60 Works

Political Responsibility for Climate Change

Alice Roberts

Data from: Multilocus phylogeographic assessment of the California Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata) suggests alternative patterns of diversification for the California Floristic Province

Edward A. Myers, Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles, Dale F. DeNardo, Richard E. Staub, Alyssa Stropoli, Sara Ruane & Frank T. Burbrink
Phylogeographic inference can determine the timing of population divergence, historical demographic processes, patterns of migration, and when extended to multiple species, the history of communities. Single locus analyses can mislead interpretations of the evolutionary history of taxa and comparative analyses. It is therefore important to revisit previous single-locus phylogeographic studies, particularly those that have been used to propose general patterns for regional biotas and the processes responsible for generating inferred patterns. Here we employ a...

Biotic predictors with phenological information improve range estimates for migrating monarch butterflies in Mexico

Jamie M. Kass, Robert P. Anderson, Alejandro Espinosa-Lucas, Verónica Juárez-Jaimes, Esteban Martínez-Salas, Francisco Botello, Gloria Tavera, José Juan Flores-Martínez & Víctor Sánchez-Cordero
Although long-standing theory suggests that biotic variables are only relevant at local scales for explaining the patterns of species’ distributions, recent studies have demonstrated improvements to species distribution models (SDMs) by incorporating predictor variables informed by biotic interactions. However, some key methodological questions remain, such as which kinds of interactions are permitted to include in these models, how to incorporate the effects of multiple interacting species, and how to account for interactions that may have...

Data from: Pleistocene climatic changes drive diversification across a tropical savanna

Sally Potter, Alexander T. Xue, Jason G. Bragg, Dan F. Rosauer, Emily J. Roycroft & Craig Moritz
Spatial responses of species to past climate change depend on both intrinsic traits (climatic niche breadth, dispersal rates) and the scale of climatic fluctuations across the landscape. New capabilities in generating and analysing population genomic data, along with spatial modelling, have unleashed our capacity to infer how past climate changes have shaped populations, and by extension, complex communities. Combining these approaches, we uncover lineage diversity across four co-distributed lizards from the Australian Monsoonal Tropics and...

Data from: Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments

Parrish C. Brady, Alexander A. Gilerson, George W. Kattawar, James M. Sullivan, Michael S. Twardowski, Heidi M. Dierssen, Meng Gao, Kort Travis, Robert I. Etheredge, Alberto Tonizzo, Amir Ibrahim, Carlos Carrizo, Yalong Gu, Brandon J. Russell, Kathryn Mislinski, Shulei Zhao & Molly E. Cummings
Despite appearing featureless to our eyes, the open ocean is a highly variable environment for polarization-sensitive viewers. Dynamic visual backgrounds coupled with predator encounters from all possible directions make this habitat one of the most challenging for camouflage. We tested open-ocean crypsis in nature by collecting more than 1500 videopolarimetry measurements from live fish from distinct habitats under a variety of viewing conditions. Open-ocean fish species exhibited camouflage that was superior to that of both...

Data from: Lineage diversification in a widespread species: roles for niche divergence and conservatism in the Common Kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula

Robert Alexander Pyron & Frank T Burbrink
Niche conservatism and niche divergence are both important ecological mechanisms associated with promoting allopatric speciation across geographic barriers. However, the potential for variable responses in widely distributed organisms has not been fully investigated. For allopatric sister lineages, three patterns for the interaction of ecological niche preference and geographic barriers are possible: i) niche conservatism at a physical barrier, ii) niche divergence at a physical barrier, and iii) niche divergence in the absence of a physical...

Data from: Rate of evolutionary change in cranial morphology of the marsupial genus Monodelphis is constrained by the availability of additive genetic variation

Arthur Porto, Harley Sebastião, Silvia Eliza Pavan, John L. VandeBerg, Gabriel Marroig & James M. Cheverud
We tested the hypothesis that the rate of marsupial cranial evolution is dependent on the distribution of genetic variation in multivariate space. To do so, we carried out a genetic analysis of cranial morphological variation in laboratory strains of Monodelphis domestica and used estimates of genetic covariation to analyze the morphological diversification of the Monodelphis brevicaudata species group. We found that within-species genetic variation is concentrated in only a few axes of the morphospace and...

Data from: Pathogen richness and abundance predict patterns of adaptive MHC variation in insular amphibians

Supen Wang, Conghui Liu, Anthony B. Wilson, Na Zhao, Xianping Li, Wei Zhu, Xu Gao, Xuan Liu & Yiming Li
The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process, and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and 3...

Data from: A description of nesting behaviors, including factors impacting nest site selection, in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata)

Andrea L. Baden
Nest site selection is at once fundamental to reproduction and a poorly understood component of many organisms’ reproductive investment. This study investigates the nesting behaviors of black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, a litter-bearing primate from the southeastern rainforests of Madagascar. Using a combination of behavioral, geospatial, and demographic data, I test the hypotheses that environmental and social cues influence nest site selection, and that these decisions ultimately impact maternal reproductive success. Gestating females built multiple...

Data from: Signatures of rapid evolution in urban and rural transcriptomes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in the New York metropolitan area

Stephen E. Harris, Jason Munshi-South, Craig Obergfell, Rachel O'Neill & Rachel O’Neill
Urbanization is a major cause of ecological degradation around the world, and human settlement in large cities is accelerating. New York City (NYC) is one of the oldest and most urbanized cities in North America, but still maintains 20% vegetation cover and substantial populations of some native wildlife. The white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, is a common resident of NYC’s forest fragments and an emerging model system for examining the evolutionary consequences of urbanization. In this...

Data from: A taxonomic revision of the North American species of Lepraria s.l. that produce divaricatic acid, with notes on the type species of the genus L. incana.

James C. Lendemer
The divaricatic acid-producing populations of Lepraria in North America north of Mexico are revised using traditional morphological characters, chemistry, ecology, biogeography, and ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 sequence data. Three taxa are accepted: L. cryophila, L. hodkinsoniana sp. nov., and L. pacifica sp. nov. Both Lepraria crassissima and L. incana are excluded from the study area. Non-cryptic, semi-cryptic, and fully-cryptic species concepts in Lepraria are discussed with a special emphasis on the practical integration of molecular...

Data from: Speciation with gene flow in whiptail lizards from a Neotropical xeric biome

Eliana F. Oliveira, Marcelo Gehara, Vinícius A. São Pedro, Xin Chen, Edward A. Myers, Frank T. Burbrink, Daniel O. Mesquita, Adrian A. Garda, Guarino R. Colli, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Federico J. Arias, Hussam Zaher, Rodrigo M. L. Santos & Gabriel C. Costa
Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversification of the Caatinga biota. The riverine barrier hypothesis (RBH) claims that the São Francisco River (SFR) is a major biogeographic barrier to gene flow. The Pleistocene climatic fluctuation hypothesis (PCH) states that gene flow, geographic genetic structure, and demographic signatures on endemic Caatinga taxa were influenced by Quaternary climate fluctuation cycles. Herein we analyze genetic diversity and structure, phylogeographic history, and diversification of a widespread...

Data from: ABC inference of multi-population divergence with admixture from unphased population genomic data

John D. Robinson, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Jack Hearn, Graham N. Stone & Michael J. Hickerson
Rapidly developing sequencing technologies and declining costs have made it possible to collect genome-scale data from population-level samples in non-model systems. Inferential tools for historical demography given these datasets are, at present, underdeveloped. In particular, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has yet to be widely embraced by researchers generating these data. Here, we demonstrate the promise of ABC for analysis of the large datasets that are now attainable from non-model taxa through current genomic sequencing technologies....

Data from: A comprehensive and dated phylogenomic analysis of butterflies

Marianne Espeland, Jesse W. Breinholt, Keith R. Willmott, Andrew D. Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Sarah C. Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rodney Eastwood, Marta A. Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce, Akito Y. Kawahara, Jesse Breinholt & Emmanuel F.A. Toussaint
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species...

Genomic analysis of the only blind cichlid reveals extensive inactivation in eye and pigment formation genes

S. Elizabeth Alter
Trait loss represents an intriguing evolutionary problem, particularly when it occurs across independent lineages. Fishes in light-poor environments often evolve “troglomorphic” traits, including reduction or loss of both pigment and eyes. Here we investigate the genomic basis of trait loss in a blind and depigmented African cichlid, Lamprologus lethops, and explore evolutionary forces (selection and drift) that may have contributed to these losses. This species, the only known blind cichlid, is endemic to the lower...

Data from: From refugia to rookeries: phylogeography of Atlantic green turtles

Eugenia Naro-Maciel, Brendan N. Reid, S. Elizabeth Alter, George Amato, Karen A. Bjorndal, Alan B. Bolten, Meredith Martin, Campbell J. Nairn, Brian Shamblin & Oscar Pineda-Catalan
Investigating species’ distribution and abundance over time is central to evolutionary biology, and provides important context for conservation and management. With respect to population genetic structure in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), certain processes such as female philopatry to natal rookeries are well understood, while others, such as male philopatry and historical changes in distribution and abundance, remain relatively understudied. Further, although inferences from mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites have both been critical in identifying...

Data from: A new null model approach to quantify performance and significance for ecological niche models of species distributions

Corentin L. Bohl, Jamie M. Kass & Robert P. Anderson
Aim: Ecological niche modelling requires robust estimation of model performance and significance, but common evaluation approaches often yield biased estimates. Null models provide a solution but are rarely used in this field. We implemented an important modification to existing null-model tests, evaluating null models with the same withheld records that were used to evaluate the real model. We built and evaluated models across a range of modelling scenarios and for various performance measures using the...

Data from: Anterior insular cortex plays a critical role in interoceptive attention

Xingchao Wang, Qiong Wu, Laura Egan, Xiaosi Gu, Pinan Liu, Hong Gu, Yihong Yang, Jing Luo, Yanhong Wu, Zhixian Gao & Jin Fan
Accumulating evidence indicates that the anterior insular cortex (AIC) mediates interoceptive attention, which refers to attention towards physiological signals arising from the body. However, the necessity of the AIC in this process has not been demonstrated. Using a novel task that directs attention toward breathing rhythm, we assessed the involvement of the AIC in interoceptive attention in healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined the necessity of the AIC in interoceptive attention in...

Data from: Bioclimatic variables derived from remote sensing: assessment and application for species distribution modeling

Eric Waltari, Ronny Schroeder, Kyle McDonald, Robert P. Anderson & Ana Carnaval
Remote sensing techniques offer an opportunity to improve biodiversity modeling and prediction worldwide. Yet, to date, the weather-station based WorldClim dataset has been the primary source of temperature and precipitation information used in correlative species distribution models. WorldClim consists of grids interpolated from in situ station data recorded primarily from 1960 to 1990. Those datasets suffer from uneven geographic coverage, with many areas of Earth poorly represented. Here, we compare two remote sensing data sources...

Data from: Disentangling the genetic effects of refugial isolation and range expansion in a trans-continentally distributed species

Brendan N. Reid, Jamie M. Kass, Seth Wollney, Evelyn L. Jensen, Michael A. Russello, Ella M. Viola, Jenna Pantophlet, John B. Iverson, Marcus Z. Peery, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Eugenia Naro-Maciel
In wide-ranging taxa with historically dynamic ranges, past allopatric isolation and range expansion can both influence the current structure of genetic diversity. Considering alternate historical scenarios involving expansion from either a single refugium or from multiple refugia can be useful in differentiating the effects of isolation and expansion. Here, we examined patterns of genetic variability in the trans-continentally distributed painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We utilized an existing phylogeographic dataset for the mitochondrial control region and...

Data from: When are adaptive radiations replicated in areas? Ecological opportunity and unexceptional diversification in West Indian dipsadine snakes (Colubridae: Alsophiini)

Frank T. Burbrink, Sara Ruane & Robert Alexander Pyron
AIM: We examine diversification in Caribbean alsophiine snakes and hypothesize that, given ecological opportunity presented by colonizing the West Indies, alsophiines should show the signature of an early burst of diversification and associated low-within clade ecological and morphological disparification. We also test if changes in morphology or ecology are associated with changes in diversification rate, as trait-dependent diversification is hypothesized to affect historical inferences of diversification and disparification. Finally, as replicated radiations are found across...

Data from: Recommendations for using msBayes to incorporate uncertainty in selecting an ABC model prior: a response to Oaks et al.

Michael James Hickerson, Graham N. Stone, Konrad Lohse, Terrence C. Demos, Xiaoou Xie, Cedric Landerer & Naoki Takebayashi
Prior specification is an essential component of parameter estimation and model comparison in Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Oaks et al. present a simulation-based power analysis of msBayes and conclude that msBayes has low power to detect genuinely random divergence times across taxa, and suggest the cause is Lindley's paradox. Although the predictions are similar, we show that their findings are more fundamentally explained by insufficient prior sampling that arises with poorly chosen wide priors that...

Data from: Characterization of human cortical gene expression in relation to glucose utilization.

Kirstin N. Sterner, Michael R. McGowen, Harry T. Chugani, Adi L. Tarca, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Christopher W. Kuzawa, Amy M. Boddy, Ryan L. Raaum, Amy Weckle, Leonard Lipovich, Lawrence I. Grossman, Monica Uddin, Morris Goodman & Derek E. Wildman
Objectives: Human brain development follows a unique pattern characterized by a prolonged period of postnatal growth and reorganization, and a postnatal peak in glucose utilization. The molecular processes underlying these developmental changes are poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine developmental trajectories of gene expression and to examine the evolutionary history of genes differentially expressed as a function of age. Methods: We used microarrays to determine age-related patterns of mRNA expression in...

Data from: Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) in New York City

Jason Munshi-South, Yana Zak & Ellen Pehek
Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five...

Genetic differentiation and overexploitation history of the critically endangered Lehmann’s Poison Frog: Oophaga lehmanni

Mileidy Betancourth-Cundar, Pablo Palacios-Rodríguez, Daniel Mejía-Vargas, Andrea Paz & Adolfo Amézquita
Species conservation with fragmented and endangered populations must be based on a prior and thorough knowledge of the structure and population dynamics. Oophaga lehmanni is a dendrobatid species endemic of Colombia and is restricted to its type locality. This species has a fragmented distribution and is considered as critically endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and overexploitation. Oophaga lehmanni exhibits phenotypic variation in the dorsal color pattern (red and yellow morphs). We reconstructed the overexploitation...

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