10 Works

Data from: Sex at the origin: an Asian population of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae reproduces sexually.

Dounia Saleh, Peng Xu, Ying Shen, Chengyun Li, Henri Adreit, Joëlle Milazzo, Virginie Ravigné, Eric Bazin, Jean-Loup Nottéghem, Elisabeth Fournier & Didier Tharreau
Sexual reproduction may be cryptic or facultative in fungi and therefore difficult to detect. Magnaporthe oryzae, which causes blast, the most damaging fungal disease of rice, is thought to originate from South-East Asia. It reproduces asexually in all rice-growing regions. Sexual reproduction has been suspected in limited areas of South-East Asia, but has never been demonstrated in contemporary populations. We characterized several M. oryzae populations worldwide both biologically and genetically, to identify candidate populations for...

Data from: The “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde fungus”: noble rot versus gray mold symptoms of Botrytis cinerea on grapes

Elisabeth Fournier, Pierre Gladieux & Tatiana Giraud
Many cryptic species have recently been discovered in fungi, especially in fungal plant pathogens. Cryptic fungal species co-occurring in sympatry may occupy slightly different ecological niches, for example infecting the same crop plant but specialized on different organs or having different phenologies. Identifying cryptic species in fungal pathogens of crops and determining their ecological specialization is therefore crucial for disease management. Here we addressed this question in the ascomycete Botrytis cinerea, the agent of grey...

Data from: Diverse phenotypic and genetic responses to short-term selection in evolving Escherichia coli populations

Marcus M. Dillon, Nicholas P. Rouillard, Brian Van Dam, Romain Gallet & Vaughn S. Cooper
Beneficial mutations fuel adaptation by altering phenotypes that enhance the fit of organisms to their environment. However, the phenotypic effects of mutations often depend on ecological context, making the distribution of effects across multiple environments essential to understanding the true nature of beneficial mutations. Studies that address both the genetic basis and ecological consequences of adaptive mutations remain rare. Here, we characterize the direct and pleiotropic fitness effects of a collection of 21 first-step beneficial...

Data from: Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts

Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud & Michael Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen...

Data from: An experimental test of the transmission−virulence trade-off hypothesis in a plant virus

Juliette Doumayrou, Astrid Avellan, Rémy Froissart & Yannis Michalakis
The transmission–virulence trade-off hypothesis is one of the few adaptive explanations of virulence evolution, and assumes that there is an overall positive correlation between parasite transmission and virulence. The shape of the transmission–virulence relationship predicts whether virulence should evolve toward either a maximum or to an intermediate optimum. A positive correlation between each of these traits and within-host growth is often suggested to underlie the relationship between virulence and transmission. There are few experimental tests...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of the impact of hard and soft selection regimes on polymorphism maintenance in spatially heterogeneous environments

Romain Gallet, Rémy Froissart & Virginie Ravigne
Predicting and managing contemporary adaption requires a proper understanding of the determinants of genetic variation. Spatial heterogeneity of the environment may stably maintain polymorphism when habitat contribution to the next generation can be considered independent of the degree of adaptation of local populations within habitats (i.e., under soft selection). In contrast, when habitats contribute proportionally to the mean fitness of the populations they host (hard selection), polymorphism is not expected to be maintained by selection....

Data from: Genomic signatures of adaptation to wine biological aging conditions in biofilm-forming flor yeasts

Anna-Lisa Coi, Frederic Bigey, Sandrine Mallet, Souhir Marsit, Giacomo Zara, Pierre Gladieux, Virginie Galeote, Marilena Budroni, Sylvie Dequin, Jean-Luc Legras & A. L. Coi
The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological aging are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose, and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments. Phylogenetic inference and...

Data from: Fisher’s geometrical model and the mutational patterns of antibiotic resistance across dose gradients

Noémie Harmand, Romain Gallet, Roula Jabbour-Zahab, Guillaume Martin & Thomas Lenormand
Fisher's geometrical model (FGM) has been widely used to depict the fitness effects of mutations. It is a general model with few underlying assumptions that gives a large and comprehensive view of adaptive processes. It is thus attractive in several situations, e.g. adaptation to antibiotics, but comes with limitations, so that more mechanistic approaches are often preferred to interpret experimental data. It might be possible however to extend FGM assumptions to better account for mutational...

Data from: Continental-level population differentiation and environmental adaptation in the mushroom Suillus brevipes

Sara Branco, Ke Bi, Hui-Ling Liao, Pierre Gladieux, Helene Badouin, Chris E. Ellison, Nhu H. Nguyen, Rytas Vilgalys, Kabir G. Peay, John W. Taylor, Thomas D. Bruns & Christopher E. Ellison
Recent advancements in sequencing technology allowed researchers to better address the patterns and mechanisms involved in microbial environmental adaptation at large spatial scales. Here we investigated the genomic basis of adaptation to climate at the continental scale in Suillus brevipes, an ectomycorrhizal fungus symbiotically associated with the roots of pine trees. We used genomic data from 55 individuals in seven locations across North America to perform genome scans to detect signatures of positive selection and...

Data from: Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic

Loup Rimbaud, Claude Bruchou, Sylvie Dallot, David R.J. Pleydell, Emmanuel Jacquot, Samuel Soubeyrand, Gaël Thébaud & David R. J. Pleydell
Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by Plum pox virus, in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on...

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