68 Works

Data from: Mate fidelity in a polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus)

Naerhulan Halimubieke, José Valdebenito, Philippa Harding, Medardo Cruz-López, Martín Serrano-Meneses, Richard James, Krisztina Kupán & Tamas Szekely
Social monogamy has evolved multiple times and is particularly common in birds. However, it is not well understood why some species live in long-lasting monogamous partnerships while others change mates between breeding attempts. Here, we investigate mate fidelity in a sequential polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus), a species in which both males and females may have several breeding attempts within a breeding season with the same or different mates. Using six years of...

Data from: The constrained maximal expression level owing to haploidy shapes gene content on the mammalian X chromosome

Laurence D. Hurst, Avazeh T. Ghanbarian, Alistair R. R. Forrest, Fantom Consortium & Lukasz Huminiecki
X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if...

Data from: Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-PG Extinction

Jacob S. Berv & Daniel J. Field
Survivorship following major mass extinctions may be associated with a decrease in body size—a phenomenon called the Lilliput Effect. Body size is a strong predictor of many life history traits (LHTs), and is known to influence demography and intrinsic biological processes. Pronounced changes in organismal size throughout Earth history are therefore likely to be associated with concomitant genome-wide changes in evolutionary rates. Here, we report pronounced heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (varying up to...

Data from: The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission in Rachuonyo south district in the western Kenyan highlands: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Teun Bousema, Gillian Stresman, Amrish Y. Baidjoe, John Bradley, Philip Knight, William Stone, Victor Osoti, Euniah Makori, Chrispin Owaga, Wycliffe Odongo, Pauline China, Shehu Shagari, Ogobara K. Doumbo, Robert W. Sauerwein, Simon Kariuki, Chris Drakeley, Jennifer Stevenson & Jonathan Cox
Background: Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. Methods and Findings: Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503...

Data from: Evolutionary rates for multivariate traits: the role of selection and genetic variation

William Pitchers, Jason Wolf, Tom Tregenza, John Hunt & Ian Dworkin
A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is the relative importance of selection and genetic architecture in determining evolutionary rates. Adaptive evolution can be described by the multivariate breeders' equation, which predicts evolutionary change for a suite of phenotypic traits as a product of directional selection acting on them (β) and the genetic variance–covariance matrix for those traits (G). Despite being empirically challenging to estimate, there are enough published estimates of G and β to allow...

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlations of conserved microsatellite markers in Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Küpper, Jakob Augustin, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry Burke, András Kosztolányi & Tamás Székely
Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are frequently used to examine the relationship between genetic diversity and fitness. Most studies have reported positive HFCs, although there is a strong bias towards investigating HFCs in genetically impoverished populations. We investigated HFCs in a large genetically diverse breeding population of Kentish plovers Charadrius alexandrinus in Southern Turkey. This small shorebird exhibits highly variable mating and care systems and it is becoming an ecological model species to understand breeding system evolution....

Data from: Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees

Ross C. P. Mounce, Robert Sansom & Matthew A. Wills
Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that...

Research data supporting 'Zinc complexes for PLA formation and chemical recycling: towards a circular economy'

, , , & Joseph Wood
Conversion, selectivity and yield data for three Zn catalysts

Building deformation caused by tunnelling: centrifuge modelling

Stefan Ritter, Giorgia Giardina, Andrea Franza & Matthew DeJong
This paper investigates the deformation of buildings due to tunnelling-induced soil displacements. Centrifuge model tests of 3D printed building models subject to a plane-strain tunnel excavation in dense, dry sand are discussed. The small-scale structures replicate important building characteristics including brittle material properties similar to masonry, a realistic building layout, façade openings, strip footings and a rough soil-structure interface. Digital images were captured during the experiments, enabling image-based measurements of the building response. Results demonstrate...

Research data supporting 'Ethyl lactate production from the catalytic depolymerisation of post-consumer poly(lactic acid)'

Luis Antonio Román-Ramírez, Mark Powders, Paul McKeown, Matthew Jones & Joseph Wood

Reactions of Hydrazones and Hydrazides with Lewis Acidic Boranes - data

Gazis, Ayan Dasgupta, Michael S Hill, Jeremy M Rawson, Thomas Wirth & Rebecca L Melen
The reaction of (diphenylmethylene)hydrazone or 1,4-bis-hydraQ4 zone-ylidene(phenyl)methyl)benzene with Lewis acidic boranes B(2,4,6-F3C6H2)3 or B(3,4,5-F3C6H2)3 generates the Lewis acid– base adducts. Alternatively, when (9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone is employed then several products were isolated including 1,2-di(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)hydrazone, the 2 : 1 borane adduct of NH2–NH2 and the 1-(diarylboraneyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene) hydrazone in which one ArH group has been eliminated. The benzhydrazide starting material also initially gives an adduct when reacted with Lewis acidic boranes which upon heating eliminates ArH generating a CON2B...

Data from: Mutual fitness benefits arise during coevolution in a nematode-defensive microbe model

Charlotte Rafaluk-Mohr, Ben Ashby, Dylan A. Dahan & Kayla C. King
Species interactions can shift along the parasitism-mutualism continuum. However, the consequences of these transitions for coevolutionary interactions remain unclear. We experimentally coevolved a novel species interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans hosts and a mildly parasitic bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, with host-protective properties against virulent Staphylococcus aureus. Coinfections drove the evolutionary transition of the C.elegans-E. faecalis relationship towards a reciprocally beneficial interaction. As E. faecalis evolved to protect nematodes against S. aureus infection, hosts adapted by accommodating greater...

Data from: Probabilistic methods outperform parsimony in the phylogenetic analysis of data simulated without a probabilistic model

Mark N. Puttick, Joseph E. O'Reilly, Davide Pisani, Philip C.J. Donoghue & Philip C. J. Donoghue
In order to understand patterns and processes of the diversification of life we require an accurate understanding of taxa interrelationships. Recent studies have suggested that analyses of morphological character data using the Bayesian and Maximum likelihood Mk model provide phylogenies of higher accuracy compared to parsimony methods. These studies have proved controversial, particularly simulating morphology-data under Markov models that assume shared branch lengths for characters, as it is claimed this leads to bias favouring the...

Data from: The plover neurotranscriptome assembly: transcriptomic analysis in an ecological model species without a reference genome

Hooman K. Moghadam, Peter W. Harrison, Gergely Zachar, Tamás Székely & Judith E. Mank
We assembled a de novo transcriptome of short-read Illumina RNA-Seq data generated from telencephalon and diencephalon tissue samples from the Kentish plover, Charadrius alexandrinus. This is a species of considerable interest in behavioural ecology for its highly variable mating system and parental behaviour, but it lacks genomic resources and is evolutionarily distant from the few available avian draft genome sequences. We assembled and identified over 21 000 transcript contigs with significant expression in our samples,...

Data from: Short-term disturbance by a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey does not lead to long-term displacement of harbour porpoises

Paul M. Thompson, Kate L. Brookes, Isla M. Graham, Tim R. Barton, Keith Needham, Gareth Bradbury & Nathan D. Merchant
Assessments of the impact of offshore energy developments are constrained because it is not known whether fine-scale behavioral responses to noise lead to broader-scale displacement of protected small cetaceans. We used passive acoustic monitoring and digital aerial surveys to study changes in the occurrence of harbour porpoises across a 2000 km2 study area during a commercial 2-D seismic survey in the North Sea. Acoustic and visual data provided evidence of group responses to air-gun noise...

Data from: High gene flow on a continental scale in the polyandrous Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

Clemens Kuepper, Scott V. Edwards, András Kosztolányi, Monif AlRashidi, Terry Burke, Phillipp Herrmann, Araceli Argüelles Tico, Juan A. Amat, Mohamed Amezian, Afonso Rocha, Hermann Hötker, Anton Ivanov, Joseph Chernicko & Tamas Szekely
Gene flow promotes genetic coherence of species in time and space. It can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal which links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan, and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analyzed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427 bp fragment...

Data from: Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis

Arlin Stoltzfus, Brian O'Meara, Jamie Whitacre, Ross Mounce, Emily L. Gillespie, Sudhir Kumar, Dan F. Rosauer & Rutger A. Vos
BACKGROUND: Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote data sharing reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing phylogenetic trees and associated data in a way that promotes re-use. RESULTS: Here we summarize...

Data from: Genome-wide identification of host-segregating epidemiological markers for source attribution in Campylobacter jejuni

Amandine Thépault, Guillaume Méric, Katell Rivoal, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Fabrice Touzain, Valérie Rose, Véronique Béven, Marianne Chemaly & Samuel K. Sheppard
Campylobacter is among the most common worldwide causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. This organism is part of the commensal microbiota of numerous host species, including livestock, and these animals constitute potential sources of human infection. Molecular typing approaches, especially multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles, at 7 MLST loci, among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a...

Data from: Hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity

Colin Derek McClure, Weihao Zhong, Vicky L. Hunt, Fiona M. Chapman, Fiona V. Hill & Nicholas K. Priest
Many have argued that we may be able to extend life and improve human health through hormesis, the beneficial effects of low-level toxins and other stressors. But, studies of hormesis in model systems have not yet established whether stress-induced benefits are cost free, artifacts of inbreeding, or come with deleterious side effects. Here, we provide evidence that hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity. We find that a single topical dose of dead spores of the...

Data from: Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

Yunhong Jiang, Michael Lawrence, Martin P. Ansell & Atif Hussain
This paper, for the first time, fully characterises the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal Microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualisation of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry showed the average accessible porosity...

Data from: Optimisation of next generation sequencing transcriptome annotation for species lacking sequenced genomes

Nina F. Ockendon, Lauren A. O'Connell, Stephen J. Bush, Jimena Monzon-Sandoval, Holly Barnes, Tamás Székely, Hans A. Hofmann, Steve Dorus & Araxi O. Urrutia
Next generation sequencing methods, such as RNA-seq, have permitted the exploration of gene expression in a range of organisms which have been studied in ecological contexts but lack a sequenced genome. However, the efficacy and accuracy of RNA-seq annotation methods using reference genomes from related species have yet to be robustly characterised. Here we conduct a comprehensive power analysis employing RNA-seq data from Drosophila melanogaster in conjunction with 11 additional genomes from related Drosophila species...

Data from: Archosauromorph extinction selectivity during the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction

Bethany J. Allen, Thomas L. Stubbs, Michael J. Benton & Mark N. Puttick
Many traits have been linked to extinction risk among modern vertebrates, including mode of life and body size. However, previous work has indicated there is little evidence that body size, or any other trait, was selective during past mass extinctions. Here, we investigate the impact of the Triassic–Jurassic mass extinction on early Archosauromorpha (basal dinosaurs, crocodylomorphs and their relatives) by focusing on body size and other life history traits. We built several new archosauromorph maximum‐likelihood...

Evolution of large males is associated with female-skewed adult sex ratios in amniotes

András Liker, Veronika Bókony, Ivett Pipoly, Jean-François Lemaître, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Tamas Szekely & Robert P. Freckleton
Body size often differs between the sexes (leading to sexual size dimorphism, SSD), as a consequence of differential responses by males and females to selection pressures. Adult sex ratio (the proportion of males in the adult population, ASR) should influence SSD because ASR relates to both the number of competitors and available mates, which shape the intensity of mating competition and thereby promotes SSD evolution. However, whether ASR correlates with SSD variation among species has...

Atria, Roof-space Solar Collectors and Windows for Low-energy New and Renovated Office Buildings: a Review

Brian Norton & Steve N.G. Lo

Data from: Cancer cell lines show high heritability for motility but not generation time

Ana Wass, George Butler, Tiffany Taylor, Louise Johnson & Philip Dash
Tumour evolution depends on heritable differences between cells in traits affecting cell survival or replication. It is well-established that cancer cells are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous; however, the extent to which this phenotypic variation is heritable is far less well-explored. Here we estimate the broad-sense heritability (H2) of two cell traits related to cancer hallmarks - cell motility and generation time - within populations of four cancer cell lines in vitro, and find that motility...

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  • University of Bath
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Debrecen
  • University of Birmingham
  • Cardiff University
  • University of Pannonia
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Bristol
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Eötvös Loránd University