32 Works

Data from: Causes and consequences of failed adaptation to biological invasions: the role of ecological constraints

Jennifer A. Lau & Casey P. TerHorst
Biological invasions are a major challenge to native communities and have the potential to exert strong selection on native populations. As a result, native taxa may adapt to the presence of invaders through increased competitive ability, increased antipredator defences or altered morphologies that may limit encounters with toxic prey. Yet, in some cases, species may fail to adapt to biological invasions. Many challenges to adaptation arise because biological invasions occur in complex species-rich communities in...

Data from: A phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with descriptions of two new species from Myanmar

L. Lee Grismer, , Matthew L. Murdoch, Perry L. Wood, Mark W. Herr, Rafe M. Brown, Evan S.H. Quah, Robert E. Espinoza & Marta S. Grismer
A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and other localities indicate that this clade is endemic to central Myanmar and contains at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in...

Near-shore island lizard fauna shaped by a combination of human-mediated and natural dispersal

Jeanne Robertson, Patricia Salerno, Lauren Chan, W. Chris Funk & Gregory Pauly
Aim: Island biotas provide opportunities to study colonization and adaptation to novel environments. Islands, especially near-shore islands, may have a long record of human habitation such that some lineages result from human-assisted introductions. Here, we combine phylogenetic analyses with fossil data and historical specimen records to reconstruct colonization histories, characterize among-island divergence, and assess the role of humans in shaping the evolutionary history of lizards inhabiting a near-shore island archipelago. Location: Channel Islands and adjacent...

Data from: Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automation

Oscar Beijbom, Peter J. Edmunds, Chris Roelfsema, Jennifer Smith, David I. Kline, Benjamin Neal, Matthew J. Dunlap, Vincent Moriarty, Tung-Yung Fan, Chih-Jui Tan, Stephen Chan, Tali Treibitz, Anthony Gamst, B. Greg Mitchell, David Kriegman & Benjamin P. Neal
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

When form does not predict function: empirical evidence violates functional form hypotheses for marine macroalgae

Emily Ryznar, Peggy Fong & Caitlin Fong
1) Functional groups are widely used to reduce complexity and generalize across ecological communities. These models assume that shared traits among species correspond to some ecological role, process, or function, and that these traits can be leveraged to generate meaningful and distinct functional groups so that intergroup trait variation exceeds intragroup variation. 2) We sought to validate the assumptions of the widely used Functional Group Model (FGM) for marine macroalgae, which groups species based on...

Conservation genetics of an island-endemic lizard: low Ne and the critical role of intermediate temperatures for genetic connectivity

Daryl Trumbo, W. Chris Funk, Gregory Pauly & Jeanne Robertson
Island populations are at higher risk of extinction than mainland populations. Therefore, understanding the factors that facilitate connectivity is particularly pressing for the conservation of island taxa. Sceloporus occidentalis becki, the Island Fence Lizard, is an endemic taxon restricted to the Northern Channel Islands, part of a nearshore archipelago in Southern California, USA. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, fence lizard habitat on the Northern Channel Islands has decreased with rising sea levels and increasing temperatures...

Nutrient dynamics in coral symbiosis depend on both the relative and absolute abundance of Symbiodiniaceae species

Shelby E. McIlroy, Casey P. terHorst, Mark Teece & Mary Alice Coffroth
Abstract Background Symbionts provide a variety of reproductive, nutritional, and defensive resources to their hosts, but those resources can vary depending on symbiont community composition. As genetic techniques open our eyes to the breadth of symbiont diversity within myriad microbiomes, symbiosis research has begun to consider what ecological mechanisms affect the identity and relative abundance of symbiont species and how this community structure impacts resource exchange among partners. Here, we manipulated the in hospite density...

Data from: MycoDB, a global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi

V. Bala Chaudhary, Megan A. Rúa, Anita Antoninka, James D. Bever, Jeffery Cannon, Ashley Craig, Jessica Duchicela, Alicia Frame, Monique Gardes, Catherine Gehring, Michelle Ha, Miranda Hart, Jacob Hopkins, Baoming Ji, Nancy Collins Johnson, Wittaya Kaonongbua, Justine Karst, Roger T. Koide, Louis J. Lamit, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, John C. Moore, , Bridget Piculell, Blake Ramsby … & Jason D. Hoeksema
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a database of 4,010 studies (from 438 unique publications) to aid in multi-factor meta-analyses elucidating the ecological and evolutionary context in which mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Testing genotypic variation of an invasive plant species in response to soil disturbance and herbivory

Shannon L. J. Bayliss, Casey P. TerHorst & Jennifer A. Lau
Herbivores, competitors, and predators can inhibit biological invasions (“biotic resistance” sensu Elton 1959), while disturbance typically promotes biological invasions. Although biotic resistance and disturbance are often considered separately in the invasion literature, these two forces may be linked. One mechanism by which disturbance may facilitate biological invasions is by decreasing the effectiveness of biotic resistance. The effects of both disturbance and biotic resistance may vary across invading genotypes, and genetic variation in the invasive propagule...

Data from: Evolution of increased Medicaco polymorpha size during invasion does not result in increased competitive ability

Zoe L. Getman-Pickering, Casey P. TerHorst, Susan M. Magnoli & Jennifer A. Lau
Species invading new habitats experience novel selection pressures that can lead to rapid evolution, which may contribute to invasion success and/or increased impact on native community members. Many studies have hypothesized that plants in the introduced range will be larger than those in the native range, leading to increases in competitive ability. There is mixed support for evolution of larger sizes in the introduced range, but few studies have explicitly tested whether evolutionary changes result...

Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity

Robert Carpenter
Title: Collaborative Research: Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs - Scale Dependence and Adaptive Capacity This project focuses on the most serious threat to marine ecosystems, Ocean Acidification (OA), and addresses the problem in the most diverse and beautiful ecosystem on the planet, coral reefs. The research utilizes Moorea, French Polynesia as a model system, and builds from the NSF investment in the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research Site (LTER) to exploit physical and...

Spinning in the rain: interactions between spider web morphology and microhabitat use

Andrea M. Haberkern, Philippe Fernandez-Fournier & Leticia Avilés
Although the effects of abiotic factors on species distributions and habitat selection have been widely investigated, studies have rarely succeeded at identifying the factors behind selection at the microhabitat level. Spider webs are extended phenotypes expected to be subject to fitness trade-offs. We tested the hypothesis that spiders with three-dimensional webs (tangle and sheet-and-tangle), which require more material to be built than two-dimensional orbicular webs, occupy microhabitats where they are better protected from strong rains....

The initiation and growth of transpressional shear zones through continental arc lithosphere, southwest New Zealand

Keith Klepeis, Joshua Schwartz, Elena Miranda, Peter Lindquist, Richard Jongens, Rose Turnbull & Harold Stowell
Structural analyses combined with new U-Pb zircon and titanite geochronology show how two Early Cretaceous transpressional shear zones initiated and grew through a nearly complete section of continental arc crust during oblique convergence. Both shear zones reactivated Carboniferous faults that penetrated the upper mantle below Zealandia’s Median Batholith but show opposite growth patterns and dissimilar relationships with respect to arc magmatism. The Grebe-Indecision Creek shear zone was magma-starved and first reactivated at ~136 Ma as...

Data from: Fire does not strongly affect genetic diversity or structure of a common treefrog in the endangered Florida scrub

Jeanne M. Robertson, Sarah W. Fitzpatrick, Betsie B. Rothermel & Lauren M. Chan
Fire regimes influence natural populations of organisms in diverse ways, via direct effects on population dynamics as well as indirect effects on habitat and ecosystem processes. Although many amphibian species have evolved to persist in fire-dependent ecosystems, the effects of fire on the genetic diversity of amphibian populations remain relatively unexplored. We examined how different aspects of fire history relate to population genetic diversity and structure of an abundant anuran, Hyla femoralis, in a large,...

Data from: Genetic variation in mutualistic and antagonistic interactions in an invasive legume

Casey P. TerHorst, Camdilla Wirth & Jennifer A. Lau
Mutualists may play an important role in invasion success. The ability to take advantage of novel mutualists or survive and reproduce despite a lack of mutualists may facilitate invasion by those individuals with such traits. Here, we used two greenhouse studies to examine how soil microbial communities in general and mutualistic rhizobia in particular affect the performance of a legume species (Medicago polymorpha) that has invaded five continents. We performed two plant growth experiments with...

Context dependence of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic environments: a quantitative and qualitative synthesis

Ryan Briscoe Runquist, Amanda Gorton, Jeremy Yoder, Nicholas Deacon, Jake Grossman, Shan Kothari, Marta Lyons, Seema Sheth, Peter Tiffin & David Moeller
Understanding how spatially-variable selection shapes adaptation is an area of longstanding interest in evolutionary ecology. Recent meta-analyses have quantified the extent of local adaptation, but the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors in driving population divergence remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we combined a quantitative meta-analysis and a qualitative meta-synthesis to (1) quantify the magnitude of local adaptation to abiotic and biotic factors and (2) characterize major themes that influence the motivation...

Adverse childhood experiences and prenatal depression in the maternal and development risks from environmental and social stressors pregnancy cohort

Karina Corona, Thomas Chavez, Kennedy Stewart, Claudia M. Toledo-Corral, Shohreh F. Farzan, Rima Habre, Brendan Grubbs, Laila Al-Marayati, Nathana Lurvey, Deborah Lerner, Sandrah P. Eckel, Isabel Lagomasino, Carrie V. Breton & Theresa M. Bastain
The aim of this study was to examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and risk for depression among 480 predominantly low-income Hispanic/Latina women in the Maternal and Development Risks from Environmental and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort. Models were fitted to evaluate associations between ACEs and prenatal probable depression measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale adjusting for recruitment site, age, income, race/ethnicity, marital status and parity. The ACEs Questionnaire parameterised experiences as...

Dietary ethanol ingestion by free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

Christina Campbell, Aleksey Maro, Victoria Weaver & Robert Dudley
Ethanol within ripe and over-ripe fruit is produced naturally through the metabolic activity of fermentative yeasts. As a consequence, frugivorous animals may chronically consume ethanol as part of their routine diet, although direct measurements of such exposure are lacking. Here, we present data on ethanol concentrations within fruits of the Neotropical tree Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) that are eaten by Geoffroy's spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Of collected fruits that were partially...

Additional file 1 of Nutrient dynamics in coral symbiosis depend on both the relative and absolute abundance of Symbiodiniaceae species

Shelby E. McIlroy, Casey P. terHorst, Mark Teece & Mary Alice Coffroth
Additional file 1: Table S1. Nutrient and isotopic compositions of artificial seawater media used for each stage of the experiment. Concentrations were based on Tanaka et al. (2006). All compounds were manufactured and purchased from Sigma-Aldrich ® (St. Louis, MO, USA). Fig. S1. Isotope baseline and dark controls. A set of recruits was tested to provide a baseline isotope value and to confirm that symbionts were the primer drivers of inorganic carbon and nitrogen into...

Additional file 1 of Nutrient dynamics in coral symbiosis depend on both the relative and absolute abundance of Symbiodiniaceae species

Shelby E. McIlroy, Casey P. terHorst, Mark Teece & Mary Alice Coffroth
Additional file 1: Table S1. Nutrient and isotopic compositions of artificial seawater media used for each stage of the experiment. Concentrations were based on Tanaka et al. (2006). All compounds were manufactured and purchased from Sigma-Aldrich ® (St. Louis, MO, USA). Fig. S1. Isotope baseline and dark controls. A set of recruits was tested to provide a baseline isotope value and to confirm that symbionts were the primer drivers of inorganic carbon and nitrogen into...

Data from: Genetic variation in invasive species response to direct and indirect species interactions

Casey P. TerHorst & Jennifer A. Lau
Biotic resistance to invasion arises from strong species interactions that decrease the fitness and population growth rates of potential invaders. Strong, direct interactions such as predation and competition are typically thought to drive biotic resistance, but in diverse communities, indirect interactions among species may also affect biotic resistance. Further, genetic variation in traits of the invading species that affect species interactions may allow some genotypes to overcome biotic resistance. We investigated the direct and indirect...

Data from: A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler & Casey P. TerHorst
Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density...

Data from: Conservation of multivariate female preference functions and preference mechanisms in three species of trilling field crickets

Thomas Blankers, R. Matthias Hennig & David A. Gray
Divergence in mate recognition systems among closely related species is an important contributor to assortative mating and reproductive isolation. Here we examine divergence in male song traits and female preference functions in three cricket species with songs consisting of long trills. The shape of female preference functions appears to be mostly conserved across species and follows the predictions from a recent model for song recognition. Multivariate preference profiles, combining the pulse and trill parameters, demonstrate...

Data from: The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context

Casey P. TerHorst, Jennifer A. Lau & Jay T. Lennon
Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient...

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