21 Works

Data from: Incomplete loss of a conserved trait: function, latitudinal cline, and genetic constraints

Anne M. Royer, Colin Kremer, Kola George, Samuel G. Pérez, Douglas W. Schemske & Jeffrey K. Conner
Retention of nonfunctional traits over evolutionary time is puzzling, because the cost of trait production should drive loss. Indeed, several studies have found nonfunctional traits are rapidly eliminated by selection. However, theory suggests that complex genetic interactions and a lack of genetic variance can constrain evolution, including trait loss. In the mustard family Brassicaceae the conserved floral condition includes four long and two short stamens, but we show that short stamens in the highly self-pollinating...

Data from: Form–function relationships in a marine foundation species depend on scale: a shoot to global perspective from a distributed ecological experiment

Jennifer L. Ruesink, John J. Stachowicz, Pamela L. Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Mathieu Cusson, James Douglass, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin H. Engelen, Masakazu Hori, Kevin Hovel, Katrin Iken, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka, Mary I. O'Connor, Jeanine L. Olsen, Erik E. Sotka, Matthew A. Whalen & Emmett J. Duffy
Form-function relationships in plants underlie their ecosystem roles in supporting higher trophic levels through primary production, detrital pathways, and habitat provision. For widespread, phenotypically-variable plants, productivity may differ not only across abiotic conditions, but also from distinct morphological or demographic traits. A single foundation species, eelgrass (Zostera marina), typically dominates north temperate seagrass meadows, which we studied across 14 sites spanning 32-61° N latitude and two ocean basins. Body size varied by nearly two orders...

What is Pilgrimage? A Report of the Panel at the 2017 Symposium on Pilgrimage Studies, William & Mary, October 7, 2017

Robert C. Nickerson, George D. Greenia, Ian S. McIntosh & E. Moore Quinn

Data from: Invasion of novel habitats uncouples haplo-diplontic life cycles

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M. Kollars, James E. Byers, Thomas W. Greig, Mareike Hammann, David C. Murray, Courtney J. Murren, Allan E. Strand, Ryuta Terada, Florian Weinberger & Erik E. Sotka
Baker's Law predicts uniparental reproduction will facilitate colonization success in novel habitats. While evidence supports this prediction among colonizing plants and animals, few studies have investigated shifts in reproductive mode in haplo-diplontic species in which both prolonged haploid and diploid stages separate meiosis and fertilization in time and space. Due to this separation, asexual reproduction can yield the dominance of one of the ploidy stages in colonizing populations. We tested for shifts in ploidy and...

Data from: Comparative knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies in three districts of northern Tanzania

Christian Kiffner, Michelle Latzer, Ruby Vise, Hayley Benson, Elizabeth Hammon & John Kioko
Background Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) surveys regarding zoonotic diseases are crucial to understanding the extent of knowledge among citizens and for guiding health-related education programs. Method Employing a structured questionnaire, we interviewed residents (n=388) in three districts of northern Tanzania (Karatu n=128, Monduli n=114, Babati n=146) to assess knowledge, attitudes and reported practices regarding three zoonotic diseases that occur in the region (anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies). We used generalized linear mixed effects models and...

Data from: Many-to-many mapping of phenotype to performance: an extension of the F-matrix for studying functional complexity

Philip J. Bergmann & Eric J. McElroy
Performance capacity influences ecology, behavior and fitness, and is determined by the underlying phenotype. The phenotype-performance relationship can influence the evolutionary trajectory of an organism. Several types of phenotype-performance relationships have been described, including one-to-one relationships between a single phenotypic trait and performance measure, trade-offs and facilitations between a phenotypic trait and multiple performance measures, and redundancies between multiple phenotypic traits and a single performance measure. The F-matrix is an intraspecific matrix of measures of...

Data from: Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird

Rindy C. Anderson, William A. Searcy, Susan Peters, Melissa Hughes, Adrienne L. DuBois & Stephen Nowicki
Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and...

Data from: Demographic inferences after a range expansion can be biased: the test case of the blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus)

Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Shannon Corrigan, Drew Duckett, Arnaud Suwalski, Michel Veuille, Serge Planes, Gavin J.P. Naylor & Stefano Mona
The evolutionary history of species is a dynamic process as they modify, expand and contract their spatial distributions over time. Range expansions (REs) occur through a series of founder events that are followed by migration among neighbouring demes. The process usually results in structured metapopulations and leaves a distinct signature in the genetic variability of species. Explicitly modeling the consequences of complex demographic events such as REs is computationally very intensive. Here we propose an...

Data from: Conserved genes, sampling error, and phylogenomic inference

Ricardo Betancur-R., Gavin J. P. Naylor, Guillermo Ortí & Gavin J.P. Naylor
Disagreement or conflict among phylogenetic hypotheses obtained by analysis of large, genome-wide databases has incited debate over potential benefits, pitfalls, and best practices associated with phylogenomic approaches (Jeffroy, O., Brinkmann, H., et al. 2006, Philippe, H., Derelle, R., et al. 2009, Philippe, H., Brinkmann, H., et al. 2011). In a recent article, Salichos, L. and Rokas, A. (2013; S&R) assert that accuracy of phylogenetic inference from genomic data can be improved by focusing on the...

Data from: Evidence for convergent evolution of ultrasonic hearing in toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti)

Rachel A. Racicot, Robert W. Boessenecker, Simon A.F. Darroch & Jonathan H. Geisler
Toothed whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti) are the most diverse group of modern cetaceans, originating during the Eocene/Oligocene transition ~38 million years ago. All extant odontocetes echolocate; a single origin for this behavior is supported by a unique facial source for ultrasonic vocalizations and a cochlea adapted for hearing the corresponding echoes. The craniofacial and inner ear morphology of Oligocene odontocetes support a rapid (Simocetus and Olympicetus suggest an ability to generate ultrasonic sound, until now, the...

Data from: Genetic identification of source and likely vector of a widespread marine invader

Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M. Kollars, Allan E. Strand, James E. Byers, Sarah J. Shainker, Ryuta Terada, Thomas W. Greig, Marieke Hammann, David C. Murray, Florian Weinberger & Erik E. Sotka
The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs its ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics represents a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors, but can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the...

Founder effects shape linkage disequilibrium and genomic diversity of a partially clonal invader

Ben Flanagan, Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Courtney Murren, Chris Nice, Allan Strand & Erik Sotka
Genomic variation of an invasive species may be affected by complex demographic histories and evolutionary changes during invasions. Here, we describe the relative influence of bottlenecks, clonality, and population expansion in determining genomic variability of the widespread red macroalga Agarophyton vermiculophyllum. Its introduction from mainland Japan to the estuaries of North America and Europe coincided with shifts from predominantly sexual to partially clonal reproduction and rapid adaptive evolution. A survey of 62,285 SNPs for 351...

French (F) and Swedish (S) Founder (P) and Mutation Accumulation Line (MA) performance in France and Sweden

Charles Fenster, Mao-Lun Weng, Jon Agren, Henning Nottebrock, Eric Imbert & Matthew Rutter
Little is empirically known about the contribution of mutations to fitness in natural environments. However, Fisher's Geometric Model (FGM) provides a conceptual foundation to consider the influence of the environment on mutational effects. To quantify mutational properties in the field, we established eight sets of MA lines (7-10 generations) derived from eight founders collected from natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from French and Swedish sites, representing the range margins of the species in Europe. We...

at the altar of memory: Great Irish Famine Memorials in Words and Images

E Moore Quinn
After discussing some of the most important facts and figures pertaining to An Gorta Mór (the Great Irish Famine of 1845-1852), this article turns to some of the images of monuments, crosses, stones and sculptures erected in commemoration of those who succumbed during the period. Alongside the images are travelers' statements, many of which were captured by the author while journeying to 'dark pilgrimage' sites in Ireland, Canada and the United States.

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic plasticity for life-history and less fitness-related traits

Cristina Acasuso-Rivero, Courtney J. Murren, Carl D. Schlichting & Ulrich Karl Steiner
Organisms are faced with variable environments and one of the most common solutions to cope with such variability is phenotypic plasticity, a modification of the phenotype to the environment. These modifications are commonly modelled in evolutionary theories as adaptive, influencing ecological and evolutionary processes. If plasticity is adaptive, we would predict that the closer to fitness a trait is, the less plastic it would be. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of 213...

Data from: It takes two: seasonal variation in sexually dimorphic weaponry results from divergent changes in males and females

Whitney L. Heuring & Melissa Hughes
Sexually dimorphic weaponry often results from intrasexual selection, and weapon size can vary seasonally when costs of bearing the weapon exceed the benefits outside of the reproductive season. Weapons can also be favored in competition over nonreproductive resources such as food or shelter, and if such nonreproductive competition occurs year‐round, weapons may be less likely to vary seasonally. In snapping shrimp (Alpheus angulosus), both sexes have an enlarged snapping claw (a potentially deadly weapon), and...

Data from: Combining niche-shift and population genetic analyses predicts rapid phenotypic evolution during invasion

Erik E. Sotka, Aaron W. Baumgardner, Paige M. Bippus, Claude Destombe, Elizabeth A. Duermit, Hikaru Endo, Ben A. Flanagan, Mits Kamiya, Lauren E. Lees, Courtney J. Murren, Masahiro Nakaoka, Sarah J. Shainker, Allan E. Strand, Ryuta Terada, Myriam Valero, Florian Weinberger, Stacy A. Krueger-Hadfield & Christophe Destombe
Rapid evolution of non-native species can facilitate invasion success, but recent reviews indicate that such microevolution rarely yields expansion of the climatic niche in the introduced habitats. However, because some invasions originate from a geographically restricted portion of the native species range and its climatic niche, it is possible that the frequency, direction and magnitude of phenotypic evolution during invasion has been underestimated. We explored the utility of niche-shift analyses in the red seaweed Gracilaria...

Repeated genetic and adaptive phenotypic divergence across tidal elevation in a foundation plant species

Robyn Zerebecki, Erik E Sotka, Torrance C Hanley, Katherine L. Bell, Catherine Gehring, Chris C. Nice, Christina L. Richards & A Randall Hughes
Microgeographic genetic divergence can create fine-scale trait variation. When such divergence occurs within foundation species, then it might impact community structure and ecosystem function, and cause other cascading ecological effects. We tested for parallel microgeographic trait and genetic divergence in Spartina alterniflora , a foundation species that dominates salt marshes of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Spartina is characterized by tall-form (1-2m) plants at lower tidal elevations and short-form (<0.5m) plants at higher tidal...

Data from: Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Shane Blowes, Jonathan Chase, Antonio Di Franco, Ori Frid, Nicholas Gotelli, Paolo Guidetti, Tiffany Knight, Felix May, Daniel McGlinn, Fiorenza Micheli, Enric Sala & Jonathan Belmaker
1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local-scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Explaining the worldwide distributions of two highly mobile species: Cakile edentula and C. maritima

Roger Cousens, Elliot Shaw, Rachael Fowler, Sara Ohadi, Michael Bayly, Rosemary Barrett, Josquin Tibbits, Allan Strand, Charles Willis, Kathleen Donohue & Philipp Robeck
Aim: If we are able to determine the geographic origin of an invasion, as well as its known area of introduction, we can better appreciate the innate environmental tolerance of a species and the strength of selection for adaptation that colonising populations have undergone. It also enables us to maximise the success of searches for effective biological control agents. We determined the number of successful colonisation events that have occurred throughout the world for two...

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  • College of Charleston
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • Hokkaido University
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Washington
  • Duke University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Gothenburg
  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel