20 Works

Nutrient digestibility and balance studies

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Björn Kuhla, René Baumont, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Pierre Noziére, Peter Lund, David Humphries & Jan Dijkstra
The nutritional value of a feed for cattle depends on its nutrient and energy contents, the extent of rumen fermentation and degradation, and the post-ruminal digestibility. Efficiency of digestion depends on different factors, for example, the apparent digestibility (estimated by subtracting the nutrients contained in faeces from the nutrients contained in dietary intake – unlike true digestibility where the endogenous and microbial amount is taken into account and corrected in final outcome) usually decreases when...

Adaptation to drought is coupled with slow growth, but independent from phenology in marginal silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations

Katalin Csillery, Nina Buchmann & Bruno Fady
Drought is one of the most important selection pressures for forest trees in the context of climate change. Yet, the different evolutionary mechanisms, and their environmental drivers, by which certain populations become more drought tolerant than others is still little understood. We studied adaptation to drought in 16 silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations from the French Mediterranean Alps by combining observations on seedlings from a large scale greenhouse experiment (N=8199) and on adult tress...

Defining Agroecology: Exploring the Circulation of Knowledge in FAO’s Global Dialogue

Allison Loconto & Eve Fouilleux
This article traces how ‘agroecology’ is co-produced as a global socio-technical object. The site of co-production, the Global Dialogue on Agroecology, was convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in different cities around the world between 2014 and 2018 (Rome 2014; Brasilia, Dakar, Bangkok 2015; La Paz, Kunming, Budapest 2016; Rome 2018). We analyze these ‘expert’ symposia and regional meetings by exploring how knowledge about agroecology circulates and frames the...

Complex biotic interactions mediated by shrubs: revisiting the stress-gradient hypothesis and consequences for tree seedling survival

Arthur Guignabert, Laurent Augusto, Maya Gonzalez, Christophe Chipeaux & Florian Delerue
1. Using nurse shrubs to improve tree seedling establishment in stressed environments is a common practice in forestry. Recent refinements of the stress-gradient hypothesis suggest that positive nurse effects occur under intermediate stress and decline in the harshest conditions. Additionally, indirect facilitation is expected in low-stressed/productive systems according to the initial stress-gradient hypothesis. However, there have been fewer investigations into the use of nurse shrubs to decrease herbivore impacts in stressed systems compared with the...

Foreword

Philippe Chemineau
Generally, one of the main areas for progress in science is the exchange of methods and techniques amongst laboratories working in the same area. Sharing methods does not limit discoveries made by different research groups, often in competition, but can accelerate them. In life sciences, the situation is different, and how methods are shared, depends on the specialist field concerned. The aim of this book is to share methods for investigation of physiology and behaviour...

Data from: Canonical correlations reveal adaptive loci and phenotypic responses to climate in perennial ryegrass

José L. Blanco-Pastor, Philippe Barre, Thomas Keep, Thomas Ledauphin, Abraham Escobar-Gutiérrez, Anna Maria Roschanski, Evelyn Willner, Klaus Dehmer, Matthew Hegarty, Hilde Muylle, Elisabeth Veeckman, Klaas Vandepoele, Tom Ruttink, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Stéphanie Manel & Jean-Paul Sampoux
Germplasm from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) natural populations is useful for breeding because of its adaptation to a wide range of climates. Climate-adaptive genes can be detected from associations between genotype, phenotype and climate but an integrated framework for the analysis of these three sources of information is lacking. We used two approaches to identify adaptive loci in perennial ryegrass and their effect on phenotypic traits. First, we combined Genome-Environment Association (GEA) and GWAS...

The shape of the predator biomass distribution affects biological pest control services in agricultural landscapes

Noémie Ostandie, Lucile Muneret, Brice Giffard, Denis Thiéry & Adrien Rusch
1. Understanding how community composition of service-providing organisms affects ecosystem functioning is a key challenge in ecology. Although it has been proposed that taxonomic diversity and functional traits mediate this relationship, how several facets of community structure affect the delivery of key ecosystem services remains to be explored. 2. In this study, we investigated how abundance, taxonomic richness as well as the shape of biomass distribution in predator communities affect biological pest control services in...

Respiratory chamber facility

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Karen Beauchemin, Cécile Martin, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Gemma Miller, David Humphries & Marcel Heetkamp
This guideline will highlight the key steps required when measuring gas exchange of cattle for the estimation of methane emission and heat production (by estimating the relation of emitted CO2 and CH4 to the consumed O2) via a respiration chamber (RC). The authors acknowledge the variation in RC design in different experimental units, and therefore, the mentioned steps within this guideline are common and essential for all. Note that a CO2 and/or CH4 recovery test...

Least‐cost path analysis for urban greenways planning: a test with moths and birds across two habitats and two cities

Manon Balbi, Solène Croci, Eric J. Petit, Alain Butet, Romain Georges, Luc Madec, Jean-Pierre Caudal & Aude Ernoult
1. One of the major planning tools to respond to urban landscape fragmentation is the development of ecological corridors, i.e. interconnected networks of urban green and blue spaces. Least-cost paths (LCP) appear to be an easy and appropriate resistance-based modeling method to respond to urban planners’ needs. However, the ecological validation of urban corridors using LCP is rarely performed and needs to be generalized to different species, habitats and cities. 2. We developed an experimental...

Weak founder effects but significant spatial genetic imprint of recent contraction and expansion of European beech populations.

Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Tonya Lander, Etienne Klein & Anne Roig
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes occurring during species range shifts is important in the current context of global change. Here, we investigate the interplay between recent expansion, gene flow and genetic drift, and their consequences for genetic diversity and structure at landscape and local scales in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) On Mont Ventoux, South-Eastern France, we located beech forest refugia at the time of the most recent population minimum, approximately 150 years ago,...

Milk intake, body anatomy and composition in calves

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Dominique Pomies, Volker Röttgen, Björn Kuhla, Stefan Nüske, Alex Bach & Armin M. Scholz
Calves are an important investment on a cattle farm as their loss can cause substantial financial damage. Young calves are susceptible to a range of different diseases caused by pathogens, which can lead to morbidity and mortality. Additionally, calf management, including cow-calf separation, colostrum feeding, housing, dehorning and vaccination, can directly impact the health of calves. This chapter is therefore dedicated to different methods for assessing specific traits in calves. The current focus in calf...

Greenfeed systems

Cécile Martin, Yvanne Rochette, David Humphries & Gilles Renand
The GreenFeed (GF) system spot samples the breath of individual animals for short periods (3–7 min), at various times of the day, over several days, weeks, or months to measure methane production. To obtain a diurnal CH4 emission pattern from the GF system, the animal visits need to be appropriately distributed over a 24 h feeding cycle. This can be difficult to achieve as the number of visits is greater during certain hours of the...

Lameness detection and scoring

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Juan Haladjian, Stefan Nüske, Dorothée Ledoux, Dave Humphries, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Enting concluded lameness, from an economic perspective, as the third most costly health disease, following mastitis and reproductive failure issues, in cattle units. Archer estimated the incidence rate of lameness in the United Kingdom cattle herds roughly 50 cases/100 cows in a year; nevertheless, due to poor correlation between incidence rates and records of treatments in farms, the actual number seems to be higher. Surprisingly, the significance of lameness associated with cattle welfare, health and...

Populations of arable weed species show intra-specific variability in germination base temperature but not in early growth rate

Jana Bürger & Nathalie Colbach
Key plant traits affecting growth performance can differ among and within species, influencing competitive plant community dynamics. We determined the intra-specific variability of germination base temperature among 13 arable weed species and the seedlings’ early post-emergence relative growth rate among 21 species in climate chamber and green house experiments. Intra-specific variability was quantified with two seed populations (originating from contrasting climate in Germany & France) for the germination base temperature of 6 species and for...

The gas recovery test of respiratory chambers

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Michael Derno, Björn Kuhla, Marcel Heetkamp, Gemma Miller, David Humphries, Frederic Anglard, Yvanne Rochette, Cécile Martin, Tom Gardiner & Marc Coleman
Respiratory Chambers (RCs) were originally constructed with the purpose to study heat production from animals by quantifying oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production (initially detailed in the 18th century by Lavoisier and Leplace. Enteric methane (CH4) is measured in calorimetry studies, as CH4 is an energy loss. The RC can therefore be used to quantify the CH4 production from animals, and many new RC units have been constructed during the last decades with...

Data from: Spontaneous forest regrowth in South-West Europe: consequences for nature’s contributions to people

Irene Martín-Forés, Sandra Magro, Andres Bravo-Oviedo, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Josep M. Espelta, Theresa Frei, Elena Valdés-Correcher, Carmen Rodríguez Fernández-Blanco, Georg Winkel, Gabriel Gerzabek, Arndt Hampe & Fernando Valladares
Context European forests are expanding and becoming denser following the widespread abandonment of farmland and rural areas. Yet, little is known about the goods and services that spontaneous forest regrowth provide to people. Aims We assessed the changes in nature’s contributions to people (NCP) from spontaneous forest regrowth, i.e. forest expansion and densification, in South-West Europe. Methods We investigated 65 forest plots in four different landscapes with contrasting ecological and societal contexts. Two landscapes are...

Fonio millet genome unlocks African orphan crop diversity for agriculture in a changing climate

Michael Abrouk, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Philippe Cubry, Denisa Šimoníková, Stéphane Cauet, Yveline Pailles, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Liubov Gapa, Nora Scarcelli, Marie Couderc, Leila Zekraoui, Nagarajan Kathiresan, Jana Čížková, Eva Hřibová, Jaroslav Doležel, Sandrine Arribat, Hélène Bergès, Jan Wieringa, Mathieu Gueye, Ndjido Kane, Christian Leclerc, Sandrine Causse, Sylvie Vancoppenolle, Claire Billot, Thomas Wicker … & Simon Krattinger
Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we established high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure,...

Data from: As time goes by: 20 years of changes in the aquatic macroinvertebrate metacommunity of Mediterranean river networks

Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Cayetano Guitiérrez-Cánovas, Raul Acosta, Daniel Castro, Núria Cid, Pau Fortuño, Antoni Munné, Cesc Múrria, Rita Rodrigues, Romain Sarremejane, Maria Soria, Pol Tarrats, Iraima Verkaik, Narcís Prat & Núria Bonada
Aim: to analyse temporal metacommunity dynamics in river networks in relation to hydrological conditions and dispersal. Location: 15 river reaches from the Llobregat, Besòs and Foix catchments in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Taxon: aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 99 different families. Methods: we sampled aquatic macroinvertebrate communities during spring in 20 consecutive years. We built two environmental distances (one related with water chemistry and another one with river flow regime) and two spatial distances (network distance...

European soil seed bank communities across a climate and land-cover gradient

Jan Plue, Hans Van Calster, Inger Auestad, Sofia Basto, Reneé M. Bekker, Hans Henrik Bruun, Richard Chevalier, Guillaume Decocq, Ulf Grandin, Martin Hermy, Hans Jacquemyn, Anna Jakobsson, Rein Kalamees, Rob H. Marrs, Bryndis Marteinsdóttir, Per Milberg, Robin J. Pakeman, Gareth Phoenix, Ken Thompson, Vigdis Vandvik, Markus Wagner, Sara A.O. Cousins, Ove Eriksson, Jamshid Ghorbani, Małgorzata Jankowska-Błaszczuk … & Alistair G. Auffret
This is the data set used for the publication Buffering effects of soil seed banks on plant community composition in response to land use and climate, published in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. Aim. Climate and land use are key determinants of biodiversity, with past and ongoing changes posing serious threats to global ecosystems. Unlike most other organism groups, plant species can possess dormant life-history stages such as soil seed banks, which may help...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    11
  • Text
    9

Affiliations

  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    20
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
    5
  • Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology
    5
  • Aarhus University
    4
  • University of Reading
    4
  • Wageningen University & Research
    2
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    2
  • University of Adelaide
    1
  • University of Hohenheim
    1
  • Ghent University
    1