83 Works

Nutrient digestibility and balance studies

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, René Baumont, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Pierre Noziére, Peter Lund, David Humphries & Jan Dijkstra
The nutritional value of a feed for cattle depends on its nutrient and energy contents, the extent of rumen fermentation and degradation, and the post-ruminal digestibility. Efficiency of digestion depends on different factors, for example, the apparent digestibility (estimated by subtracting the nutrients contained in faeces from the nutrients contained in dietary intake – unlike true digestibility where the endogenous and microbial amount is taken into account and corrected in final outcome) usually decreases when...

Pleotropism of gonadotropin action

Manuela Simoni, Elia Paradiso, Véronique Lockhart, Eric Reiter, Livio Casarini, Lucie Pellissier & Pascale Crépieux

Defining Agroecology: Exploring the Circulation of Knowledge in FAO’s Global Dialogue

Allison Loconto & Eve Fouilleux
This article traces how ‘agroecology’ is co-produced as a global socio-technical object. The site of co-production, the Global Dialogue on Agroecology, was convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in different cities around the world between 2014 and 2018 (Rome 2014; Brasilia, Dakar, Bangkok 2015; La Paz, Kunming, Budapest 2016; Rome 2018). We analyze these ‘expert’ symposia and regional meetings by exploring how knowledge about agroecology circulates and frames the...

Les circuits courts distants approvisionnant Paris

Adrien Baysse-Lainé & Pierre Guillemin

Quantifying heritability and estimating evolutionary potential in the wild when individuals that share genes also share environments

Laura Gervais, Nicolas Morellet, Ingrid David, Mark Hewison, Denis Reale, Michel Goulard, Yannick Chaval, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Joel Merlet, Erwan Quéméré & Benoit Pujol
Accurate heritability estimates for fitness-related traits are required to predict an organism’s ability to respond to global change. Heritability estimates are theoretically expected to be inflated if, due to limited dispersal, individuals that share genes are also likely to share similar environments. However, if relatives occupy similar environments due, at least partly, to genetic variation for habitat selection, then accounting for environmental similarity in quantitative genetic models may result in diminished heritability estimates in wild...

Data from: Variations in bark structural properties affect both water loss and carbon economics in neotropical savanna trees in the Cerrado region of Brazil

Paulo Eduardo Menezes-Silva, Lucas Loram-Lourenço, Fernanda Santos Farnese, Bruno Matheus Mendes Dario, Ana Claudia Martins, Marina Alves Aun, Priscila Ferreira Batista, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Hervé Cochard & Augusto Cesar Franco
Even after complete stomatal closure, plants lose water through the leaf cuticles and bark. This residual water conductance of leaves (gleaf-res) and stems (gbark) can negatively impact plant water balance and affect plant survival in seasonally dry environments. However, little is known about the costs and benefits associated with such water leaks, especially on stem level. Here, we characterized the structural and functional determinants of the variability in gbark across tropical savanna species to elucidate...

Moths and butterflies on alien shores – global biogeography of non-native Lepidoptera

Richard Mally, Rebecca M. Turner, Rachael E. Blake, Gyda Fenn-Moltu, Cleo Bertelsmeier, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff, Robert J. B. Hoare, Helen F. Nahrung, Alain Roques, Deepa S. Pureswaran, Takehiko Yamanaka & Andrew M. Liebhold
Lepidoptera is a highly diverse, predominantly herbivorous insect order, with species transported to outside their native range largely facilitated by the global trade of plants and plant-based goods. Analogous to island disharmony, we examine invasion disharmony, where species filtering during invasions increases systematic compositional differences between native and non-native species assemblages, and test whether some families are more successful at establishing in non-native regions than others. We compared numbers of non-native, unintentionally introduced Lepidoptera species...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Land use changes threaten bird taxonomic and functional diversity across the Mediterranean basin: a spatial analysis to prioritize monitoring for conservation

Johanna Fusco, Walker Emily, Papaïx Julien, Debolini Marta, Bondeau Alberte & Barnagaud Jean-Yves
Land use changes rank among the highest threats to biodiversity, but assessment of their ecological impact is impaired by data paucity in vast regions of the world. For birds, land use changes may mean habitat loss or fragmentation, changes in resource availability and disruption of biotic interactions or dispersal pathways. As a result, avian population sizes and assemblage diversity decline in areas subjected to urbanization, agricultural intensification and land abandonment worldwide. This threat is especially...

Pathogen-mediated selection favours the maintenance of innate immunity gene polymorphism in a widespread wild ungulate

Erwan Quéméré, Pauline Hessenauer, Maxime Galan, Marie Fernandez, Joël Merlet, Yannick Chaval, Nicolas Morellet, Hélène Verheyden, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont & Nathalie Charbonnel
Toll-like Receptors (TLR) play a central role in recognition and host frontline defence against a wide range of pathogens. A number of recent studies have shown that TLR genes (Tlrs) often exhibit large polymorphism in natural populations. Yet, there is little knowledge on how this polymorphism is maintained and how it influences disease susceptibility in the wild. In previous work, we showed that some Tlrs exhibit similarly high levels of genetic diversity as genes of...

Agroecosystem diversification with legumes or non-legumes improves differently soil fertility according to soil type

Marie Sauvadet, Jean Trap, Gaëlle Damour, Claude Plassard, Karel Van Den Meersche, Raphaël Achard, Clémentine Allinne, Patrice Autfray, Isabelle Bertrand, Eric Blanchart, Péninna Deberdt, Séguy Enock, Jean-Daniel Essobo, Grégoire Freschet, Mickaël Hedde, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho, Bodovololona Rabary, Miora Rakotoarivelo, Richard Randriamanantsoa, Béatrice Rhino, Aude Ripoche, Elisabeth Rosalie, Stéphane Saj, Thierry Becquer, Philippe Tixier … & Jean-Michel Harmand
Plant diversification through crop rotation or agroforestry is a promising way to improve sustainability of agroecosystems. Nonetheless, criteria to select the most suitable plant communities for agroecosystems diversification facing contrasting environmental constraints need to be refined. Here, we compared the impacts of 24 different plant communities on soil fertility across six tropical agroecosystems: either on highly weathered Ferralsols, with strong P limitation, or on partially weathered soils derived from volcanic material, with major N limitation....

Le jeu de rôle prospectif et participatif comme sensibilisation à une approche collective de l’adaptation au changement climatique pour la filière vigne et vin

Hervé Hannin, Jean-Marc Touzard & Marc Nougier
Pour l’Institut des Hautes Études de la Vigne et du Vin de Montpellier SupAgro, le défi était de prendre en compte une problématique aussi transversale que celle du changement climatique, son impact sur les cultures, les changements organisationnels qu’il va nécessairement engendrer, au milieu de modules de formations très spécialisés. À la rentrée 2019/2020, les étudiant.es ingénieur·es en M2 viticulture-œnologie se sont vu.es proposer un jeu de rôle. Par 5 à 7 étudiant.es, chaque groupe...

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique

Yvanne Rochette, Arjan Jonker, Peter Moate, Amélie Vanlierde & Cécile Martin
A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...

Detecting selection using extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH)-based statistics in unphased or unpolarized data

Alexander Klassmann & Mathieu Gautier
Analysis of population genetic data often includes the search for genomic regions with signs of recent positive selection. One of the approaches involves the concept of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) and its associated statistics. These statistics typically need phased haplotypes and, some of them, polarized variants. Here, we unify and extend previously proposed modifications to loosen these requirements. We compare the modified versions with the original ones by measuring the False Discovery Rate in simulated...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the species range reflects recent colonization of high elevation habitats in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)

Enikő I. Major, Mária Höhn, Camilla Avanzi, Bruno Fady, Katrin Heer, Lars Opgenoorth, Andrea Piotti, Flaviu Popescu, Dragos Postolache, Giovanni G. Vendramin & Katalin Csilléry
Variation in genetic diversity across species ranges has long been recognized as highly informative for assessing populations’ resilience and adaptive potential. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity within populations, referred to as fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), also carries information about recent demographic changes, yet it has rarely been connected to range scale processes. We studied eight silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) population pairs (sites), growing at high and low elevations, representative of the main...

Data for: Advanced infections by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus encourage whitefly vector colonization while discouraging non-vector aphid competitors

Kerry Mauck, Quentin Chesnais & Penglin Sun
Plant viruses can change hosts in ways that increase vector contacts, virion acquisition, and subsequent vector dispersal to susceptible hosts. Based on this, researchers have proposed that virus-induced phenotypes are the product of adaptations to “manipulate” hosts in ways that increase transmission. Theoretical models of virus spread in crops support this proposition; “manipulative” viruses spread faster and to a greater extent. However, both empirical and theoretical studies on manipulation are disproportionately focused on a few...

A trait-based framework for predicting foodborne pathogen risk from wild birds

Olivia Smith, Elissa Olimpi, Nora Navarro-González, Kevin Cornell, Luke Frishkoff, Tobin Northfield, Timothy Bowles, Max Edworthy, Johnna Eilers, Zhen Fu, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Matthew Jones, Christina Kennedy, Christopher Latimer, Jeb Owen, Chika Sato, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson Rankin, William Snyder & Daniel Karp
Recent foodborne illness outbreaks have heightened pressures on growers to deter wildlife from farms, jeopardizing conservation efforts. However, it remains unclear which species, particularly birds, pose the greatest risk to food safety. Using >11,000 pathogen tests and 1,565 bird surveys covering 139 bird species from across the western U.S.A., we examined the importance of 11 traits in mediating wild bird risk to food safety. We tested whether traits associated with pathogen exposure (e.g., habitat associations,...

When expansion stalls: an extension to the concept of range pinning in ecology

Thibaut Morel-Journel, Marjorie Haond, Laurent Lamy, David Muru, Lionel Roques, Ludovic Mailleret & Elodie Vercken
Identifying the factors modulating range expansion is essential to accurately predict changes in the spatial distribution of populations. By preventing population growth after dispersal, Allee effects can lead to front stops in discrete space, called ’pinning’ if permanent. However, other mechanisms, such as positive density-dependent dispersal, have also been shown to affect the rate of range expansion and generate discrete-space front stops, albeit temporarily. In this study, we investigated the stability of the front stops...

Unique and shared effects of local and catchment predictors over distribution of hyporheic organisms: does the valley rule the stream?

Samuel Mouron, David Eme, Arnaud Bellec, Mélanie Bertrand, Stefano Mammola, Fréderic Liébault, Christophe J. Douady & Florian Malard
This dataset describe the distribution of two hyporheic crustacean taxa (Bogidiellidae, Amphipoda and Anthuridae, Isopoda) in streams of New Caledonia. We sampled the two taxa at 228 sites. At each site, we quantified nine local predictors related to habitat area and stability, sediment metabolism and water origin, and eight catchment predictors related to geology, area, primary productivity, land use and specific discharge.

Bryophyte microecosystem experiment

Adam Vanbergen, Claire Boissieres, Alan Gray & Daniel Chapman
Ecosystems face multiple, potentially interacting, anthropogenic pressures that can modify biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a bryophyte-microarthropod microecosystem we tested the combined effects of habitat loss, episodic heat-shocks and an introduced non-native apex predator on ecosystem function (chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of photosystem II function) and microarthropod communities (abundance and body size). Photosynthetic function was degraded by the sequence of heat-shock episodes, but unaffected by microecosystem patch size or top-down pressure from the introduced...

Data from: Land-use legacies influence tree water-use efficiency and nitrogen dynamics in recently established European forests

Rossella Guerrieri, Marta Correia, Irene Martín-Forés, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Joan Pino, Arndt Hampe, Fernando Valladares & Josep Espelta
1. Forest regrowth following farmland (agriculture and pasture) abandonment has been positively associated with a number of processes including the regulation of hydrological cycling, the enhancement of soil functioning, and an increase in forest productivity and carbon (C) sequestration. Although these changes in ecosystem functioning post-farmland abandonment have been observed in multiple locations and studies, the ecophysiological basis underpinning these patterns remains unclear. Here, we examine whether increased forest expansion following pastureland abandonment is associated...

How to quantify factors degrading DNA in the environment and predict degradation for effective sampling design

Thomas Naef, Anne-Laure Besnard, Lisa Lehnen, Eric J. Petit, Jaap Van Schaik & Sebastien J. Puechmaille
Extra-organismal DNA (eoDNA) from material left behind by organisms (non-invasive DNA: e.g., faeces, hair) or from environmental samples (eDNA: e.g., water, soil) is a valuable source of genetic information. However, the relatively low quality and quantity of eoDNA, which can be further degraded by environmental factors, results in reduced amplification and sequencing success. This is often compensated for through cost- and time-intensive replications of genotyping/sequencing procedures. Therefore, system- and site-specific quantifications of environmental degradation are...

Place des agricultures européennes dans le monde à l’horizon 2050

Anaïs Tibi, Agneta Forslund, Philippe Debaeke , Bertrand Schmitt & Hervé Guyomard


Philippe Chemineau
Generally, one of the main areas for progress in science is the exchange of methods and techniques amongst laboratories working in the same area. Sharing methods does not limit discoveries made by different research groups, often in competition, but can accelerate them. In life sciences, the situation is different, and how methods are shared, depends on the specialist field concerned. The aim of this book is to share methods for investigation of physiology and behaviour...

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  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
  • Aarhus University
  • Scotland's Rural College
  • University of Reading
  • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Adelaide