53 Works

Data from: Onychophoran-like musculature in a phosphatized Cambrian lobopodian

Xi-Guang Zhang, Martin Smith, Jie Yang, Jin-Bo Hou & Martin R. Smith
The restricted, exclusively terrestrial distribution of modern Onychophora contrasts strikingly with the rich diversity of onychophoran-like fossils preserved in marine Cambrian Lagerstätten. The transition from these early forebears to the modern onychophoran body plan is poorly constrained, in part due to the absence of fossils preserving details of the soft anatomy. Here we report muscle tissue in a new early Cambrian (Stage 3) lobopodian, Tritonychus phanerosarkus gen. et sp. nov., preserved in the Orsten fashion...

Data from: Early postembryonic to mature ontogeny of the oryctocephalid trilobite Duodingia duodingensis from the lower Cambrian (Series 2) of southern China

Jin-Bo Hou, Nigel C. Hughes, Tian Lan, Jie Yang & Xi-Guang Zhang
Many well-preserved, articulated exoskeletons recovered from the early Cambrian (Stage 3) Mingxinsi Formation in Weng'an, Guizhou Province, southern China, permit reconstruction of the early postembryonic to mature (i.e. protaspid to holaspid) ontogeny of the small oryctocephalid trilobite Duodingia duodingensis Chow. It is likely that the type material is a latest stage meraspis, and the species had nine thoracic segments in the holaspid phase rather than the eight suggested previously. The earliest holaspis is relatively small...

Global analysis of floral longevity reveals latitudinal gradients and biotic and abiotic correlates

Bo Song, Lu Sun, Spencer Barrett, Angela Moles, Ya-Huang Luo, Scott Armbruster, Yong-Qian Gao, Shuang Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang & Hang Sun
The length of time a flower remains open and functional – floral longevity – governs important reproductive processes influencing pollination and mating and varies considerably among angiosperm species. However, little is known about large-scale biogeographic patterns and the correlates of floral longevity. Using published data on floral longevity from 818 angiosperm species in 134 families and 472 locations worldwide, we present the first global quantification of the latitudinal pattern of floral longevity and the relationships...

Keystone species affect the relationship between soil microbial diversity and ecosystem function under land use change in subtropical China

Fan Yang, Qiong Chen, Qian Zhang, Chunyan Long, Wei Jia & Cheng Xiaoli
Soil microbial diversity affects soil chemical cycling and ecosystem function. However, how highly connected keystone species regulate associated microbial structure and function (of the whole community and of specialized species), irrespective of their abundance under land use change, remains unresolved. Here, we identified the relationship between microbial diversity [soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) richness and composition, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria (AOA and AOB) communities] with both a broad (i.e., microbial respiration) and specialized function...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

Speciation along the elevation gradient: divergence of Roscoea species within the south slope of the Himalayas

Jian-Li Zhao, Babu Ram Paudel, Xiang-Qin Yu, Jie Zhang & Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayas with dramatic elevation gradient is one of the global biodiversity hotspots. Although origin of biodiversity of the Himalayas is of great concern, the speciation process within the Himalayas is poorly known. Roscoea within the Himalayas serve as a good model system to test the speciation process along an elevation gradient. 32375 unlinked SNPs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and introgression analyses in D-statistics and Fastsimicoal2. Species distribution modeling (SDM) was used to...

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems

Yunyun Wang, Ao Luo, Tong Lyu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Xiaoting Xu, Robert Freckleton, Yaoqi Li, Xiangyan Su, Yichao Li, Yunpeng Liu, Denis Sandanov, Qingjun Li, Zhanqing Hao, Shuguang Liu & Zhiheng Wang
Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Transitions to...

Legacy effect of grazing intensity mediates the bottom-up controls of resource addition on soil food webs

Dima Chen, Bing Wang, Ying Wu, Shuijin Hu & Yongfei Bai
1. Large-scale studies have demonstrated that nitrogen (N) and water (W) availability greatly affect terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and this is especially true for the resource-poor semi-arid grasslands. Yet, experimental evidence is lacking for how N and W availability affect soil food webs across historical grazing intensity-altered environments at a local scale. 2. Here, we included N- and W-addition treatments in an 8-year grazing experiment (with four grazing intensities) to determine how the legacy effects of...

Data from: Historical mitochondrial genome introgression confounds species delimitation—evidence from phylogenetic inference in the Odorrana grahami species complex

Dongyi Wu, Zhiyong Yuan, Yang Wen, Wei Xu, Wei Gao, A. Dahn Hollis, Xiaolong Liu, Jieqiong Jin, Chuanxin Yu, Jing Che & Heng Xiao
Species delimitation is essential to informing conservation policy and understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. Most of our recent gains in knowledge on animal diversity rely on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation. Concordant results based on both have led to an unprecedented acceleration in the identification of new species and enriched the field of taxonomy. However, discordances are also found commonly between morphological and mtDNA evidence. This confounds species delimitation, especially when gene flow...

Data from: Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province: phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae)

Dongru Zhang, Mingyong Chen, Robert Murphy, Jing Che, Junfeng Pang, Jiansheng Hu, Jing Luo, Shan-Jin Wu, Ye Hui & Ya-Ping Zhang
Historical drainage patterns adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau differed markedly from those of today. We examined the relationship between drainage history and geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis, using approximately 981 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) partial sequences from encoding genes ND1 and ND2, and intervening areas including complete tRNA Ile, tRNA Gln, and tRNA Met. Two null hypotheses were tested, including (1) that genetic patterns do not...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in alpine gingers: how do co-existing Roscoea (R. purpurea and R. tumjensis) conserve species integrity?

Babu Ram Paudel, Martin Burd, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G. Dyer, Qingjun Li & Qing-Jun Li
Multiple barriers may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Understanding the relative strength of these barriers can illuminate the ecological factors that currently maintain species integrity and how these factors originally promoted speciation. Two Himalayan alpine gingers, Roscoea purpurea and R. tumjensis, occur sympatrically in central Nepal and have such similar morphology that it is not clear whether or how they maintain a distinct identity. Our quantitative measurements of the components of reproductive...

Data from: Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity

Jessica V. Bryant, Dada Gottelli, Xinyuan Zeng, Xiaojiang Hong, Bosco P.L. Chan, John R. Fellowes, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Christopher Durrant, Thomas Geissmann, Helen J. Chatterjee & Samuel T. Turvey
Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite...

Long-term logging residue loadings affect tree growth but not soil nutrients in lodgepole pine forests

Jianping Wu, Xiaohua Wei, Michaela Waterhouse & Guang Qi
Both above- and below-ground characteristics are affected by logging residue loadings. Long-term monitoring of tree growth and soil nutrients was conducted. We found that tree growth but not soil nutrients were affected. There were dynamic relationships between tree growth and logging residue loadings.

Data from: Functional implications of the specialized staminal appendages in alpine ginger (Roscoea spp.: Zingiberaceae)

Babu Ram Paudel & Qing-Jun Li
Floral organs are widely believed to enhance the pollination and reproductive success of angiosperms. However, the functional implication of some floral structures is still unknown. In this study, we explored the functional role of staminal appendages on male and female fitness of Himalayan Roscoea spp. and tested if their function differed between species with biotic pollination and autonomous selfing. Phenotypic manipulation is a powerful approach to test the functional effect of a particular trait on...

Data from: Can fractal dimensions objectivize gastropod shell morphometrics? A case study from Lake Lugu (SW China)

Robert Wiese, Kyle Harrington, Kai Hartmann, Manja Hethke, Thomas Von Rintelen, Hucai Zhang, Le-Jia Zhang & Frank Riedel
Morphometrics are fundamental for statistical analyses of fossils, particularly because soft parts or DNA are rarely preserved and thus hard parts such as shells are commonly the only source of information. Geometric morphometrics i.e. landmark analysis has been successfully established but exhibits a couple of shortcomings. On the one hand landmarking is rather subjective and on the other hand the application at the level of micro-sculpture is difficult. With the aid of high-resolution 3D scanning...

Rural Intangible Cultural Heritage and Ethnic Tourism: Experiences of Yunnan, China

Junjie Su
China is an active player in the international arena of intangible cultural heritage (ICH). While China is transforming from an agricultural country to an industrial country, rural heritage, either tangible or intangible, is facing tremendous challenges and opportunities. Among Chinese provinces, Yunnan in Southwest of China can be regarded as the best case to investigate the issues of protection, use and transmission of rural heritage as Yunnan is a unique province of China because of...

Data from: Plant-soil-foliage feedbacks on seed germination and seedling growth of an invasive plant Ageratina adenophora

Kai Fang, Lin Chen, Jie Zhou, Zhi-Ping Yang, Xing-Fan Dong & Han-Bo Zhang
Some exotic plants become invasive because they partially release from soil-borne enemies and thus benefit from the positive plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) in the introduced range. However, these reports that have focused only on PSFs may exaggerate the invader’s competitiveness. Here, we conducted a series of plant-soil-foliage feedbacks (PSFFs) experiments in a greenhouse to determine the consequences of above- and belowground feedback on the early growth stages of an invasive plant, Ageratina adenophora. Surprisingly, most feedbacks...

Dataset from: Warming effects on grassland productivity depend on plant diversity

Junjiong Shao, Xuhui Zhou, Kees Van Groenigen, Guiyao Zhou, Huimin Zhou, Lingyan Zhou, Meng Lu, Jianyang Xia, Lin Jiang, Bruce Hungate, Yiqi Luo, Fangliang He & Madhav Thakur
Aim: Climate warming and biodiversity loss both alter plant productivity, yet we lack an understanding of how biodiversity regulates the responses of ecosystems to warming. In this study, we examine how plant diversity regulates the responses of grassland productivity to experimental warming using meta-analytic techniques. Location: Global Major taxa studied: Grassland ecosystems Methods: Our meta-analysis is based on warming responses of 40 different plant communities obtained from 20 independent studies on grasslands across five continents....

Arundinella tengchongensis (Poaceae), a name at new rank and newly combined based on morphological and molecular data

Liqiong Jiang, Hua Peng & Yue-Hua Wang
To clarify the taxonomic status of Arundinella setosa var. tengchongensis and its relationships with A. setosa var. setosa and other related species, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and two plastid DNA (matK and trnL-F) sequences, and morphological comparisons using one-way ANOVA were carried out. Our results reveal that A. setosa var. tengchongensis is recovered within a different clade and separated from the type variety. Morphologically, A. setosa var. tengchongensis can be easily distinguished...

Plant management, but not fertilization, mediates soil carbon emission and microbial community composition in subtropical Eucalyptus plantations

Bin Wu, Jianping Wu, Wenfei Liu, Ying Wu & Jill Thompson
The diversity of plant functional groups in plantations affects soil carbon, but we have limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for how plant management affects soil carbon dynamics. Here, we conducted a 3-year manipulation experiment of plant functional groups that included understory removal, tree root trenching, and fertilization treatments in 2-year-old and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations in the subtropical region. The results showed that soil respiration was significantly suppressed by understory removal (-38%), tree root trenching...

Architectural effects regulate resource allocation within the inflorescences with nonlinear blooming patterns

Hao Wang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Bo Zhang, Li-Ping Wang, Wen Guo, Ye Fang & Qing-Jun Li
These data were generated to investigate the resource allocation pattern within the inflorescence of Salvia przewalskii, a perennial herb with 4-ouvle ovary flowers and flowering sequence-floral position decoupled inflorescences. Spatial and temporal resource allocations within inflorescences have been well-studied in many plants based on flowering sequence or floral position. However, there have been few attempts to investigate architectural effects and resource competition in species where the blooming pattern does not follow a linear positional pattern...

Recognition of dominant driving factors behind sap flow of Liquidambar formosana based on back-propagation neutral network method

Jie Tu, Qijing Liu & Jianping Wu
Aims: This study focused on the applicability of back-propagation (BP) neural networks in simulating sap flow (SF) using meteorological factors and a phenological index (PI) for Liquidambar formosana, a deciduous broad-leaf tree species in subtropical China, and thus providing a useful and promising alternative to traditional methods for transpiration prediction. Methods: Three-layered BP models with an architecture 4-10-1 (four neurons in the input layer, ten neurons in the hidden layer and one neuron in the...

Increased epigenetic diversity and transient epigenetic memory in response to salinity stress in Thlaspi arvense

Yabin Guan, Yupeng Geng, Na Chang, Yuewan Zhao, Xiaoying Qin, Shugang Lu, James Crabbe & Ticao Zhang
Epigenetic diversity could play an important role in adaptive evolution of organisms, especially for plant species occurring in new and stressful environments. Thlaspi arvense (pennycress), a valuable oilseed crop, is widespread in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we investigated the effect of salinity stress on the epigenetic variation of DNA methylation and epigenetic stress memory in pennycress using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) markers. We examined how the status of DNA methylation...

Evaluation of foliar fungus-mediated interactions with below- and aboveground enemies of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora

Han-Bo Zhang, Kai Fang & Li-Min Chen
Plant–fungal associations are frequently key drivers of plant invasion success. Foliar fungi can benefit their invasive hosts by enhancing growth promotion, disease resistance and environmental stress tolerance. However, the roles of foliar fungi may vary when a given invasive plant faces different stresses. In this study, we designed three independent experiments to evaluate the effects of a foliar fungus, Colletotrichum sp., on the growth performance of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora under different soil conditions,...

Long-term empirical evidence, early warning signals, and multiple drivers of regime shifts in a lake ecosystem

Haojie Su, Rong Wang, Yuhao Feng, Yanling Li, Yun Li, Jun Chen, Chi Xu, Shaopeng Wang, Jingyun Fang & Ping Xie
1. Catastrophic regime shifts in various ecosystems are increasing with the intensification of anthropogenic pressures. Understanding and predicting critical transitions are thus a key challenge in ecology. Previous studies have mainly focused on single environmental drivers (e.g., eutrophication) and early warning signals (EWSs) prior to population collapse. However, how multiple environmental stressors interact to shape ecological behaviour and whether EWSs were detectable prior to the recovery process in lake ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We...

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