112 Works

Selection experiment on guppy ornamental traits

Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Silvia Cattelan, Jakub Buda, Jarosław Raubic & Jacek Radwan
Female preferences for male ornamental traits can arise from indirect benefits, such as increased attractiveness or better viability of progeny, but empirical evidence for such benefits is inconsistent. Artificial selection offers a powerful way to investigate indirect effects of male ornaments. Here, we selected for the area of orange spots on male guppies, a trait subject to female preferences in our population, in replicated up- and down-selected lines. We found a significant direct response to...

Natural Language as a Technological Tool

Simone Aurora
Language is a technological tool, since it is the outcome of a process of exteriorisation of a set of intentional practices. This process of exteriorisation is semiotic in nature. Language as technology and technology as language are thus ways of socialize consciousness. On the basis of some recent results in applied linguistics, the paper suggests that language and technology have to be considered as “functioning” when they enable social relations, by collectivising consciousness and producing...

Data from: Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes

Giovanni Tamburini, Serena De Simone, Maurizia Sigura, Francesco Boscutti & Lorenzo Marini
Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in...

Data from: Population genomics meet Lagrangian simulations: oceanographic patterns and long larval duration ensure connectivity among Paracentrotus lividus populations in the Adriatic and Ionian seas

Marta Paterno, Marcello Schiavina, Giorgio Aglieri, Jamila Ben Souissi, Elisa Boscari, Renato Casagrandi, Aurore Chassanite, Mariachiara Chiantore, Leonardo Congiu, Giuseppe Guarnieri, Claudia Kruschel, Vesna Macic, Ilaria Anna Maria Marino, Chiara Papetti, Tomaso Patarnello, Lorenzo Zane & Paco Melià
Connectivity between populations is a key factor that influences both their dynamics and the genetic structuring of marine species. In this study, we explored connectivity patterns of a long-dispersing species, the edible common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, focusing mainly on the Adriatic-Ionian basins. We applied a multidisciplinary approach integrating population genomics, based on 1122 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained by 2b-RAD in 275 samples, with Lagrangian simulations performed with a biophysical model of larval dispersal....

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Hydrologic controls on river network connectivity

Silvia Garbin, Elisa Alessi Celegon, Pietro Fanton & Gianluca Botter
This study proposes a probabilistic approach for the quantitative assessment of reach- and network-scale hydrological connectivity as dictated by river flow space-time variability. Spatial dynamics of daily streamflows are estimated based on climatic and morphological features of the contributing catchment, integrating a physically based approach that accounts for the stochasticity of rainfall with a water balance framework and a geomorphic recession flow analysis. Ecologically meaningful minimum stage thresholds are used to evaluate the connectivity of...

Data from: Possible glimpses into early speciation: the effect of ovarian fluid on sperm velocity accords with post-copulatory isolation between two guppy populations

Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro & Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative...

Data from: Improving the early detection of alien wood-boring beetles in ports and surrounding forests

Davide Rassati, Massimo Faccoli, Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo, Andrea Battisti & Lorenzo Marini
1. International ports are generally considered the most likely points of entry for alien wood-boring beetles. A better understanding of the factors affecting their arrival and establishment at ports and their surrounding areas is of utmost importance to improve the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of early detection programmes. Our work aimed at understanding how port size and the characteristics of the landscape surrounding the port, in terms of forest cover and forest composition, influence the...

Data from: Prenatal exposure to predation affects predator recognition learning via lateralization plasticity

Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Douglas P. Chivers, Matthew D. Mitchell & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Prey with cerebral lateralization often shows a bias in escape direction and asymmetrical use of eyes for scanning. Such asymmetries are likely to cause ecological disadvantages when, for example, predators attack from the side in which the prey is more susceptible. However, lateralized individuals are diffuse in many species and, paradoxically, their frequency increases via developmental plasticity in environments with high-predation risk. Using wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral lateralization...

Data from: Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato & Angelo Bisazza
Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once...

Immunological changes in nestlings growing under predation risk

Gianluca Roncalli, Manuel Soler, B. Irene Tieleman, Maaike A. Versteegh, Francisco Ruiz–Raya, Elisa Colombo, Mercedes Gómez Sambla & Juan Diego Ibáñez–Álamo
Predation is one of the most relevant selective forces in nature. However, the physiological mechanisms behind anti‐predator strategies have been overlooked, despite their importance to understand predator‐prey interactions. In this context, the immune system could be especially revealing due to its relationship with other critical functions and its ability to enhance prey's probabilities of survival to a predator's attack. Developing organisms (e.g. nestlings) are excellent models to study this topic because they suffer a high...

Seasonal time constraints shape life history, physiology and behaviour independently, and decouple a behavioural syndrome in a damselfly

Nedim Tüzün, Beste Başak Savaşçı & Robby Stoks
The integration of traits into 'syndromes' has been suggested as a useful framework to advance insights in trait responses to environmental stressors. Yet, how stressors shape the consistency (‘repeatability’) of traits and their covariation at the individual level remains debated. We studied how seasonal time constraints shape trait repeatability and integration of life-history, behavioural, and physiological traits along a fast-slow continuum, using the ‘pace-of-life syndrome’ as a framework. We manipulated the photoperiod during the larval...

Caterpillar polarisation vision: Histological methods and Rcodes for behavioural analyses

Mizuki Uemura, Andrej Meglič, Myron Zalucki, Andrea Battisti & Gregor Belušič
Processionary caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (in Europe) and Ochrogaster lunifer (in Australia) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) form single files of larvae crawling head-to-tail when moving to feeding and pupation sites. We investigated if the processions are guided by polarisation vision. The heading orientation of processions could be manipulated with linear polarising filters held above the leading caterpillar. Exposure to changes in the angle of polarisation around the caterpillar resulted in orthogonal changes in heading angles. Anatomical analysis...

Data from: Influences of summer warming and nutrient availability on Salix glauca L. growth in Greenland along an ice to sea gradient

Angela Luisa Prendin, Signe Normand, Marco Carrer, Nanna Bjerregaard Pedersen, Henning Matthiesen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Bo Elbering, Urs Albert Treier & Jørgen Hollesen
The combined effects of climate change and nutrient availability on Arctic vegetation growth are poorly understood. Archaeological sites in the Arctic could represent unique nutrient hotspots for studying the long-term effect of nutrient enrichment. In this study, we analysed a time-series of ring widths of Salix glauca L. collected at nine archaeological sites and in their natural surroundings along a climate gradient in the Nuuk fjord region, Southwest Greenland, stretching from the edge of the...

Il tocco del “diavolo”: un’istantanea fotografica sulla preistoria

Adolfo Panarello, Luigi Mazzardo & Paolo Mietto
Here we report about a fossil handprint located in the "Ciampate del diavolo" palaeontological site (Tora e Piccilli, central-southern Italy). Radiometrically dated at ~350 ka, it is the only fossilized Middle-Pleistocene human handprint up to know known in the world and the oldest so far. This handprint, called TP_M1, cannot be compared with anything similar at present, either in hypogeal or subaerial environments and is completely unrelated to any cultural purpose. Since it can only...

Una sfida al “diavolo”: il problema della conservazione e della valorizzazione

Adolfo Panarello, Gennaro Farinaro & Paolo Mietto
Fossil human footprints are among the rarest and most precious finds for the study of antiquity. Their value lies in their power to describe body structures, actions, and behaviours. Their rarity is because - almost always - they are preserved on deposits that have turned into soft rocks which are easily eroded by natural agents and damaged by human wrong actions and management. Considering human ichnites as any other archaeological find to be preserved is...

Costruzioni geometriche per la creazione del dataset dimensionale completo delle “Ciampate del diavolo”

Adolfo Panarello, Gennaro Farinaro & Paolo Mietto
This supplementary paper provides graphical schemes of all the geometric constructions carried out to apply the selected mensural conventions to the fossil human footprints widely known as “Ciampate del diavolo” or “Devil’s Trails” (Tora e Piccilli, Roccamonfina volcano, Central-Southern Italy). These graphical schemes help to complete the final dimensional dataset and provide further data very useful in any other morphometric and human gait-analysis comparations. Moreover, the dimensional values obtained through these geometric elaborations, if compared...

2001 - 2021: Vent’anni di ricerche sulle “Ciampate del diavolo”. Dalla leggenda alla realtà scientifica

Paolo Mietto, Adolfo Panarello &
This book gives a detailed report of twenty years of scientific research, investigations and studies on the site with Middle Pleistocene fossil footprints, known as “Devil's Trails" paleontological site, which is located on the north-eastern slopes of the Roccamonfina volcano, in the locality of Foresta (municipality of Tora e Piccilli, Central-Southern Italy). The fossilised human and animal footprints, radiometrically dated to 349 3 ka years ago, are described here in detail and contextualised in the worldwide...

Studio di possibili effetti sistematici nelle nuvole di punti SfM da APR: confronti con TLS, distorsioni e metodi di mitigazione.

Arianna Pesci, Giordano Teza, Fabiana Loddo, Massimo Fabris, Michele Monego & Sara Amoroso
Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry is based on the use of algorithms allowing the automatically identification of a large amount of homologous points (or pixels) between images overlapping areas. The coordinates of the homologous points (provided in different reference systems for each acquisition), allow the images alignment meaning the internal and external camera calibration. The number and the distribution of homologous points drives the entire procedure of photogrammetric restitution. In some cases, due to a...

Ausweg oder Irrweg? Ein Versuch über die Bedeutung von durch Technobilder gestützten Narrativen in der existenziellen Langeweile

Eugen Dolezal & Moritz Windegger
Der Beitrag versucht greifbar zu machen, inwiefern die von der Corona- Pandemie verstärkte existenzielle Langeweile in einem Verhältnis zu Narrativen steht, die über Medien in Form von technischen Bildern an das Individuum herangetragen werden. In weiterer Folge ist von Bedeutung, welche Auswirkungen die vermittelten Narrative auf ein solches Individuum haben und ob durch sie ein Ausweg aus der existenziellen Langeweile/Leere geschaffen werden kann, respektive inwiefern sie durch diesen Prozess sogar noch verstärkt wird.

Italy

Claudia Padovani, Giuliano Bobba, Alice Baroni, Marinella Belluati, Cecilia Biancalana, Mauro Bomba, Alice Fubini, Francesco Marrazzo, Rossella Rega, Christian Ruggiero, Simone Sallusti, Sergio Splendore & Michele  Valente

Data from: High cover of hedgerows in the landscape supports multiple ecosystem services in Mediterranean cereal fields

Matteo Dainese, Silvia Montecchiari, Tommaso Sitzia, Maurizia Sigura & Lorenzo Marini
Field-margin diversification through conservation and restoration of hedgerows is becoming a prominent intervention for promoting biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in intensive agricultural landscapes. However, how increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape can affect ecosystem services has rarely been considered. Here, we assessed the effect of increased field-margin complexity at the local scale and increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape on the provision of pest control, weed control and potential pollination. Locally, three...

Data from: Phylogeography and demographic history of two widespread Indo-Pacific mudskippers (Gobiidae: Periophthalmus)

Gianluca Polgar, Lorenzo Zane, Massimiliano Babbucci, Federica Barbisan, Tomaso Patarnello, Lukas Rüber & Chiara Papetti
This study provides a first description of the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of two species of the mudskipper genus Periophthalmus. These amphibious gobies are distributed throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic coast of Africa, in peritidal habitats of soft-bottom coastal ecosystems. Three sequence datasets of two widely distributed species, Periophthalmus argentilineatus and P. kalolo, were obtained by amplifying and sequencing two mtDNA markers (D-loop and 16S rDNA) and the nDNA rag1 region. The...

Data from: Familiarity mediates equitable social associations in guppies

Silvia Cattelan, Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Andrea Pilastro & Matteo Griggio
Several fish species are characterized by social systems in which individuals prefer to interact with specific group mates. However, there is no clear evidence that such associations are equitable, i.e. they are mutual between individuals. We addressed this issue in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species in which social network analyses have evidenced non-random social associations between individuals. We measured the mutual preference in pairs of guppies that previously familiarized in groups of either two...

Data from: Quick-change artists: male guppies pay no cost to repeatedly adjust their sexual strategies

Martina Magris, Gianluca Chimetto, Sofia Rizzi & Andrea Pilastro
Sexually selected traits involved in mate acquisition and fertilization success are usually costly and males often plastically adjust their reproductive investment in response to social conditions. Phenotypic plasticity in male sexual traits is generally assumed to be adaptive, yet its costs are rarely investigated. Male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) adjust their ejaculate production and sexual behavior in response to perceived mating opportunities. In natural populations mating opportunities can fluctuate continuously, and the iterated activation of plastic...

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