35 Works

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique

Yvanne Rochette, Arjan Jonker, Peter Moate, Amélie Vanlierde & Cécile Martin
A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...

Data from: Land-use legacies influence tree water-use efficiency and nitrogen dynamics in recently established European forests

Rossella Guerrieri, Marta Correia, Irene Martín-Forés, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Joan Pino, Arndt Hampe, Fernando Valladares & Josep Espelta
1. Forest regrowth following farmland (agriculture and pasture) abandonment has been positively associated with a number of processes including the regulation of hydrological cycling, the enhancement of soil functioning, and an increase in forest productivity and carbon (C) sequestration. Although these changes in ecosystem functioning post-farmland abandonment have been observed in multiple locations and studies, the ecophysiological basis underpinning these patterns remains unclear. Here, we examine whether increased forest expansion following pastureland abandonment is associated...

Bryophyte microecosystem experiment

Adam Vanbergen, Claire Boissieres, Alan Gray & Daniel Chapman
Ecosystems face multiple, potentially interacting, anthropogenic pressures that can modify biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a bryophyte-microarthropod microecosystem we tested the combined effects of habitat loss, episodic heat-shocks and an introduced non-native apex predator on ecosystem function (chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of photosystem II function) and microarthropod communities (abundance and body size). Photosynthetic function was degraded by the sequence of heat-shock episodes, but unaffected by microecosystem patch size or top-down pressure from the introduced...

Nutrient digestibility and balance studies

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, René Baumont, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Pierre Noziére, Peter Lund, David Humphries & Jan Dijkstra
The nutritional value of a feed for cattle depends on its nutrient and energy contents, the extent of rumen fermentation and degradation, and the post-ruminal digestibility. Efficiency of digestion depends on different factors, for example, the apparent digestibility (estimated by subtracting the nutrients contained in faeces from the nutrients contained in dietary intake – unlike true digestibility where the endogenous and microbial amount is taken into account and corrected in final outcome) usually decreases when...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Defining Agroecology: Exploring the Circulation of Knowledge in FAO’s Global Dialogue

Allison Loconto & Eve Fouilleux
This article traces how ‘agroecology’ is co-produced as a global socio-technical object. The site of co-production, the Global Dialogue on Agroecology, was convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in different cities around the world between 2014 and 2018 (Rome 2014; Brasilia, Dakar, Bangkok 2015; La Paz, Kunming, Budapest 2016; Rome 2018). We analyze these ‘expert’ symposia and regional meetings by exploring how knowledge about agroecology circulates and frames the...

Land use changes threaten bird taxonomic and functional diversity across the Mediterranean basin: a spatial analysis to prioritize monitoring for conservation

Johanna Fusco, Walker Emily, Papaïx Julien, Debolini Marta, Bondeau Alberte & Barnagaud Jean-Yves
Land use changes rank among the highest threats to biodiversity, but assessment of their ecological impact is impaired by data paucity in vast regions of the world. For birds, land use changes may mean habitat loss or fragmentation, changes in resource availability and disruption of biotic interactions or dispersal pathways. As a result, avian population sizes and assemblage diversity decline in areas subjected to urbanization, agricultural intensification and land abandonment worldwide. This threat is especially...

Pleotropism of gonadotropin action

Manuela Simoni, Elia Paradiso, Véronique Lockhart, Eric Reiter, Livio Casarini, Lucie Pellissier & Pascale Crépieux

Least‐cost path analysis for urban greenways planning: a test with moths and birds across two habitats and two cities

Manon Balbi, Solène Croci, Eric J. Petit, Alain Butet, Romain Georges, Luc Madec, Jean-Pierre Caudal & Aude Ernoult
1. One of the major planning tools to respond to urban landscape fragmentation is the development of ecological corridors, i.e. interconnected networks of urban green and blue spaces. Least-cost paths (LCP) appear to be an easy and appropriate resistance-based modeling method to respond to urban planners’ needs. However, the ecological validation of urban corridors using LCP is rarely performed and needs to be generalized to different species, habitats and cities. 2. We developed an experimental...

Weak founder effects but significant spatial genetic imprint of recent contraction and expansion of European beech populations.

Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Tonya Lander, Etienne Klein & Anne Roig
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes occurring during species range shifts is important in the current context of global change. Here, we investigate the interplay between recent expansion, gene flow and genetic drift, and their consequences for genetic diversity and structure at landscape and local scales in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) On Mont Ventoux, South-Eastern France, we located beech forest refugia at the time of the most recent population minimum, approximately 150 years ago,...

Competition and facilitation among fungal plant parasites affect their life-history traits

Agathe Dutt, Rault Anthony, Didier Andrivon, Stéphane Jumel, Gwenola Le Roy, Alain Baranger, Melen Leclerc & Christophe Le May
Multi-infections may result in either competitive exclusion or coexistence on the same host of pathogen genotypes belonging to the same or different species. Epidemiological consequences of multiple infections, particularly how the development and transmission of a pathogen can be modified by the presence of another pathogen, are well documented. However, understanding how life history strategies of each pathogen modulate co-infection outcomes remains quite elusive. To analyze how co-infection drives changes in life history traits and...

Milk intake, body anatomy and composition in calves

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Dominique Pomies, Volker Röttgen, Björn Kuhla, Stefan Nüske, Alex Bach & Armin M. Scholz
Calves are an important investment on a cattle farm as their loss can cause substantial financial damage. Young calves are susceptible to a range of different diseases caused by pathogens, which can lead to morbidity and mortality. Additionally, calf management, including cow-calf separation, colostrum feeding, housing, dehorning and vaccination, can directly impact the health of calves. This chapter is therefore dedicated to different methods for assessing specific traits in calves. The current focus in calf...

Greenfeed systems

Cécile Martin, Yvanne Rochette, David Humphries & Gilles Renand
The GreenFeed (GF) system spot samples the breath of individual animals for short periods (3–7 min), at various times of the day, over several days, weeks, or months to measure methane production. To obtain a diurnal CH4 emission pattern from the GF system, the animal visits need to be appropriately distributed over a 24 h feeding cycle. This can be difficult to achieve as the number of visits is greater during certain hours of the...

Lameness detection and scoring

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Juan Haladjian, Stefan Nüske, Dorothée Ledoux, Dave Humphries, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Enting concluded lameness, from an economic perspective, as the third most costly health disease, following mastitis and reproductive failure issues, in cattle units. Archer estimated the incidence rate of lameness in the United Kingdom cattle herds roughly 50 cases/100 cows in a year; nevertheless, due to poor correlation between incidence rates and records of treatments in farms, the actual number seems to be higher. Surprisingly, the significance of lameness associated with cattle welfare, health and...

Adaptive population structure shifts in invasive parasitic mites, Varroa destructor

Arrigo Moro, Tjeerd Blacquière, Bjorn Dahle, Vincent Dietemann, Yves Le Conte, Locke Barbara, Peter Neumann & Alexis Beaurepaire
Comparative studies of genetic diversity and population structure can shed light on the ecological and evolutionary factors governing host–parasite interactions. Even though invasive parasites are considered of major biological importance, little is known about their adaptive potential when infesting the new hosts. Here, the genetic diversification of Varroa destructor, a novel parasite of Apis mellifera originating from Asia, was investigated using population genetics to determine how the genetic structure of the parasite changed in distinct...

How to make a little worm pump like a big worm

Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Alexander P. Gerhard, Jürgen Krücken, Claude Charvet & cedric neveu

Populations of arable weed species show intra-specific variability in germination base temperature but not in early growth rate

Jana Bürger & Nathalie Colbach
Key plant traits affecting growth performance can differ among and within species, influencing competitive plant community dynamics. We determined the intra-specific variability of germination base temperature among 13 arable weed species and the seedlings’ early post-emergence relative growth rate among 21 species in climate chamber and green house experiments. Intra-specific variability was quantified with two seed populations (originating from contrasting climate in Germany & France) for the germination base temperature of 6 species and for...

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient.

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Data from: As time goes by: 20 years of changes in the aquatic macroinvertebrate metacommunity of Mediterranean river networks

Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Cayetano Guitiérrez-Cánovas, Raul Acosta, Daniel Castro, Núria Cid, Pau Fortuño, Antoni Munné, Cesc Múrria, Rita Rodrigues, Romain Sarremejane, Maria Soria, Pol Tarrats, Iraima Verkaik, Narcís Prat & Núria Bonada
Aim: to analyse temporal metacommunity dynamics in river networks in relation to hydrological conditions and dispersal. Location: 15 river reaches from the Llobregat, Besòs and Foix catchments in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Taxon: aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 99 different families. Methods: we sampled aquatic macroinvertebrate communities during spring in 20 consecutive years. We built two environmental distances (one related with water chemistry and another one with river flow regime) and two spatial distances (network distance...

Data from: Spontaneous forest regrowth in South-West Europe: consequences for nature’s contributions to people

Irene Martín-Forés, Sandra Magro, Andres Bravo-Oviedo, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Josep M. Espelta, Theresa Frei, Elena Valdés-Correcher, Carmen Rodríguez Fernández-Blanco, Georg Winkel, Gabriel Gerzabek, Arndt Hampe & Fernando Valladares
Context European forests are expanding and becoming denser following the widespread abandonment of farmland and rural areas. Yet, little is known about the goods and services that spontaneous forest regrowth provide to people. Aims We assessed the changes in nature’s contributions to people (NCP) from spontaneous forest regrowth, i.e. forest expansion and densification, in South-West Europe. Methods We investigated 65 forest plots in four different landscapes with contrasting ecological and societal contexts. Two landscapes are...

Fonio millet genome unlocks African orphan crop diversity for agriculture in a changing climate

Michael Abrouk, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Philippe Cubry, Denisa Šimoníková, Stéphane Cauet, Yveline Pailles, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Liubov Gapa, Nora Scarcelli, Marie Couderc, Leila Zekraoui, Nagarajan Kathiresan, Jana Čížková, Eva Hřibová, Jaroslav Doležel, Sandrine Arribat, Hélène Bergès, Jan Wieringa, Mathieu Gueye, Ndjido Kane, Christian Leclerc, Sandrine Causse, Sylvie Vancoppenolle, Claire Billot, Thomas Wicker … & Simon Krattinger
Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we established high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure,...

Genotype, spatial and morphological data of adults and progeny in a natural population of Leucadendron rubrum

Jeanne Tonnabel, Etienne K. Klein, Ophélie Ronce, Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, François Rousset, Isabelle Olivieri, Alexandre Courtiol & Agnès Mignot
We provide a dataset containing data on both female and male plants measured in a natural population of Leucadendron rubrum about plant architecture, and leaf morphology, thus informing about sexual dimorphism in this species. Genotypes of these males and females on eight microsatellites combined with corresponding genotype data in their progeny permits to undertake parentage analyses. Finally, the spatial distribution of both parents and juveniles allows to account for potential spatial biases in sampling juveniles...

Do ecological specialization and functional traits explain the abundance–frequency relationship? Arable weeds as a case study

Guillaume Fried, Laura Armengot, Jonathan Storkey, Bérenger Bourgeois, Sabrina Gaba, Cyrille Violle & François Munoz
Aim: The abundance-frequency relationship (AFR) is among the most-investigated pattern in biogeography, yet the relative contributions of niche-based processes related to ecological strategies, and of neutral processes related to spatial colonization-extinction dynamics, remains uncertain. Here, we tested the influences of ecological specialization and functional traits on local abundance and regional frequency, to determine the contribution of niche-based processes. Location: France and the UK. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: We used two arable weed surveys covering 1544...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    15
  • 2020
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    19
  • Text
    16

Affiliations

  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    35
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
    10
  • Aarhus University
    8
  • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
    6
  • University of Reading
    5
  • Wageningen University & Research
    4
  • Scotland's Rural College
    3
  • University of Adelaide
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • Wilfrid Laurier University
    2