Quantifying heritability and estimating evolutionary potential in the wild when individuals that share genes also share environmentsLaura Gervais, Nicolas Morellet, Ingrid David, Mark Hewison, Denis Reale, Michel Goulard, Yannick Chaval, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Joel Merlet, Erwan Quéméré & Benoit Pujol
Accurate heritability estimates for fitness-related traits are required to predict an organism’s ability to respond to global change. Heritability estimates are theoretically expected to be inflated if, due to limited dispersal, individuals that share genes are also likely to share similar environments. However, if relatives occupy similar environments due, at least partly, to genetic variation for habitat selection, then accounting for environmental similarity in quantitative genetic models may result in diminished heritability estimates in wild...
Évaluer la production « spontanée » de récits oraux au secondaire obligatoire : Un design de validation d’outils d’évaluationRoxane Gagnon, Sonia Guillemin, Caroline Ducrey-Évequoz, José Ticon & Rosalie Bourdages
Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la portion du projet de recherche design consacrée à la conception-expérimentation d’une séquence portant sur la transformation d’une nouvelle très courte en un récit oral destiné à des élèves de secondaire 1. La contribution cherche à penser la didactisation et l’évaluation du court récit oral spontané. Nous abordons la question de la réception des outils d’évaluation par les enseignants. Notre analyse révèle que les enseignants reconnaissent la pertinence...
Phenotypic plasticity is wide-spread in animals, but how plastic responses to predation threat affect traits under sexual selection and influence mating preferences is not well understood. Here, we examined how chronic predation risk during development and acute predation risk during mate choice affect the expression of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preference in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Males reared under chronic predation risk developed less intense red breeding colouration but showed higher...
Tree identity and diversity directly affect soil moisture and temperature but not soil carbon ten years after plantingMarc-Olivier Martin-Guay, Michaël Belluau, Benoît Côté, Ira Tanya Handa, Mark Jewell, Rim Khlifa, Alison Munson, Maxime Rivest, Joann Whalen & David Rivest
1. Soil C is the largest C pool in forest ecosystems that contributes to C sequestration and mitigates climate change. Tree diversity enhances forest productivity, so diversifying the tree species composition, notably in managed forests, could increase the quantity of organic matter being transferred to soils, and alter other soil properties relevant to the C cycle. 2. A ten-year-old tree diversity experiment was used to study the effects of tree identity and diversity (functional and...
Uncertainties surrounding tree carbon allocation to growth are a major limitation to projections of forest carbon sequestration and response to climate change. The prevalence and extent to which carbon assimilation (source) or cambial activity (sink) mediate wood production are fundamentally important and remain elusive. We quantified source-sink relations across biomes by combining eddy-covariance gross primary production with extensive on-site and regional tree ring observations. We found widespread temporal decoupling between carbon assimilation and tree growth,...
L’ avenir du triangle Russie-Chine-Etats-Unis : la Russie choisit l’ Asie (Études du CERI, n°241-242)Jacques Lévesque
L’annexion de la Crimée, et plus encore la guerre du Donbass, avaient suscité une dégradation sans précédent des relations chaotiques de la Russie avec les Etats-Unis et le monde occidental, donnant un nouvel élan au partenariat stratégique entre Moscou et Pékin. Cette dégradation et ses conséquences se sont paradoxalement aggravées depuis l’arrivée à la Maison Blanche de Donald Trump, qui s’était fait élire en s’engageant à renverser ce qui est maintenant devenu une tendance de...
Evidence from natural populations shows that changes in environmental conditions can cause rapid modifications in the evolutionary potential of phenotypes, partly through genotype-by-environment interactions (G×E). Therefore, the overall rate of microevolution should depend on fluctuations in environmental conditions, even when directional selection is sustained over several generations. We tested this hypothesis in a preindustrial human population that experienced a microevolutionary change in age at first reproduction (AFR) of mothers, using the annual infant mortality rate...
Individual diet specialization (IDS) is widespread and can affect the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations in significant ways. Extrinsic factors (e.g., food abundance) and individual variation in energetic needs, morphology, or physiology, have been suggested as drivers of IDS. Behavioral traits like exploration and boldness can also impact foraging decisions, although their effects on IDS have not yet been investigated. Specifically, variation among individuals in exploratory behavior and their position along the exploration/exploitation trade-off...
This dataset originates from an experiment using black widow spiders (Latrodectus hesperus) originally collected from Davis, California, United-States and brought to the University of Arizona, where they were maintained under laboratory condition for 12 months. Spiders were then transferred to Pierre-Olivier Montiglio's laboratory in Montreal in Canada, where they were kept for a month prior to the experiment. During this time, spiders were housed in individual plastic containers (946 ml) at 23˚C ± 1.50 and...
University of Quebec at Montreal11
Michigan Technological University1
National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment1
Université de Sherbrooke1
University of Notre Dame1
University of Bologna1
Université du Québec en Outaouais1
PSL Research University1
University of California, Berkeley1