, centuries-old form of fisheries management that protects fish between pulse harvests and can generate high harvest efficiency by reducing fish wariness of fishing gear. However, the ability for periodic closures to also support high fisheries yields and healthy marine ecosystems is uncertain, despite increased promotion of periodic closures for managing fisheries and conserving ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. 2. We developed a bioeconomic fisheries model that considers changes in...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

Data from: The relationship between geographic range extent, sea surface temperature and adult traits in coastal temperate fishes

Maurice Codespoti Goodman, Shawn Michelle Hannah & Benjamin Isaac Ruttenberg
Aim: We use publicly available data to assess the influence of ocean basin, various biological traits and sea surface temperature on biogeographic range extent for temperate, continental shelf fish species spanning 141 families. Location: Coastal waters of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Taxon: Teleost Fishes (Infraclass Teleostei). Methods: We assess the relationship between species range extent and depth range, maximum body length, schooling behaviour and use of multiple habitats for 1,251 species of northern, temperate, continental...

Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent

Clinton Francis, Masayuki Senzaki, Jesse Barber, Jenny Phillips, Neil Carter, Caren Cooper, Mark Ditmer, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher McClure, Daniel Mennitt, Luke Tyrrell, Jelena Vukomanovic & Ashley Wilson
Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night-lighting across our planet is of increasing conservation concern Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here, we leverage a large citizen science dataset paired with high-resolution noise and light data from across the contiguous United States to assess...

The phantom chorus: birdsong boosts human well-being in protected areas

Clinton Francis
Spending time in nature is known to benefit human health and well-being, but evidence is mixed as to whether biodiversity or perceptions of biodiversity contribute to these benefits. Perhaps more importantly, little is known about the sensory modalities by which humans perceive biodiversity and obtain benefits from their interactions with nature. Here, we used a “phantom bird song chorus” consisting of hidden speakers to experimentally increase audible birdsong biodiversity during “on” and “off” (i.e., ambient...

“You Cannot Slaughter Ideas”

Arlo Elliott
Existing historiography of Latin America has highlighted the role of liberalism in the 19th century formation of modern states, but it is typically viewed as historically discontinuous with the subsequent violence of the 20th century. Narrowing the focus to Argentina, we see historians like Jeremy Adelman asserting that the promise and successes of the early liberal republics were historically isolated from the brutal military rule that would emerge following the Peronist era. More intellectual histories...

Data from: Spatially heterogeneous impact of climate change on small mammals of montane California

Kevin C. Rowe, Karen M. C. Rowe, Morgan W. Tingley, Michelle S. Koo, James L. Patton, Christopher J. Conroy, John D. Perrine, Steven R. Beissinger & Craig Moritz
Resurveys of historical collecting localities have revealed range shifts, primarily leading edge expansions, which have been attributed to global warming. However, there have been few spatially replicated community-scale resurveys testing whether species' responses are spatially consistent. Here we repeated early twentieth century surveys of small mammals along elevational gradients in northern, central and southern regions of montane California. Of the 34 species we analysed, 25 shifted their ranges upslope or downslope in at least one...

Data from: The socially parasitic ant Polyergus mexicanus has host-associated genetic population structure and related neighboring nests

Joseph Sapp, Jenn Yost & Bruce Lyon
The genetic structure of populations can be both a cause and a consequence of ecological interactions. For parasites, genetic structure may be a consequence of preferences for host species or of mating behavior. Conversely, genetic structure can determine where conspecific interactions among parasites lay on a spectrum from cooperation to conflict. We used microsatellite loci to characterize the genetic structure of a population of the socially parasitic dulotic (aka “slave-making”) ant (Polyergus mexicanus), which is...

Migratory divides coincide with reproductive barriers across replicated avian hybrid zones above the Tibetan Plateau

Elizabeth Scordato, Chris Smith, Georgy Semenov, Yu Liu, Matthew Wilkins, Wei Liang, Alexander Rubtsov, Gomboobaatar Sundev, Kazuo Koyama, Sheela Turbek, Michael Wunder, Craig Stricker & Rebecca Safran
Migratory divides are proposed to be catalysts for speciation across a diversity of taxa. However, it is difficult to test the relative contributions of migratory behavior vs. other divergent traits to reproductive isolation. Comparing hybrid zones with and without migratory divides offers a rare opportunity to directly examine the contribution of divergent migratory behavior to reproductive barriers. We show that across replicate sampling transects of two pairs of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) subspecies, strong reproductive...

Data from: Temporal structure of human gaze dynamics is invariant during free viewing

Colleen A. Marlow, Indre V. Viskontas, Alisa Matlin, Cooper Boydston, Adam Boxer & Richard P. Taylor
We investigate the dynamic structure of human gaze and present an experimental study of the frequency components of the change in gaze position over time during free viewing of computer-generated fractal images. We show that changes in gaze position are scale-invariant in time with statistical properties that are characteristic of a random walk process. We quantify and track changes in the temporal structure using a well-defined scaling parameter called the Hurst exponent, H. We find...

Data from: Species selection favors dispersive life histories in sea slugs, but higher per-offspring investment drives shifts to short-lived larvae

Patrick J. Krug, Jann E. Vendetti, Ryan A. Ellingson, Cynthia D. Trowbridge, Yayoi M. Hirano, Danielle Y. Trathen, Albert K. Rodriguez, Cornelis Swennen, Nerida G. Wilson & Ángel A. Valdés
For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with short-lived (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly...

Data from: Sympatric serpentine endemic Monardella (Lamiaceae) species maintain habitat differences despite hybridization

Kathleen M. Kay, Suzie Woolhouse, Brett A. Smith, Nathaniel S. Pope & Nishanta Rajakaruna
Ecological differentiation and genetic isolation are thought to be critical in facilitating coexistence between related species, but the relative importance of these phenomena, and the interactions between them, are not well understood. Here we examine divergence in abiotic habitat affinity and the extent of hybridization and introgression between two rare species of Monardella (Lamiaceae) that are both restricted to the same serpentine soil exposure in California. Although broadly sympatric, they are found in microhabitats that...

Data from: Impacts of worker density in colony-level aggression, expansion, and survival of the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae

Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Dena L. Grossenbacher, Richard K. Grosberg, Todd M. Palmer, Maureen L. Stanton & Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo
Experimental studies assessing the impact of demographic changes on aggression and inter-group competitive outcomes in communities of social species are rare. This gap in our knowledge is important, not only because social species are foundational elements of many terrestrial ecosystems, but because interference competition among social groups often involves decision-like processes influenced by demographic and environmental contexts. In East Africa, the symbiotic ant Crematogaster mimosae is a co-dominant competitor that engages in high-mortality, intra- and...

Mammalian intestinal allometry, phylogeny, trophic level and climate

María Duque-Correa, Daryl Codron, Carlo Meloro, Amanda McGrosky, Christiann Schiffmann, Mark Edwards & Marcus Clauss
An often-stated ecomorphological assumption that has the status of ‘textbook knowledge’ is that the dimensions of the digestive tract correlate with diet, where herbivores – consuming diets of lower digestibility – have longer intestinal tracts than faunivores – consuming diets of higher digestibility. However, statistical approaches have so far failed to demonstrate this link. Here, we collated data on the length of intestinal sections and body mass of 519 mammal species, and test for various...

Python Data and Scripting Workshop for Computational Molecular Scientists

Ashley Ringer McDonald & Jessica Nash

Warming waters beget smaller fish: evidence for reduced size and altered morphology in a desert fish following anthropogenic temperature change

Sean Lema, Samantha Bock, Morgan Malley & Emma Elkins
Poikilothermic organisms are predicted to show reduced body sizes as they experience warming environments under a changing global climate. Such a shrinking of size is expected under scenarios where rising temperatures increase cellular reaction rates and basal metabolic energy demands, therein requiring limited energy to be shifted from growth. Here, we provide evidence that the ecological changes associated with warming may not only lead to shrinking body size, but also trigger shifts in morphology. We...

Data for: Testing an invasion mechanism for Eucalyptus globulus: is there evidence of allelopathy?

Jenn Yost, Kristen Nelson, Dena Grossenbacher, Sarah Bisbing & Matt Ritter
Premise of study- Sparse understory communities, in association with non-native tree species, are often attributed to allelopathy, the chemical inhibition of one plant by another. However, allelopathy is a difficult ecological phenomenon to demonstrate with many studies showing conflicting results. Eucalyptus globulus, a native tree to Australia, is one of the most widely planted trees around the world. Sparse understories are common beneath E. globulusplantations and are often attributed to allelopathy, but the ecological impacts...

Data from: Vocal traits and diet explain avian sensitivities to anthropogenic noise

Clinton D. Francis
Global population growth has caused extensive human-induced environmental change, including a near-ubiquitous transformation of the acoustical environment due to the propagation of anthropogenic noise. Because the acoustical environment is a critical ecological dimension for countless species to obtain, interpret and respond to environmental cues, highly novel environmental acoustics have the potential to negatively impact organisms that use acoustics for a variety of functions, such as communication and predator/prey detection. Using a comparative approach with 308...

Data from: Chronic anthropogenic noise disrupts glucocorticoid signaling and has multiple effects on fitness in an avian community

Nathan J. Kleist, Robert P. Guralnick, Alexander Cruz, Christopher A. Lowry & Clinton D. Francis
Anthropogenic noise is a pervasive pollutant that decreases environmental quality by disrupting a suite of behaviors vital to perception and communication. However, even within populations of noise-sensitive species, individuals still select breeding sites located within areas exposed to high noise levels, with largely unknown physiological and fitness consequences. We use a study system in the natural gas fields of northern New Mexico to test the prediction that exposure to noise causes glucocorticoid-signaling dysfunction and decreases...

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