71 Works

Chatham Islands cabled observatory science opportunities: workshop 23–24 February 2021 summary report

Laura M. Wallace, John Townend, Craig Stevens, Richard L. Kellett, Joao De Souza, Giacamo Giorli, Jess I. T. Hillman, Caroline Holden, Bruce Howe, Daniel Leduc, Nate Lindsay, Joshu J. Mountjoy, William L. Power & Emily Warren-Smith
Our ability to address many key questions regarding physical oceanography, plate boundary processes and marine biodiversity, and to undertake geohazards monitoring in the New Zealand region, is greatly hampered by the lack of access to real-time, continuous offshore monitoring of a range of key observables beneath our oceans, which comprises >95% of our Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Developing the ability to monitor geological, biological and oceanographic processes within our EEZ is required to better understand...

Data from: Toxicity and utilization of chemical weapons: does toxicity and venom utilization contribute to the formation of species communities?

Fabian L. Westermann, Iain S. McPherson, Tappy H. Jones, Lesley Milicich, Phillip J. Lester, Philip J. Lester & Tappey H. Jones
Toxicity and the utilization of venom are essential features in the ecology of many animal species and have been hypothesized to be important factors contributing to the assembly of communities through competitive interactions. Ants of the genus Monomorium utilize a variety of venom compositions, which have been reported to give them a competitive advantage. Here, we investigate two pairs of Monomorium species, which differ in the structural compositions of their venom and their co-occurrence patterns...

Data from: Efficiency of ddRAD target enriched sequencing across spiny rock lobster species (Palinuridae: Jasus)

Carla A. Souza, Nicholas Murphy, Cecilia Villacorta-Rath, Laura N. Woodings, Irina Ilyushkina, Cristian E. Hernandez, Bridget S. Green, James J. Bell & Jan M. Strugnell
Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and target capture sequencing methods are used to explore population and phylogenetic questions in non-model organisms. ddRADseq offers a simple and reliable protocol for population genomic studies, however it can result in a large amount of missing data due to allelic dropout. Target capture sequencing offers an opportunity to increase sequencing coverage with little missing data and consistent orthologous loci across samples, although this approach has generally been...

Data from: Optimal nutrient exchange and immune responses operate in partner specificity in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

Jennifer L. Matthews, Camerron M. Crowder, Clinton A. Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R. Grossman, Virginia M. Weis & Simon K. Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular,...

Data from: Pathogen shifts in a honey bee predator following arrival of the Varroa mite

Kevin J. Loope, James W. Baty, Phil J. Lester & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a global threat to honey bees, and spillover from managed bees threaten wider insect populations. Deformed wing virus (DWV), a widespread virus that has become emergent in conjunction with the spread of the mite Varroa destructor, is thought to be partly responsible for global colony losses. The arrival of Varroa in honey bee populations causes a dramatic loss of viral genotypic diversity, favoring a few virulent strains. Here, we investigate...

Data from: Analyses of phenotypic differentiations among South Georgian Diving Petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) populations reveal an undescribed and highly endangered species from New Zealand

Johannes H. Fischer, Igor Debski, Colin M. Miskelly, Charles A. Bost, Aymeric Fromant, Alan J. D. Tennyson, Jake Tessler, Rosalind Cole, Johanna H. Hiscock, Graeme A. Taylor & Heiko U. Wittmer
Unresolved taxonomy of threatened species is problematic for conservation as the field relies on species being distinct taxonomic units. Differences in breeding habitat and results from a preliminary molecular analysis indicated that the New Zealand population of the South Georgian Diving Petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) was a distinct, yet undescribed, species. We measured 11 biometric characters and scored eight plumage characters in 143 live birds and 64 study skins originating from most populations of P. georgicus,...

Data from: Fitness and microbial networks of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in its native and introduced range

Monica A. M. Gruber, Oliver Quinn, James W. Baty, Jana Dobelmann, John Haywood, T. Wenseleers & Philip J. Lester
1. Variation in microbial communities between populations is increasingly hypothesized to affect animal fitness and performance, including for invasive species. Pathogenic species may be lost during the introduction process, enhancing invader fitness and abundance. 2. We assessed fitness, immune gene expression, and microbial network complexity of invasive common wasps, Vespula vulgaris. Microbial networks were assayed using 16S and 18S sequencing and gene expression arrays in the native (Belgium) and introduced range (New Zealand). We examined...

Data from: Genetic consequences of a century of protection: serial founder events and survival of the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii)

Kristina M. Ramstad, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Fred W. Allendorf & Charles H. Daugherty
We present the outcome of a century of post-bottleneck isolation of a long-lived species, the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii, LSK) and demonstrate that profound genetic consequences can result from protecting few individuals in isolation. LSK were saved from extinction by translocation of five birds from South Island, New Zealand to Kapiti Island 100 years ago. The Kapiti population now numbers some 1200 birds and provides founders for new populations. We used 15 microsatellite loci...

Data from: Table scraps: inter-trophic food provisioning by pumas

L. Mark Elbroch & Heiko U. Wittmer
Large carnivores perform keystone ecological functions through direct predation, or indirectly, through food subsidies to scavengers or trophic cascades driven by their influence on the distributions of their prey. Pumas (Puma concolor) are an elusive, cryptic species difficult to study, and little is known about their inter-trophic level interactions in natural communities. Using new GPS technology, we discovered that pumas in Patagonia provided 232 ± 31 kg of edible meat/month/100 km2 to near-threatened Andean condors...

Data from: Multiple anthropogenic interventions drive puma survival following wolf recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

L. Mark Elbroch, Lucile Marescot, Howard Quigley, Derek Craighead & Heiko U. Wittmer
Humans are primary drivers of declining abundances and extirpation of large carnivores worldwide. Management interventions to restore biodiversity patterns, however, include carnivore reintroductions, despite the many unresolved ecological consequences associated with such efforts. Using multistate capture-mark-recapture models, we explored age-specific survival and cause-specific mortality rates for 134 pumas (Puma concolor) monitored in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem during gray wolf (Canis lupus) recovery. We identified two top models explaining differences in puma survivorship, and our results...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

A coralline alga gains tolerance to ocean acidification after multiple generations of exposure: data

Christopher Cornwall
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) play a crucial role in the building of reefs in the photic zones of nearshore ecosystems globally and are highly susceptible to ocean acidification. Yet the extent to which CCA can gain tolerance to ocean acidification over multiple generations of exposure is unknown. We show that while calcification of juvenile CCA is initially highly sensitive to ocean acidification, after 6 generations of exposure the effects of ocean acidification disappears. A reciprocal...

Data associated with: Going round the twist – An empirical analysis of shell coiling in helicospiral gastropods

Katie S. Collins, Roman Klapaukh, James S. Crampton, Michael F. Gazley, C. Ian Schipper, Anton Maksimenko & Benjamin R. Hines
The logarithmic helicospiral has been the most widely accepted model of regularly coiled mollusc form since it was proposed by Moseley (1838) and popularised by Thompson (1942) and Raup (1966). It is based on an explicit assumption that shells are isometric and grow exponentially, and an implicit assumption that the external form of the shell follows the internal shape, which implies that the parameters of the spiral could, theoretically, be reconstructed from the external whorl...

Relationships in the Interbank Market

Jonathan Chiu & Cyril Monnet
In the interbank market for overnight loans, banks sometimes trade below the central bank's deposit rate. This act is puzzling, as it seems to miss exploiting opportunities for arbitrage. In particular, why do banks lend to other banks, exposing themselves to counterparty risk, when they could earn a higher rate by depositing the balances at a risk-free central bank? This paper provides a theory to explain this anomaly. In the presence of market frictions, banks...

Data from: Emerging patterns of genetic variation in the New Zealand endemic scallop Pecten novaezelandiae

Catarina N. S. Silva & Jonathan P. A. Gardner
Both historical and contemporary processes influence the genetic structure of species, but the relative roles of such processes are still difficult to access. Population genetic studies of species with recent evolutionary histories such as the New Zealand endemic scallop Pecten novaezelandiae (<1 Ma) permit testing of the effects of recent processes affecting gene flow and shaping genetic structure. In addition, studies encompassing the entire distributional range of species can provide insight into colonization processes. Analyses...

Data from: Outlier SNPs detect weak regional structure against a background of genetic homogeneity in the Eastern Rock Lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi

Laura N. Woodings, Nicholas P. Murphy, Stephen R. Doyle, Nathan E. Hall, Andrew J. Robinson, Geoffrey W. Liggins, Bridget S. Green, Ira R. Cooke, James J. Bell & Jan M. Strugnell
Genetic differentiation is characteristically weak in marine species making assessments of population connectivity and structure difficult. However the advent of genomic methods have increased genetic resolution, enabling studies to detect weak, but significant population differentiation within marine species. With an increasing number of studies employing high resolution genome-wide techniques, we are realising the connectivity of marine populations is often complex and quantifying this complexity can provide an understanding of the processes shaping marine species genetic...

Data from: Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard

Reid Tingley, Michael B. Thompson, Stephen Hartley & David G. Chapple
Studies of realized niche shifts in alien species typically ignore the potential effects of intraspecific niche variation and different invaded-range environments on niche lability. We incorporate our detailed knowledge of the native-range source populations and global introduction history of the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata to examine intraspecific variation in realized niche expansion and unfilling, and investigate how alternative niche modelling approaches are affected by that variation. We analyzed the realized niche dynamics of L. delicata...

Data from: Implications of fidelity and philopatry for the population structure of female black-tailed deer

Samhita Bose, Tavis D. Forrester, Jennifer L. Brazeal, Benjamin N. Sacks, David S. Casady & Heiko U. Wittmer
Site fidelity and philopatry are behavioral adaptations found in many species and their fitness benefits are well documented. The combined population level consequences of site fidelity and philopatry, however, have received little attention despite their importance for understanding spatial patterns in connectivity and population dynamics. We used an integrative approach to explore consequences of fidelity and philopatry on the fine-scale genetic structure of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). We assessed fidelity to seasonal home ranges...

Data from: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, S. Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Janelle M. Jones, Lijuan Cui, Genevieve Dingle, James Liu, Sean Murphy, Anh Thai, Zoe Walter & Airong Zhang
Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to...

Data from: Fitness in invasive social wasps: the role of variation in viral load, immune response and paternity in predicting nest size and reproductive output

Jana Dobelmann, Kevin J. Loope, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Oliver Quinn, James W. Baty, Monica A. M. Gruber & Philip J. Lester
Within any one habitat, the relative fitness of organisms in a population can vary substantially. Social insects like the common wasp are among the most successful invasive animals, but show enormous variation in nest size and other fitness-related traits. Some of this variation may be caused by pathogens such as viruses that can have serious consequences in social insects, which range from reduced productivity to colony death. Both individual immune responses and colony-level traits such...

Data from: The ability of North Island robins to discriminate between humans is related to their behavioural type

Craig A. Barnett, Matt Salter, Clément Chevallier, Nicola Robertson, Otis Berard, Kevin C. Burns & Craig Barnett
Animals are able to learn to identify persistent threats to themselves and their offspring. For example, birds are able to quickly learn to discriminate between humans that have previously threatened their nests from humans with whom they have had no prior experience. However, no study has yet examined whether a bird's ability to discriminate between humans is related to the bird's underlying behavioural type. In this study, we examined whether there were differences among North...

Data from: The role of scent marking in mate selection by female pumas (Puma concolor)

Maximilian L. Allen, Heiko U. Wittmer, Paul Houghtaling, Justine A. Smith, L. Mark Elbroch, Christopher C. Wilmers & Justine Smith
Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared...

Data from: Sex-specific shifts in morphology and colour pattern polymorphism during range expansion of an invasive lizard

Kimberly A. Miller, Andressa Duran, Jane Melville, Michael B. Thompson & David G. Chapple
Aim: Human-assisted range expansion of animals to new environments can lead to phenotypic shifts over ecological timescales.We investigated whether phenotypic changes are sex-specific using an invasive lizard (Lampropholis delicata). Location: Pacific region (Hawaiian Islands, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, eastern Australia) Methods: Using our knowledge of theintroduction history of L. delicata, we examined museum specimens of individuals collected across the native and introduced range to determine whether shifts in morphologyor colour pattern polymorphism had occurred...

Reintroduced wolves and hunting limit the abundance of a subordinate apex predator in a multi-use landscape

L. Mark Elbroch, Jake Ferguson, Howard Quigley, Derek Craighead, Daniel Thompson & Heiko Wittmer
Top-down effects exhibited by apex predators are modulated by human impacts on community composition and species abundances. For these reasons, research supporting strong top-down effects of apex predators occurs almost entirely within protected areas rather than the much more common multi-use landscapes dominating modern ecosystems. Based on 16 years of monitoring, we developed an integrated population model to disentangle the concurrent contributions of a reintroduced apex predator, the gray wolf, human hunting, and prey abundances...

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