47 Works

Pathogen-mediated selection favours the maintenance of innate immunity gene polymorphism in a widespread wild ungulate

Erwan Quéméré, Pauline Hessenauer, Maxime Galan, Marie Fernandez, Joël Merlet, Yannick Chaval, Nicolas Morellet, Hélène Verheyden, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont & Nathalie Charbonnel
Toll-like Receptors (TLR) play a central role in recognition and host frontline defence against a wide range of pathogens. A number of recent studies have shown that TLR genes (Tlrs) often exhibit large polymorphism in natural populations. Yet, there is little knowledge on how this polymorphism is maintained and how it influences disease susceptibility in the wild. In previous work, we showed that some Tlrs exhibit similarly high levels of genetic diversity as genes of...

Land use changes threaten bird taxonomic and functional diversity across the Mediterranean basin: a spatial analysis to prioritize monitoring for conservation

Johanna Fusco, Walker Emily, Papaïx Julien, Debolini Marta, Bondeau Alberte & Barnagaud Jean-Yves
Land use changes rank among the highest threats to biodiversity, but assessment of their ecological impact is impaired by data paucity in vast regions of the world. For birds, land use changes may mean habitat loss or fragmentation, changes in resource availability and disruption of biotic interactions or dispersal pathways. As a result, avian population sizes and assemblage diversity decline in areas subjected to urbanization, agricultural intensification and land abandonment worldwide. This threat is especially...

Agroecosystem diversification with legumes or non-legumes improves differently soil fertility according to soil type

Marie Sauvadet, Jean Trap, Gaëlle Damour, Claude Plassard, Karel Van Den Meersche, Raphaël Achard, Clémentine Allinne, Patrice Autfray, Isabelle Bertrand, Eric Blanchart, Péninna Deberdt, Séguy Enock, Jean-Daniel Essobo, Grégoire Freschet, Mickaël Hedde, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho, Bodovololona Rabary, Miora Rakotoarivelo, Richard Randriamanantsoa, Béatrice Rhino, Aude Ripoche, Elisabeth Rosalie, Stéphane Saj, Thierry Becquer, Philippe Tixier … & Jean-Michel Harmand
Plant diversification through crop rotation or agroforestry is a promising way to improve sustainability of agroecosystems. Nonetheless, criteria to select the most suitable plant communities for agroecosystems diversification facing contrasting environmental constraints need to be refined. Here, we compared the impacts of 24 different plant communities on soil fertility across six tropical agroecosystems: either on highly weathered Ferralsols, with strong P limitation, or on partially weathered soils derived from volcanic material, with major N limitation....

Pleotropism of gonadotropin action

Manuela Simoni, Elia Paradiso, Véronique Lockhart, Eric Reiter, Livio Casarini, Lucie Pellissier & Pascale Crépieux

Les circuits courts distants approvisionnant Paris

Adrien Baysse-Lainé & Pierre Guillemin

When expansion stalls: an extension to the concept of range pinning in ecology

Thibaut Morel-Journel, Marjorie Haond, Laurent Lamy, David Muru, Lionel Roques, Ludovic Mailleret & Elodie Vercken
Identifying the factors modulating range expansion is essential to accurately predict changes in the spatial distribution of populations. By preventing population growth after dispersal, Allee effects can lead to front stops in discrete space, called ’pinning’ if permanent. However, other mechanisms, such as positive density-dependent dispersal, have also been shown to affect the rate of range expansion and generate discrete-space front stops, albeit temporarily. In this study, we investigated the stability of the front stops...

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique

Yvanne Rochette, Arjan Jonker, Peter Moate, Amélie Vanlierde & Cécile Martin
A further method for measuring methane production is the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique, which requires inserting a known quantity of the inert tracer into the rumen. The use of the SF₆ tracer technique to quantify enteric CH4 emissions from grazing ruminants was pioneered by Zimmerman and Johnson. The SF₆ tracer technique is an indirect method to quantify CH4 emissions from ruminants because only a representative quantity of gas produced by the animal is collected;...

Data for: Advanced infections by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus encourage whitefly vector colonization while discouraging non-vector aphid competitors

Kerry Mauck, Quentin Chesnais & Penglin Sun
Plant viruses can change hosts in ways that increase vector contacts, virion acquisition, and subsequent vector dispersal to susceptible hosts. Based on this, researchers have proposed that virus-induced phenotypes are the product of adaptations to “manipulate” hosts in ways that increase transmission. Theoretical models of virus spread in crops support this proposition; “manipulative” viruses spread faster and to a greater extent. However, both empirical and theoretical studies on manipulation are disproportionately focused on a few...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the species range reflects recent colonization of high elevation habitats in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.)

Enikő I. Major, Mária Höhn, Camilla Avanzi, Bruno Fady, Katrin Heer, Lars Opgenoorth, Andrea Piotti, Flaviu Popescu, Dragos Postolache, Giovanni G. Vendramin & Katalin Csilléry
Variation in genetic diversity across species ranges has long been recognized as highly informative for assessing populations’ resilience and adaptive potential. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity within populations, referred to as fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), also carries information about recent demographic changes, yet it has rarely been connected to range scale processes. We studied eight silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) population pairs (sites), growing at high and low elevations, representative of the main...

Data from: Land-use legacies influence tree water-use efficiency and nitrogen dynamics in recently established European forests

Rossella Guerrieri, Marta Correia, Irene Martín-Forés, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Joan Pino, Arndt Hampe, Fernando Valladares & Josep Espelta
1. Forest regrowth following farmland (agriculture and pasture) abandonment has been positively associated with a number of processes including the regulation of hydrological cycling, the enhancement of soil functioning, and an increase in forest productivity and carbon (C) sequestration. Although these changes in ecosystem functioning post-farmland abandonment have been observed in multiple locations and studies, the ecophysiological basis underpinning these patterns remains unclear. Here, we examine whether increased forest expansion following pastureland abandonment is associated...

Bryophyte microecosystem experiment

Adam Vanbergen, Claire Boissieres, Alan Gray & Daniel Chapman
Ecosystems face multiple, potentially interacting, anthropogenic pressures that can modify biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a bryophyte-microarthropod microecosystem we tested the combined effects of habitat loss, episodic heat-shocks and an introduced non-native apex predator on ecosystem function (chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of photosystem II function) and microarthropod communities (abundance and body size). Photosynthetic function was degraded by the sequence of heat-shock episodes, but unaffected by microecosystem patch size or top-down pressure from the introduced...

A trait-based framework for predicting foodborne pathogen risk from wild birds

Olivia Smith, Elissa Olimpi, Nora Navarro-González, Kevin Cornell, Luke Frishkoff, Tobin Northfield, Timothy Bowles, Max Edworthy, Johnna Eilers, Zhen Fu, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Matthew Jones, Christina Kennedy, Christopher Latimer, Jeb Owen, Chika Sato, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson Rankin, William Snyder & Daniel Karp
Recent foodborne illness outbreaks have heightened pressures on growers to deter wildlife from farms, jeopardizing conservation efforts. However, it remains unclear which species, particularly birds, pose the greatest risk to food safety. Using >11,000 pathogen tests and 1,565 bird surveys covering 139 bird species from across the western U.S.A., we examined the importance of 11 traits in mediating wild bird risk to food safety. We tested whether traits associated with pathogen exposure (e.g., habitat associations,...

Place des agricultures européennes dans le monde à l’horizon 2050

Anaïs Tibi, Agneta Forslund, Philippe Debaeke , Bertrand Schmitt & Hervé Guyomard

Genetic diversity and population structure in Vitis species illustrate phylogeographic patterns in eastern North America

Jean-Pierre Peros, Peter Cousins, Amandine Launay, Philippe Cubry, Andrew Walker, Emilce Prado, Elisa Peressotti, Sabine Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Valérie Laucou, Didier Merdinoglu, Patrice This, Jean-Michel Boursiquot & Agnès Doligez
Geographical distribution and diversity of current plant species have been strongly shaped by climatic oscillations during the Quaternary. Analyzing the resulting divergence among species and differentiation within species is crucial to understand the evolution of taxa like the Vitis genus, which provides very useful genetic resources for grapevine improvement and might reveal original recolonization patterns due to growth habit and dispersal mode. Here, we studied the genetic structure in natural populations of three species from...

RAD-seq data from: Evidence of local adaptation despite strong drift in a Neotropical patchily distributed bromeliad

Bárbara Simões Santos Leal, Cleber Juliano Neves Chaves, Vanessa Araujo Graciano, Christophe Boury, Luis Alberto Pillaca Huacre, Myriam Heuertz & Clarisse Palma-Silva
Both genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be drivers of population differentiation across patchy habitats, but the extent to which these forces act on natural populations to shape traits is strongly affected by species' ecological features. In this study, we infer the genomic structure of Pitcairnia lanuginosa, a widespread herbaceous perennial plant with a patchy distribution. We sampled populations in the Brazilian Cerrado and the Central Andean Yungas and discovered and genotyped SNP...

Adaptation and correlated fitness responses over two time scales in Drosophila suzukii populations evolving in different environments

Laure Olazcuaga, Julien Foucaud, Mathieu Gautier, Candice Deschamps, Anne Loiseau, Nicolas Leménager, Benoit Facon, Virginie Ravigné, Ruth A. Hufbauer, Arnaud Estoup & Nicolas O. Rode
The process of local adaptation involves differential changes in fitness over time across different environments. While experimental evolution studies have extensively tested for patterns of local adaptation at a single time point, there is relatively little research that examines fitness more than once during the time course of adaptation. We allowed replicate populations of the fruit pest Drosophila suzukii to evolve in one of eight different fruit media. After five generations, populations with the highest...

Interspecific interactions regulate plant reproductive allometry in cereal-legume intercropping systems

Noémie Gaudio, Cyrille Violle, Xavier Gendre, Florian Fort, Rémi Mahmoud, Elise Pelzer, Safia Médiène, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen, Laurent Bedoussac, Catherine Bonnet, Guénaëlle Corre-Hellou, Antoine Couëdel, Philippe Hinsinger, Eric Steen Jensen, Etienne-Pascal Journet, Eric Justes, Bochra Kammoun, Isabelle Litrico, Nathalie Moutier, Christophe Naudin & Pierre Casadebaig
1. Calls for the application of ecological principles in agriculture have gained momentum. Intercropping systems are designed by growing two, or more, annual crop species in the same field, aiming for a better resource use efficiency. However, assembly rules for their design are lacking. Notably, it is unknown whether species performances are maximized during both the vegetative and reproductive phases given the sensitivity of reproductive allocation rules to resource limitation. Interestingly, ecological theory provides expectations...

Rumination activity

Sadjad Danesh Mesgaran, Lene Munksgaard, René Baumont, Björn Kuhla & David Humphries
The daily rumination pattern in cattle is influenced by different factors such as feeding frequency, physical and chemical characteristics of the diet, feeding time, fasting, photoperiod and grazing management. Studies have observed an apparent decrease in rumination activity in ruminal acidosis or mastitis challenging dairy cattle. Social and physical environment can also affect cattle’s rumination behaviour. Manual observation of eating and rumination in individual animal is time-consuming and labour intensive. Therefore, the need for developing...

Ethics in experiments on live cattle: a pragmatic approach

Isabelle Veissier, Véronique Deiss, Mette Herskin, Emer Kennedy & Kenny Rutherford
There are ongoing philosophical, moral, and societal debates about experiments on live animals. Along with a consequentialist approach, it may be considered that an action – here an experiment on live animals – is morally acceptable if the knowledge it aims to produce can result in an overall benefit. In other words, it is acceptable if the constraints imposed on the animals involved are outweighed by the larger benefits expected for others (humans or animals)....

Lying, standing, and eating behaviour

Lene Munksgaard, Emma Ternman, Isabelle Veissier, Carol-Anne Duthie & René Baumont
Standing and lying behaviours are well-defined. Lying is often described as when the flank or sternum of the animal is in contact with the ground, and end of lying when all four legs are perpendicular to the body. The transition from lying to standing and vice versa requires only a few seconds, and therefore differences in the description of lying do not greatly affect the calculation of time spent lying or standing. By contrast, if...

A checklist to validate sensor output for the recording of cattle behaviour

Matthieu Bouchon, Alex Bach, Bruno Meunier, Emma Ternman, Kees Van Reenen, Isabelle Veissier & Lene Munksgaard
A process of validation assesses the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose within a specific context. Ideally, the validation of a tool should describe the range of purposes and contexts in which it is appropriate. This generally cannot be done completely. Therefore, when such a wide validation cannot be done, the validation process needs to refer clearly to the purpose of the use of the tool and to which animals it...

Long-read genome sequencing of bread wheat facilitates disease resistance gene cloning

Naveenkumar Athiyannan, Michael Abrouk, Willem H. P. Boshoff, Stéphane Cauet, Nathalie Rodde, David A. Kudrna, Nahed Mohammed, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Kirsty Botha, Shannon Derman, Rod A. Wing, Renée Prins & Simon G. Krattinger
Cloning agronomically important genes from large, complex crop genomes remains challenging. Here, we generate a 14.7-gigabase chromosome-scale assembly of the South African bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Kariega by combining high-fidelity long reads, optical mapping, and chromosome conformation capture. The resulting assembly is an order of magnitude more contiguous than previous wheat assemblies. Kariega shows durable resistance against the devastating fungal stripe rust disease. We identified the race-specific disease resistance gene Yr27, encoding an intracellular...

Etude technico-économique sur l'opportunité de récupération des métaux contenus dans les eaux usées domestiques

Elodie Varennes, Denise Blanc-Biscarat, Lucie Gueret, Céline Lagarrigue & Jean-Marc Choubert

How to make a little worm pump like a big worm

Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Alexander P. Gerhard, Jürgen Krücken, Claude Charvet & cedric neveu

Agroecological transformation for sustainable food systems : insight on France-CGIAR research

Kwesi Atta-Krah, Jean-Luc Chotte, Gascuel Chantal, Gitz Vincent, Hainzelin Etienne, Hubert Bernard, Quintero Marcela & Sinclair Fergus

Registration Year

  • 2021
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    31
  • Text
    11
  • Report
    3
  • Book Chapter
    1
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
    47
  • University of Clermont Auvergne
    5
  • Aarhus University
    4
  • Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement
    4
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    2
  • Walloon Agricultural Research Centre
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • World Agroforestry Centre
    2
  • Grenoble Alpes University
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2