34 Works

Data from: Early postembryonic to mature ontogeny of the oryctocephalid trilobite Duodingia duodingensis from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) of southern China

Jin-Bo Hou, Nigel C. Hughes, Tian Lan, Jie Yang & Xi-Guang Zhang
Many well-preserved, articulated exoskeletons recovered from the early Cambrian (Stage 3) Mingxinsi Formation in Weng'an, Guizhou Province, southern China, permit reconstruction of the early postembryonic to mature (i.e. protaspid to holaspid) ontogeny of the small oryctocephalid trilobite Duodingia duodingensis Chow. It is likely that the type material is a latest stage meraspis, and the species had nine thoracic segments in the holaspid phase rather than the eight suggested previously. The earliest holaspis is relatively small...

Data from: Onychophoran-like musculature in a phosphatized Cambrian lobopodian

Xi-Guang Zhang, Martin Smith, Jie Yang, Jin-Bo Hou & Martin R. Smith
The restricted, exclusively terrestrial distribution of modern Onychophora contrasts strikingly with the rich diversity of onychophoran-like fossils preserved in marine Cambrian Lagerstätten. The transition from these early forebears to the modern onychophoran body plan is poorly constrained, in part due to the absence of fossils preserving details of the soft anatomy. Here we report muscle tissue in a new early Cambrian (Stage 3) lobopodian, Tritonychus phanerosarkus gen. et sp. nov., preserved in the Orsten fashion...

Keystone species affect the relationship between soil microbial diversity and ecosystem function under land use change in subtropical China

Fan Yang, Qiong Chen, Qian Zhang, Chunyan Long, Wei Jia & Cheng Xiaoli
Soil microbial diversity affects soil chemical cycling and ecosystem function. However, how highly connected keystone species regulate associated microbial structure and function (of the whole community and of specialized species), irrespective of their abundance under land use change, remains unresolved. Here, we identified the relationship between microbial diversity [soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) richness and composition, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB) communities] with both a broad (i.e., microbial respiration) and specialized function...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems

Yunyun Wang, Ao Luo, Tong Lyu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Xiaoting Xu, Robert Freckleton, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Yunpeng Liu, Denis Sandanov, Qingjun Li, Zhanqing Hao, Shuguang Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Transitions to...

Data from: Functional implications of the specialized staminal appendages in alpine ginger (Roscoea spp.: Zingiberaceae)

Babu Ram Paudel & Qing-Jun Li
Floral organs are widely believed to enhance the pollination and reproductive success of angiosperms. However, the functional implication of some floral structures is still unknown. In this study, we explored the functional role of staminal appendages on male and female fitness of Himalayan Roscoea spp. and tested if their function differed between species with biotic pollination and autonomous selfing. Phenotypic manipulation is a powerful approach to test the functional effect of a particular trait on...

Legacy effect of grazing intensity mediates the bottom-up controls of resource addition on soil food webs

Dima Chen, Bing Wang, Ying Wu, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
1. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that nitrogen (N) and water (W) availability greatly affect terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and this is especially true for the resource-poor semi-arid grasslands. Yet, experimental evidence is lacking for how N and W availability affect soil food webs across historical grazing intensity-altered environments at a local scale. 2. Here, we included N- and W-addition treatments in an 8-year grazing experiment (with four grazing intensities) to determine how the legacy effects of...

Data from: Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity

Jessica V. Bryant, Dada Gottelli, Xinyuan Zeng, Xiaojiang Hong, Bosco P.L. Chan, John R. Fellowes, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Christopher Durrant, Thomas Geissmann, Helen J. Chatterjee & Samuel T. Turvey
Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Data from: Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province: phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae)

Dongru Zhang, Mingyong Chen, Robert Murphy, Jing Che, Junfeng Pang, Jiansheng Hu, Jing Luo, Shan-Jin Wu, Ye Hui & Ya-Ping Zhang
Historical drainage patterns adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau differed markedly from those of today. We examined the relationship between drainage history and geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis, using approximately 981 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) partial sequences from encoding genes ND1 and ND2, and intervening areas including complete tRNA Ile, tRNA Gln, and tRNA Met. Two null hypotheses were tested, including (1) that genetic patterns do not...

Long-term logging residue loadings affect tree growth but not soil nutrients in lodgepole pine forests

Jianping Wu, Xiaohua Wei, Michaela Waterhouse & Guang Qi
Both above- and below-ground characteristics are affected by logging residue loadings. Long-term monitoring of tree growth and soil nutrients was conducted. We found that tree growth but not soil nutrients were affected. There were dynamic relationships between tree growth and logging residue loadings.

Rural Intangible Cultural Heritage

Junjie Su, Mohamed Badry Kamel Basuny Amer & Xuanlin Liu
Rural areas is the place where rural intangible heritage is found rich and diverse, whereas vulnerable to fast social, cultural, political and economic transformations, in particular in developing and underdeveloped areas. Although the concept of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) has been established in UNESCO and accepted by many ICH Convention signatories, it has not been consistently adopted and implemented from international level to local level without divergencies. An analysis of rural ICH is to analyse...

Data from: A new exceptionally preserved Cambrian priapulid from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte

Xiaoya Ma, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter, Xianguang Hou & Gregory D. Edgecombe
A fossil priapulid, Eximipriapulus globocaudatus new genus new species, is described from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte of Yunnan, China. The exceptional preservation of the animal reveals morphological details that allow direct comparison with extant priapulids. The body is divisible into a partially eversible pharynx, a smooth collar, a scalid-bearing introvert, a neck with triangular scalids, an unsegmented trunk with annulations, and a distinctly expanded terminal region. Several specialized regions of the alimentary canal are recognized:...

Data from: Species turnover (β diversity) in ectomycorrhizal fungi linked to NH4+ uptake capacity

John M. Kranabetter, Barbara J. Hawkins, Melanie D. Jones, Samantha Robbins, Tyler Dyer & Tao Li
Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal communities may be shaped by both deterministic and stochastic processes, potentially influencing ecosystem development and function. We evaluated community assembly processes for EcM fungi of Pseudotsuga menziesii among 12 sites up to 400 km apart in southwest British Columbia (Canada) by investigating species turnover (β diversity) in relation to soil nitrogen (N) availability and physical distance. We then examined functional traits for an N-related niche by quantifying net fluxes of NH4+, NO3-...

Data from: Mitochondrial genomes of domestic animals need scrutiny

Ni-Ni Shi, Long Fan, Yong-Gang Yao, Min-Sheng Peng & Ya-Ping Zhang
More than 1000 complete or near-complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences have been deposited in GenBank for eight common domestic animals (cattle, dog, goat, horse, pig, sheep, yak and chicken) and their close wild ancestors or relatives, as well. Nevertheless, few efforts have been performed to evaluate the sequence data quality. Herein, we conducted a phylogenetic survey of these complete or near-complete mtDNA sequences based on mtDNA haplogroup trees for the eight animals. We show that...

Data from: Ontogeny of the articulated yiliangellinine trilobite Zhangshania typica from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3) of southern China

Jin-Bo Hou, Nigel C. Hughes, Jie Yang, Tian Lan, Xiguang Zhang & Chrysalyn Dominguez
New discoveries of the early Cambrian yiliangellinine trilobite Zhangshania typica Li and Zhang in Kunming preserve almost all instars from early postembryonic (protaspid) to mature (holaspid) phases in articulated state, in addition to mature specimens with antennae bearing paired spines on the basal articles. The ontogenetic series shows protarthrous development with some, but likely not all, early holaspid instars expressing additional pygidial segments, gradual rearward migration of the location of the longest pleural spines on...

Data from: Aspiration-based coevolution of link weights promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game

Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Lei Shi, Matjaz Perc & Zhen Wang
In this article, we propose an aspiration-based coevolution of link weights, and we explore how this affects the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. In particular, an individual will increase the weight of its link to its neighbors only if the payoff received via this interaction will exceed a pre-defined aspiration. Conversely, if the received payoff is below this aspiration, the link weight with the corresponding neighbor will be decreased. Our simulation...

A combined approach of mitochondrial DNA and anchored nuclear phylogenomics sheds light on unrecognized diversity, phylogeny, and historical biogeography of the cascade frogs, genus Amolops (Anura: Ranidae)

Yunhe Wu, Fang Yan, Bryan L. Stuart, Elizabeth Prendini, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Hollis A. Dahn, Bao-Lin Zhang, Hong-Xia Cai, Yong-Biao Xu, Ke Jiang, Hong-Man Chen, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Nikolai L. Orlov, Robert W. Murphy & Jing Che
Amolops is one of the most species-rich genera in Ranidae, with 59 recognized species. This genus currently includes six species groups diagnosed mainly by morphology. Several recent molecular studies indicated that the classification of species groups within Amolops remains controversial, and key nodes in the phylogeny have been inadequately resolved. In addition, the diversity of cascade frogs remains poorly understood, especially for those from incompletely sampled regions. Herein, we investigate the species-level diversity within genus...

Stoichiometric traits (N:P) of understory plants contribute to reductions in plant diversity following long-term nitrogen addition in subtropical forest

Jianping Wu, Fangfang Shen, Jill Thompson, Wenfei Liu, Honglang Duan & Richard Bardgett
Nitrogen enrichment is pervasive in forest ecosystems, but its influence on understory plant communities and their stoichiometric characteristics is poorly understood. We hypothesize that when forest is enriched with nitrogen (N), the stoichiometric characteristics of plant species explains changes in understory plant diversity. A 13 year field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of N addition on foliar carbon (C): N: phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and understory plant species richness in a subtropical Chinese fir...

Data from: Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for the invasive oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers

Wei Shi, Carole Kerdelhué & Hui Ye
Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene...

Data from: Phylogeography and evolution of a fungal-insect association on the Tibetan Plateau

Yongjie Zhang, Shu Zhang, Yuling Li, Shaoli Ma, Chengshu Wang, Meichun Xiang, Xin Liu, Zhiqiang An, Jianping Xu & Xingzhong Liu
Parasitoidism refers to a major form of inter-species interactions where parasitoids sterilize and/or kill their hosts typically before hosts reach reproductive age. However, relatively little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of parasitoidism. Here we investigate the spatial patterns of genetic variation of Chinese cordyceps, including both the parasitoidal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its host insects. We sampled broadly from alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau and obtained sequences on seven fungal and three insect...

Data from: Smaller is better: drift in gaze measurements due to pupil dynamics

Jan Drewes, Weina Zhu, Yingzhou Hu & Xintian Hu
Camera-based eye trackers are the mainstay of eye movement research and countless practical applications of eye tracking. Recently, a significant impact of changes in pupil size on gaze position as measured by camera-based eye trackers has been reported. In an attempt to improve the understanding of the magnitude and population-wise distribution of the pupil-size dependent shift in reported gaze position, we present the first collection of binocular pupil drift measurements recorded from 39 subjects. The...

Long-term nitrogen addition alters the community and energy channel but not diversity of soil nematodes in a subtropical forest

Qingqiu Zhou & Jianping Wu
Summary Research has indicated that increases in nitrogen (N) deposition can greatly affect ecosystem processes and functions. There is limited information about the effects of long-term N addition on soil nematodes and their functional composition, although nematodes are the most abundant multicellular animals on Earth. We conducted a field experiment in 2004 with four levels of N addition (0, 60, 120, and 240 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in a subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolata forest. Soil samples...

Relationships between allometric patterns of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans, its stoichiometric characteristics, and the water exchange rate

Ling Jin, Qihang Wu, Yang Gu & Ying Pan
Variation in the water exchange rate (WER) of freshwater lakes has recently been demonstrated to affect the phenotypic traits of submerged macrophytes. However, whether these responses are size-dependent (“apparent plasticity”) or not (“real plasticity”) remains unclear. Here, we used allometric analysis to investigate phenotypic plasticity, and the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans cultured for 15, 30, 45, and 65 days under three levels of WER (0, 20, and 40%...

Comparative transcriptomics reveals the molecular genetic basis of pigmentation loss in Sinocyclocheilus cavefishes

Shanyuan Chen
Cave-dwelling animals evolve distinct troglomorphic traits, such as loss of eyes, skin pigmentation, and augmentation of senses following long-term adaptation to the perpetual darkness. However, the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these phenotypic variations remain unclear. In this study, we conducted comparative histology and comparative transcriptomics study of the skin of eight Sinocyclocheilus species (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) that included surface and cave-dwelling species. We analyzed four surface and four cavefish species by using next-generation sequencing, and a...

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