Data from: Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchaxSamantha V. Beck, Gary R. Carvalho, Axel Barlow, Lukas Rüber, Heok Hui Tan, Estu Nugroho, Daisy Wowor, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Fabian Herder, Zainal A. Muchlisin & Mark De Bruyn
The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have...
Intraspecific competition plays a significant role in shaping how animals use and share habitats in space and time. However, the way individuals may modify their diel activity in response to increased competition has received limited attention. We used juvenile (age 1+) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus to test the prediction that individuals at high population density are more active and distribute their foraging activity over a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than individuals at low...
In the evolutionary transition from solitary to group living, it should be adaptive for animals to respond to the environment and choose when to socialise to reduce conflict and maximise access to resources. Due to the associated proximate mechanisms (e.g. neural network, endocrine system), it is likely that this behaviour varies between individuals according to genetic and non-genetic factors. We used long-term behavioural and genetic data from a population of eastern water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii)...
Influences of climatic and social environment on variable maternal allocation among offspring in Alpine marmotsFloriane Plard, Benoit Chamiot-Clerc & Aurélie Cohas
4 dataset corresponding to the four models described.
Data from: AFLPs and mitochondrial haplotypes reveal local adaptation to extreme thermal environments in a freshwater gastropodMaría Quintela, Magnus P. Johansson, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Rodolfo Barreiro & Anssi Laurila
The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher FST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci...
Data from: Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable ageKay Lucek, Arjun Sivasundar, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason & Ole Seehausen
When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism...
Data from: Gene expression in the phenotypically plastic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a focus on growth and ossification at early stages of developmentSamantha V. Beck, Katja Räsänen, Ehsan P. Ahi, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Zophonías O. Jónsson & Camille A. Leblanc
Gene expression during development shapes the phenotypes of individuals. Although embryonic gene expression can have lasting effects on developmental trajectories, few studies consider the role of maternal effects, such as egg size, on gene expression. Using qPCR, we characterize relative expression of 14 growth and/or skeletal promoting genes across embryonic development in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We test to what extent their relative expression is correlated with egg size and size at early life‐stages within...
Genetic variation for upper thermal tolerance diminishes within and between populations with increasing acclimation temperature in Atlantic salmonPaul Vincent Debes, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Ivar Helge Matre, Lise Dyrhovden & Kevin Alan Glover
Populations may counteract lasting temperature changes or recurrent extremes through plasticity or adaptation. However, it remains underexplored how outbreeding, either naturally, unintentionally, or facilitated, may modify a local response potential and whether genotype-by-environment interactions or between-trait correlations can restrict this potential. We quantified population differences and outbreeding effects, within-population genetic variation, and plasticity of these, for thermal performance proxy traits using 32 pedigreed wild, domesticated, and wild-domesticated Atlantic salmon families reared under common-garden conditions. Following...
Data from: Divergence of gastropod life history in contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lakeMagnus P. Johansson, Friederike Ermold, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson & Anssi Laurila
Experiments using natural populations have provided mixed support for thermal adaptation models, probably because the conditions are often confounded with additional environmental factors like seasonality. The contrasting geothermal environments within Lake Mývatn, northern Iceland, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate thermal adaptation models using closely located natural populations. We conducted laboratory common garden and field reciprocal transplant experiments to investigate how thermal origin influences the life history of Radix balthica snails originating from stable cold...
Data from: Repeatability of adaptive radiation depends on spatial scale: regional versus global replicates of stickleback in lake versus stream habitatsAntoine Paccard, Dieta Hanson, Yoel E Stuart, Frank A Von Hippel, Martin Kalbe, Tom Klepaker, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Daniel I Bolnick, Andrew P Hendry & Rowan D H Barrett
The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation -their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on...
Iceland has an abundance of fissures that are parallel to the Mid-Atlantic ridge where bedrock cracks as a result of continental rifting. Some fissures penetrate the aquifer and expose the groundwater within the bedrock, becoming springs. As such, groundwater fissures have uniform and constant physical and chemical environment but they can differ greatly in morphology. In addition, there is often great variation in depth within fissures and substrate types contrast between vertical rock wall and...
Data from: Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in threespine sticklebackCharles B Kimmel, William A Cresko, Patrick C. Phillips, Bonnie Ullmann, Mark Currey, Frank Von Hippel, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Ofer Gelmond & Katrina McGuigan
Evolution of similar phenotypes in independent populations is often taken as evidence of adaptation to the same fitness optimum. However, the genetic architecture of traits might cause evolution to proceed more often toward particular phenotypes, and less often toward others, independently of the adaptive value of the traits. Freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback have repeatedly evolved the same distinctive opercle shape after divergence from an oceanic ancestor. Here we demonstrate that this pattern of...
Multigenerational exposure to elevated temperatures leads to a reduction in standard metabolic rate in the wildNatalie Pilakouta, Shaun Killen, Bjarni Kristjansson, Skuli Skulason, Jan Lindstom, Neil Metcalfe & Kevin Parsons
In light of global climate change, there is a pressing need to understand and predict the capacity of populations to respond to rising temperatures. Metabolic rate is a key trait that is likely to influence the ability to cope with climate change. Yet, empirical and theoretical work on metabolic rate responses to temperature changes has so far produced mixed results and conflicting predictions. Our study addresses this issue using a novel approach of comparing fish...
Gene transcription variation is known to contribute to disease susceptibility and adaptation, but we currently know very little about how contemporary natural selection shapes transcript abundance. Here, we propose a novel analytical framework to quantify the strength and form of ongoing natural selection at the transcriptome level in a wild vertebrate. We estimated selection on transcript abundance in a cohort of a wild salmonid fish (Salmo trutta) affected by an extracellular myxozoan parasite (Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...
Data from: The alternative oxidase (AOX) increases sulphide tolerance in the highly invasive marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalisKatharina Bremer, Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Paul Vincent Debes & Howard Trevor Jacobs
Ecological communities and biodiversity are shaped by both abiotic and biotic factors. This is well illustrated by extreme environments and invasive species. With global change, hydrogen sulphide is an increasing threat for many multicellular organisms. As the formation, size, and abundance of hydrogen sulphide-rich marine environments increase, many species are challenged with the inhibiting effect of sulphide on the aerobic energy production via cytochrome c oxidase, ultimately causing the death of the organism. Interestingly, many...
Variation in parasite resistance of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, between and within sympatric morphsAnssi Karvonen, Samantha Beck, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni Kristjánsson & Camille Leblanc
Genetic variation in resistance against parasite infections is a predominant feature in host-parasite systems. However, mechanisms maintaining genetic polymorphism in resistance in natural host populations are generally poorly known. We explored if differences in natural infection pressure between resource-based morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has resulted in differentiation in resistance profiles. We experimentally exposed offspring of two morphs from Lake Þingvallavatn (Iceland), the pelagic planktivorous charr (‘murta’) and the large benthivorous charr (‘kuðungableikja’), to...
Hólar University College16
University of Iceland2
University of Bern2
The University of Texas at Austin1
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology1
Estonian University of Life Sciences1
University of Glasgow1
Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig1