16 Works

Quantifying heritability and estimating evolutionary potential in the wild when individuals that share genes also share environments

Laura Gervais, Nicolas Morellet, Ingrid David, Mark Hewison, Denis Reale, Michel Goulard, Yannick Chaval, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Joel Merlet, Erwan Quéméré & Benoit Pujol
Accurate heritability estimates for fitness-related traits are required to predict an organism’s ability to respond to global change. Heritability estimates are theoretically expected to be inflated if, due to limited dispersal, individuals that share genes are also likely to share similar environments. However, if relatives occupy similar environments due, at least partly, to genetic variation for habitat selection, then accounting for environmental similarity in quantitative genetic models may result in diminished heritability estimates in wild...

Data from: Variations in bark structural properties affect both water loss and carbon economics in neotropical savanna trees in the Cerrado region of Brazil

Paulo Eduardo Menezes-Silva, Lucas Loram-Lourenço, Fernanda Santos Farnese, Bruno Matheus Mendes Dario, Ana Claudia Martins, Marina Alves Aun, Priscila Ferreira Batista, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Hervé Cochard & Augusto Cesar Franco
Even after complete stomatal closure, plants lose water through the leaf cuticles and bark. This residual water conductance of leaves (gleaf-res) and stems (gbark) can negatively impact plant water balance and affect plant survival in seasonally dry environments. However, little is known about the costs and benefits associated with such water leaks, especially on stem level. Here, we characterized the structural and functional determinants of the variability in gbark across tropical savanna species to elucidate...

Moths and butterflies on alien shores – global biogeography of non-native Lepidoptera

Richard Mally, Rebecca M. Turner, Rachael E. Blake, Gyda Fenn-Moltu, Cleo Bertelsmeier, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff, Robert J. B. Hoare, Helen F. Nahrung, Alain Roques, Deepa S. Pureswaran, Takehiko Yamanaka & Andrew M. Liebhold
Lepidoptera is a highly diverse, predominantly herbivorous insect order, with species transported to outside their native range largely facilitated by the global trade of plants and plant-based goods. Analogous to island disharmony, we examine invasion disharmony, where species filtering during invasions increases systematic compositional differences between native and non-native species assemblages, and test whether some families are more successful at establishing in non-native regions than others. We compared numbers of non-native, unintentionally introduced Lepidoptera species...

Le jeu de rôle prospectif et participatif comme sensibilisation à une approche collective de l’adaptation au changement climatique pour la filière vigne et vin

Hervé Hannin, Jean-Marc Touzard & Marc Nougier
Pour l’Institut des Hautes Études de la Vigne et du Vin de Montpellier SupAgro, le défi était de prendre en compte une problématique aussi transversale que celle du changement climatique, son impact sur les cultures, les changements organisationnels qu’il va nécessairement engendrer, au milieu de modules de formations très spécialisés. À la rentrée 2019/2020, les étudiant.es ingénieur·es en M2 viticulture-œnologie se sont vu.es proposer un jeu de rôle. Par 5 à 7 étudiant.es, chaque groupe...

Detecting selection using extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH)-based statistics in unphased or unpolarized data

Alexander Klassmann & Mathieu Gautier
Analysis of population genetic data often includes the search for genomic regions with signs of recent positive selection. One of the approaches involves the concept of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH) and its associated statistics. These statistics typically need phased haplotypes and, some of them, polarized variants. Here, we unify and extend previously proposed modifications to loosen these requirements. We compare the modified versions with the original ones by measuring the False Discovery Rate in simulated...

Unique and shared effects of local and catchment predictors over distribution of hyporheic organisms: does the valley rule the stream?

Samuel Mouron, David Eme, Arnaud Bellec, Mélanie Bertrand, Stefano Mammola, Fréderic Liébault, Christophe J. Douady & Florian Malard
This dataset describe the distribution of two hyporheic crustacean taxa (Bogidiellidae, Amphipoda and Anthuridae, Isopoda) in streams of New Caledonia. We sampled the two taxa at 228 sites. At each site, we quantified nine local predictors related to habitat area and stability, sediment metabolism and water origin, and eight catchment predictors related to geology, area, primary productivity, land use and specific discharge.

How to quantify factors degrading DNA in the environment and predict degradation for effective sampling design

Thomas Naef, Anne-Laure Besnard, Lisa Lehnen, Eric J. Petit, Jaap Van Schaik & Sebastien J. Puechmaille
Extra-organismal DNA (eoDNA) from material left behind by organisms (non-invasive DNA: e.g., faeces, hair) or from environmental samples (eDNA: e.g., water, soil) is a valuable source of genetic information. However, the relatively low quality and quantity of eoDNA, which can be further degraded by environmental factors, results in reduced amplification and sequencing success. This is often compensated for through cost- and time-intensive replications of genotyping/sequencing procedures. Therefore, system- and site-specific quantifications of environmental degradation are...

Understanding complex spatial dynamics from mechanistic models through spatio-temporal point processes

Patrizia Zamberletti, Julien Papaîx, Edith Gabriel & Thomas Opitz
Landscape heterogeneity affects population dynamics, which determine species persistence, diversity and interactions. These relationships can be accurately represented by advanced spatially-explicit models (SEMs) allowing for high levels of detail and precision. However, such approaches are characterised by high computational complexity, high amount of data and memory requirements, and spatio-temporal outputs may be difficult to analyse. A possibility to deal with this complexity is to aggregate outputs over time or space, but then interesting information may...

Thermal plasticity and evolution shape predator-prey interactions differently in clear and turbid water

Ying-Jie Wang, Nedim Tüzün, Arnaud Sentis & Robby Stoks
Warming and eutrophication negatively affect freshwater ecosystems by modifying trophic interactions and increasing water turbidity. We need to consider their joint effects on predator-prey interactions, and how these depend on the thermal evolution of both predator and prey. We quantified how 4°C warming and algae-induced turbidity (that integrates turbidity per se and increased food for zooplankton prey) affect functional response parameters and prey population parameters in a common-garden experiment. We did so for all combinations...

Guidelines to apply for ethical approval of animal experiments

Jan Langbein, Mette Herskin, Frédéric Dehareng, Emer Kennedy, Kenny Rutherford, Antonio Velarde, Véronique Deiss & Isabelle Veissier
This chapter presents common aspects applying in all EU Member States and in the UK (since Directive 2010/63/EU was transposed into British law before Brexit), and gives the specifications that apply in each research institute of the SmartCow project.

Validation of eating duration using an automatic feeding system

Emma Ternman, Marta Terré, Matthieu Bouchon, Bruno Meunier, Lene Munksgaard & Isabelle Veissier
Feed intake is important to consider when studying welfare, productivity and efficiency in ruminants, particularly cattle. Over the last decade, several methods for automatic intake recording have been developed. These methods have been described in the chapter on feed and water intake of the present book of methods. Automatic feed bins do not only record feed intake, but also feeding behaviour. The duration of feed bin visits estimated by the Insentec Roughage Intake Control system...

Strategies to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions by Ruminants

C. Arndt, A.N. Hristov, W.J. Price, S.C. McClelland, A.M. Pelaez, A.R. Bayat, L.A. Crompton, J. Dijkstra, M.A. Eugène, D. Enahoro, E. Kebreab, M. Kreuzer, M. McGee, C. Martin, C.J. Newbold, C.K. Reynolds, A. Schwarm, K.J. Shingfield, J.B. Veneman, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz & Z. Yu
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...

AgroDataRing

Franck Giacomoni & Christophe Duperier

Data from: Looking for compensation at multiple scales in a wetland bird community

Frédéric Barraquand, Coralie Picoche, Christelle Aluome, Laure Carassou & Claude Feigné
Compensatory dynamics, during which community composition shifts despite a near-constant total community size, are usually rare: synchronous dynamics prevail in natural communities. This is a puzzle for ecologists, because of the key role of compensation in explaining the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, most studies so far have considered compensation in either plants or planktonic organisms, so that evidence for the generality of such synchrony is limited. Here, we extend analyses of community-level...

Data from: Long-term cattle grazing shifts the ecological state of forest soils

Willem Proesmans, Chris Andrews, Alan Gray, Rob Griffiths, Aidan Keith, Uffe N. Nielsen, Dave Spurgeon, Richard Pywell, Bridget Emmett & Adam J. Vanbergen
Cattle grazing profoundly affects abiotic and biotic characteristics of ecosystems. While most research has been performed on grasslands, the effect of large managed ungulates on forest ecosystems has largely been neglected. Compared to a baseline semi-natural state, we investigated how long-term cattle grazing of birch forest patches affected the abiotic state and the ecological community (microbes and invertebrates) of the soil subsystem. Grazing strongly modified the soil abiotic environment by increasing phosphorus content, pH and...

Searching for genetic evidence of demographic decline in an arctic seabird: beware of overlapping generations

Emeline Charbonnel, Claire Daguin, Lucille Caradec, Eléonore Moittié, Olivier Gilg, Maria Gavrilo, Hallvard Strom, Mark L Mallory, Grant Gilchrist, R. I. Guy Morrisson, Raphael Leblois, Camille Roux, Jonathan M Yearsley, Glenn Yannic & Thomas Broquet
Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alteration of its primary habitat (i.e., sea ice), and dramatic climatic events affecting reproduction and recruitment. However, ivory gulls live in remote areas, and it is...

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Affiliations

  • National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment
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  • Institute for Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture
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  • Aarhus University
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  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
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  • Teagasc - The Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority
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  • Scotland's Rural College
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  • University of Quebec at Montreal
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  • Instituto Federal Goiano
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  • Estación Experimental del Zaidín
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