22 Works

Data from: Divergence of gastropod life history in contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lake

Magnus P. Johansson, Friederike Ermold, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson & Anssi Laurila
Experiments using natural populations have provided mixed support for thermal adaptation models, probably because the conditions are often confounded with additional environmental factors like seasonality. The contrasting geothermal environments within Lake Mývatn, northern Iceland, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate thermal adaptation models using closely located natural populations. We conducted laboratory common garden and field reciprocal transplant experiments to investigate how thermal origin influences the life history of Radix balthica snails originating from stable cold...

Data from: Invertebrate biodiversity in cold groundwater fissures in Iceland

Jónína H. Ólafsdóttir, Jóhann G. Þorbjörnsson, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson & Jón S. Ólafsson
Iceland has an abundance of fissures that are parallel to the Mid-Atlantic ridge where bedrock cracks as a result of continental rifting. Some fissures penetrate the aquifer and expose the groundwater within the bedrock, becoming springs. As such, groundwater fissures have uniform and constant physical and chemical environment but they can differ greatly in morphology. In addition, there is often great variation in depth within fissures and substrate types contrast between vertical rock wall and...

Data from: Repeatability of adaptive radiation depends on spatial scale: regional versus global replicates of stickleback in lake versus stream habitats

Antoine Paccard, Dieta Hanson, Yoel E Stuart, Frank A Von Hippel, Martin Kalbe, Tom Klepaker, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Daniel I Bolnick, Andrew P Hendry & Rowan D H Barrett
The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation -their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on...

Genetic variation for upper thermal tolerance diminishes within and between populations with increasing acclimation temperature in Atlantic salmon

Paul Vincent Debes, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Ivar Helge Matre, Lise Dyrhovden & Kevin Alan Glover
Populations may counteract lasting temperature changes or recurrent extremes through plasticity or adaptation. However, it remains underexplored how outbreeding, either naturally, unintentionally, or facilitated, may modify a local response potential and whether genotype-by-environment interactions or between-trait correlations can restrict this potential. We quantified population differences and outbreeding effects, within-population genetic variation, and plasticity of these, for thermal performance proxy traits using 32 pedigreed wild, domesticated, and wild-domesticated Atlantic salmon families reared under common-garden conditions. Following...

Heterogeneity in resource competition covaries with individual variation in long-term social relationships

Alexis L Levengood, Kasha Strickland, Vivienne Foroughirad, Janet Mann, Romane H. Cristescu, Ewa Krzyszczyk & Celine H. Frere
Resource competition among conspecifics is central to social evolution, as it serves as one of the primary selective pressures of group living. This is because the degree of competition for resources impacts the costs and benefits of social interactions. Despite this, how heterogeneity in resource competition drives variation in the type and quantity of long-term social relationships individuals foster has been overlooked. By measuring male mating competition and female foraging competition in a highly social,...

Data from: AFLPs and mitochondrial haplotypes reveal local adaptation to extreme thermal environments in a freshwater gastropod

María Quintela, Magnus P. Johansson, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Rodolfo Barreiro & Anssi Laurila
The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher FST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci...

Data from: Quick divergence but slow convergence during ecotype formation in lake and stream stickleback pairs of variable age

Kay Lucek, Arjun Sivasundar, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason & Ole Seehausen
When genetic constraints restrict phenotypic evolution, diversification can be predicted to evolve along so-called lines of least resistance. To address the importance of such constraints and their resolution, studies of parallel phenotypic divergence that differ in their age are valuable. Here, we investigate the parapatric evolution of six lake and stream threespine stickleback systems from Iceland and Switzerland, ranging in age from a few decades to several millennia. Using phenotypic data, we test for parallelism...

Data from: Gene expression in the phenotypically plastic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a focus on growth and ossification at early stages of development

Samantha V. Beck, Katja Räsänen, Ehsan P. Ahi, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Zophonías O. Jónsson & Camille A. Leblanc
Gene expression during development shapes the phenotypes of individuals. Although embryonic gene expression can have lasting effects on developmental trajectories, few studies consider the role of maternal effects, such as egg size, on gene expression. Using qPCR, we characterize relative expression of 14 growth and/or skeletal promoting genes across embryonic development in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We test to what extent their relative expression is correlated with egg size and size at early life‐stages within...

Influences of climatic and social environment on variable maternal allocation among offspring in Alpine marmots

Floriane Plard, Benoit Chamiot-Clerc & Aurélie Cohas
4 dataset corresponding to the four models described.

Selection in the city: Rapid and fine scale evolution of urban eastern water dragons

Nicola Jackson, Bethan Littleford-Colquhoun, Kasha Strickland, Barbara Class & Celine Frere
Oceanic archipelagos have long been treated as a petri dish for studies of evolutionary and ecological processes. Like archipelagos, cities exhibit similar patterns and processes, such as the rapid phenotypic divergence of a species between urban and non-urban environments. However, on a local scale, cities can be highly heterogenous, where geographically close populations can experience dramatically different environmental conditions. Nevertheless, we are yet to understand the evolutionary and ecological implications for populations spread across a...

Data from: Density-dependent diel activity in stream-dwelling Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus

Amy Fingerle, Nicolas Larranaga & Stefán Óli Steingrímsson
Intraspecific competition plays a significant role in shaping how animals use and share habitats in space and time. However, the way individuals may modify their diel activity in response to increased competition has received limited attention. We used juvenile (age 1+) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus to test the prediction that individuals at high population density are more active and distribute their foraging activity over a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than individuals at low...

Data from: Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchax

Samantha V. Beck, Gary R. Carvalho, Axel Barlow, Lukas Rüber, Heok Hui Tan, Estu Nugroho, Daisy Wowor, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Fabian Herder, Zainal A. Muchlisin & Mark De Bruyn
The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have...

Testing the effectiveness of genetic monitoring using genetic non-invasive sampling

Anthony Schultz, Kasha Strickland, Romane Cristescu, Jon Hanger, Deidre De Villiers & Celine Frere
1. Effective conservation requires accurate data on population genetic diversity, inbreeding, and genetic structure. Increasingly, scientists are adopting genetic non-invasive sampling as a cost-effective population-wide genetic monitoring approach. Genetic non-invasive sampling has, however, known limitations which may impact the accuracy of downstream genetic analyses. 2. Here, using high quality SNP data from blood/tissue sampling of a free-ranging koala population (n = 430), we investigated how the reduced SNP panel size and call rate typical of...

Repeatability and heritability of social reaction norms in a wild agamid lizard

Kasha Strickland, David Mitchell, Coralie Delmé & Celine Frère
In the evolutionary transition from solitary to group living, it should be adaptive for animals to respond to the environment and choose when to socialise to reduce conflict and maximise access to resources. Due to the associated proximate mechanisms (e.g. neural network, endocrine system), it is likely that this behaviour varies between individuals according to genetic and non-genetic factors. We used long-term behavioural and genetic data from a population of eastern water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii)...

Data for the manuscript: Demographic basis of spatially structured fluctuations in a threespine stickleback metapopulation

Joseph Phillips, Árni Einarsson, Kasha Strickland, Anthony Ives, Bjarni Kristjánsson & Katja Räsänen
Uncovering the demographic basis of population fluctuations is a central goal of population biology. This is particularly challenging for spatially structured populations, which require disentangling synchrony in demographic rates from coupling via immigration. In this study, we fit a stage-structured metapopulation model to a 29-year times series of threespine stickleback abundance in the heterogeneous and productive Lake Myvatn, Iceland. The lake comprises two basins (North and South) connected by a channel through which the stickleback...

Data from: Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in threespine stickleback

Charles B Kimmel, William A Cresko, Patrick C. Phillips, Bonnie Ullmann, Mark Currey, Frank Von Hippel, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Ofer Gelmond & Katrina McGuigan
Evolution of similar phenotypes in independent populations is often taken as evidence of adaptation to the same fitness optimum. However, the genetic architecture of traits might cause evolution to proceed more often toward particular phenotypes, and less often toward others, independently of the adaptive value of the traits. Freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback have repeatedly evolved the same distinctive opercle shape after divergence from an oceanic ancestor. Here we demonstrate that this pattern of...

Multigenerational exposure to elevated temperatures leads to a reduction in standard metabolic rate in the wild

Natalie Pilakouta, Shaun Killen, Bjarni Kristjansson, Skuli Skulason, Jan Lindstom, Neil Metcalfe & Kevin Parsons
In light of global climate change, there is a pressing need to understand and predict the capacity of populations to respond to rising temperatures. Metabolic rate is a key trait that is likely to influence the ability to cope with climate change. Yet, empirical and theoretical work on metabolic rate responses to temperature changes has so far produced mixed results and conflicting predictions. Our study addresses this issue using a novel approach of comparing fish...

The strength and form of natural selection on transcript abundance in the wild

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Ilkka Nousiainen, Siim Kahar, Lilian Pukk, Riho Gross, Mikhail Ozerov & Anti Vasemägi
Gene transcription variation is known to contribute to disease susceptibility and adaptation, but we currently know very little about how contemporary natural selection shapes transcript abundance. Here, we propose a novel analytical framework to quantify the strength and form of ongoing natural selection at the transcriptome level in a wild vertebrate. We estimated selection on transcript abundance in a cohort of a wild salmonid fish (Salmo trutta) affected by an extracellular myxozoan parasite (Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...

Data from: The alternative oxidase (AOX) increases sulphide tolerance in the highly invasive marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis

Katharina Bremer, Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Paul Vincent Debes & Howard Trevor Jacobs
Ecological communities and biodiversity are shaped by both abiotic and biotic factors. This is well illustrated by extreme environments and invasive species. With global change, hydrogen sulphide is an increasing threat for many multicellular organisms. As the formation, size, and abundance of hydrogen sulphide-rich marine environments increase, many species are challenged with the inhibiting effect of sulphide on the aerobic energy production via cytochrome c oxidase, ultimately causing the death of the organism. Interestingly, many...

Variation in parasite resistance of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, between and within sympatric morphs

Anssi Karvonen, Samantha Beck, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni Kristjánsson & Camille Leblanc
Genetic variation in resistance against parasite infections is a predominant feature in host-parasite systems. However, mechanisms maintaining genetic polymorphism in resistance in natural host populations are generally poorly known. We explored if differences in natural infection pressure between resource-based morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has resulted in differentiation in resistance profiles. We experimentally exposed offspring of two morphs from Lake Þingvallavatn (Iceland), the pelagic planktivorous charr (‘murta’) and the large benthivorous charr (‘kuðungableikja’), to...

Data from: Host developmental stage effects on parasite resistance and tolerance

Ines Klemme, Paul Vincent Debes, Craig Robert Primmer, Laura Härkönen, Jaakko Erkinaro, Pekka Hyvärinen & Anssi Karvonen
Hosts can defend themselves against parasites by either preventing or limiting infections (resistance), or limiting parasite-induced damage (tolerance). However, it remains underexplored how these defense types vary over host development with shifting patterns of resource allocation priorities. Here, we studied the role of developmental stage on resistance and tolerance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This anadromous fish has distinct life stages related to living in fresh and sea water. We experimentally exposed one-year old salmon,...

Data from: Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in threespine stickleback

Charles B Kimmel, William A Cresko, Patrick C. Phillips, Bonnie Ullmann, Mark Currey, Frank Von Hippel, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Ofer Gelmond & Katrina McGuigan
Evolution of similar phenotypes in independent populations is often taken as evidence of adaptation to the same fitness optimum. However, the genetic architecture of traits might cause evolution to proceed more often toward particular phenotypes, and less often toward others, independently of the adaptive value of the traits. Freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback have repeatedly evolved the same distinctive opercle shape after divergence from an oceanic ancestor. Here we demonstrate that this pattern of...

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