Several fish species are characterized by social systems in which individuals prefer to interact with specific group mates. However, there is no clear evidence that such associations are equitable, i.e. they are mutual between individuals. We addressed this issue in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species in which social network analyses have evidenced non-random social associations between individuals. We measured the mutual preference in pairs of guppies that previously familiarized in groups of either two...
Data from: Quick-change artists: male guppies pay no cost to repeatedly adjust their sexual strategiesMartina Magris, Gianluca Chimetto, Sofia Rizzi & Andrea Pilastro
Sexually selected traits involved in mate acquisition and fertilization success are usually costly and males often plastically adjust their reproductive investment in response to social conditions. Phenotypic plasticity in male sexual traits is generally assumed to be adaptive, yet its costs are rarely investigated. Male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) adjust their ejaculate production and sexual behavior in response to perceived mating opportunities. In natural populations mating opportunities can fluctuate continuously, and the iterated activation of plastic...
Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape compositionDaniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...
Data from: Stabilizing selection on sperm number revealed by artificial selection and experimental evolutionSilvia Cattelan, Andrea Di Nisio & Andrea Pilastro
Sperm competition is taxonomically widespread in animals and is usually associated with large sperm production, being the number of sperm in the competing pool the prime predictor of fertilization success. Despite the strong postcopulatory selection acting directionally on sperm production, its genetic variance is often very high. This can be explained by trade-offs between sperm production and traits associated with mate acquisition or survival, that may contribute to generate an overall stabilizing selection. To investigate...
Data from: Quantifying in situ phenotypic variability in the hydraulic properties of four tree species across their distribution range in EuropeSylvain Delzon, N. González-Muñoz, J. M. Torres-Ruiz, G. Capdeville, F. Sterck, P. Copini, G. Petit, G. Von Arx, A. Lintunen, L. Grönlund, T. Hölttä, M. C. Caldeira, R. Lobo-Do-Vale & M. Peltoniemi
Many studies have reported that hydraulic properties vary considerably between tree species, but little is known about their intraspecific variation and, therefore, their capacity to adapt to a warmer and drier climate. Here, we quantify phenotypic divergence and clinal variation for embolism resistance, hydraulic conductivity and branch growth, in four tree species, two angiosperms (Betula pendula, Populus tremula) and two conifers (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris), across their latitudinal distribution in Europe. Growth and hydraulic efficiency...
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a meta-analysis of controlled trials that used experimental models of acute pain and hyperalgesia to examine the analgesic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. METHODS: Six major databases were systematically searched (to 03/2018) for studies using human evoked pain models to compare NMDAR antagonists with no-intervention controls. Pain outcome data were analyzed with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Searches identified 70 eligible trials (N=1069). Meta-analysis found that low-dose ketamine (<1 mg/kg) produced a decrease...
Data from: Genome-wide SNP data revealed the extent of linkage disequilibrium, persistence of phase and effective population size in purebred and crossbred buffalo populationsTingxian Deng, Aixin Liang, Jiajia Liu, Guohua Hua, Tingzhu Ye, Shenhe Liu, Giuseppe Campanile, Graham Plastow, Chunyan Zhang, Zhiquan Wang, Angela Salzano, Bianca Gasparrini, Martina Cassandro, Hasan Riaz, Xianwei Liang, Liguo Yang & Martino Cassandro
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a useful parameter for guiding the accuracy and power of both genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) among different livestock species. The present study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of phase and effective population size (Ne) for the purebred (Mediterranean buffalo; n=411) and crossbred [Mediterranean × Jianghan × Nili-Ravi buffalo, n=9; Murrah × Nili-Ravi × local (Xilin or Fuzhong) buffalo, n=36] buffalo populations using the 90K Buffalo SNP...
Data from: Effect of insect herbivory on plant community dynamics under contrasting water availability levelsGiovanni Tamburini, Elena Dani, Riccardo Bommarco & Lorenzo Marini
1. Diversity of plant communities is impacted by multiple global change drivers but also by altered biotic interactions with antagonist and mutualist organisms that can potentially affect species coexistence. 2. With a two-year outdoor mesocosm experiment in realistic mesic grassland communities, we explored the role of insect herbivory in impacting plant community dynamics under contrasting levels of water availability simulating altered rainfall regimes. We selected a grasshopper species (Calliptamus italicus) feeding predominantly on forbs while...
Male and female gametes are often embedded in fluids that are produced by gonads and other reproductive tissues. Female reproductive fluids, usually called ovarian fluids (OF), which often constitute a relevant volumetric component of the egg mass, are rich in ions, sugars, and proteins, and are involved in several functions, from protecting gametes to facilitating fertilization, and often act as mediators of postmating sexual selection. Despite their applied and evolutionary importance, we know virtually nothing...
Data from: Deciphering the drivers of negative species-genetic diversity correlation in Alpine amphibiansAlexis Marchesini, Cristiano Vernesi, Andrea Battisti & Gentile Francesco Ficetola
The evolutionary and ecological importance of neutral and adaptive genetic diversity is widely recognized. Nevertheless, genetic diversity is rarely assessed for conservation planning, which often implicitly assumes a positive correlation between species and genetic diversity. Multiple drivers can cause the co-variation between the genetic diversity of one species and the richness of the whole communities, and explicit tests are needed to identify the processes that can determine species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDC). Here we tested whether...
University of Padua10
Universidade Federal de Goiás1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Buenos Aires1
University of Adelaide1
Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education1
University of Greenwich1
Jiangxi Agricultural University1
Estación Experimental del Zaidín1