61 Works

La multiplication des évènements de courses à pied, un véritable phénomène de société

François Madoré & Stéphane LORET
La course à pied est en plein développement en France depuis quelques décennies, à l’image des tronçons nantais des bords de l’Erdre ou des autres cours d’eau qui traversent l’agglomération, dont les chemins sont largement appropriés par les runners le week-end. Cette pratique s’accompagne d’une multiplication des évènements sportifs dans de nombreux territoires, avec pas moins d’un quart des communes de l’aire urbaine de Nantes qui ont organisé une épreuve en 2017.

Les femmes et les hommes dans la ville : la parité au quotidien

Julie Vallée
Le mouvement #MeToo ainsi que l’épidémie de la Covid19 (au cours de laquelle les femmes ont davantage été en « première ligne » que les hommes) ont récemment participé à rendre plus visible dans le débat public la question des inégalités de genre. Cette question renvoie aussi à celle de la cohabitation des femmes et des hommes dans la ville, qui varie selon les heures de la journée. Directement liée aux déplacements quotidiens, les quartiers...

Les mutations de la géographie des prix de l’immobilier résidentiel

Mericskay Boris, Jean Rivière & Stéphane LORET
La question de l’augmentation du coût des logements est au cœur des débats sur les effets (et la pertinence) des politiques qui visent à rendre les métropoles toujours plus attractives. Depuis le début des années 2000 et au même titre que d’autres grandes villes françaises dynamiques, l’aire urbaine de Nantes connaît une forte hausse des prix d’achat des appartements comme des maisons. Cette augmentation n’est toutefois pas homogène dans l’espace métropolitain, et cette planche permet...

Sex-specific patterns of senescence in artificial insect populations varying in sex-ratio to manipulate reproductive effort

Charly Jehan, Manon Chogne, Thierry Rigaud & Yannick Moret
Background: The disposable soma theory of ageing assumes that organisms optimally trade-off limited resources between reproduction and longevity to maximize fitness. Early reproduction should especially trade-off against late reproduction and longevity because of reduced investment into somatic protection, including immunity. Moreover, as optimal reproductive strategies of males and females differ, sexually dimorphic patterns of senescence may evolve. In particular, as males gain fitness through mating success, sexual competition should be a major factor accelerating male...

Using aerobic exercise to evaluate sub-lethal tolerance of acute warming in fishes

David McKenzie
We investigated whether fatigue from sustained aerobic swimming provides a sublethal endpoint to define tolerance of acute warming in fishes, as an alternative to loss of equilibrium (LOE) during a critical thermal maximum protocol (CTmax). Two species were studied, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Each fish underwent an incremental swim test to determine gait transition speed (UGT), where it first engaged the unsteady anaerobic swimming mode that preceded fatigue. After suitable recovery...

Data from: Rapid diversification rates in Amazonian Chrysobalanaceae inferred from plastid genome phylogenetics

Jerome Chave
We studied the evolutionary history of Chrysobalanaceae with phylogenetic analyses of complete plastid genomes from 156 species to assess the tempo of diversification in the Neotropics and help to unravel the causes of Amazonian plant diversification. These plastid genomes had a mean length of 162,204 base pairs, and the nearly complete DNA sequence matrix, with reliable fossils, was used to estimate a phylogenetic tree. Chrysobalanaceae diversified from 38.9 Mya (95% highest posterior density, 95%HPD: 34.2-43.9...

Translation Inhibitory Elements from Hoxa3 and Hoxa11 mRNAs use uORFs for translation inhibition

Franck Martin, Fatima Alghoul, Laure Schaeffer & Gilbert Eriani
During embryogenesis, Hox mRNA translation is tightly regulated by a sophisticated molecular mechanism that combines two RNA regulons located in their 5’UTR. First, an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) enables cap-independent translation. The second regulon is a Translation Inhibitory Element or TIE, which ensures concomitant cap-dependent translation inhibition. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanisms of mouse Hoxa3 and a11 TIE elements. Both TIEs possess an upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF) that is critical...

Data from: Mechanisms of reciprocity and diversity in social networks: a modelling and comparative approach

Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke, Sebastian Sosa, Bernard Thierry & Cedric Sueur
Three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie reciprocation of social behaviors in gregarious animals: ‘calculated reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’ and ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’. Among these explanations, emotional book-keeping has received the broadest support from experimental and observational studies. On the other hand, three individual-based models have shown that reciprocation may emerge via ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’, or a combination of both mechanisms. Here we use these three models to assess their relative fit with empirical data on...

Data from: Dendritic connectivity shapes spatial patterns of genetic diversity: a simulation-based study

Ivan Paz-Vinas & Simon Blanchet
Landscape features notoriously affect spatial patterns of biodiversity. For instance, in dendritic ecological networks (such as river basins), dendritic connectivity has been proposed to create unique spatial patterns of biodiversity. Here, we compared genetic datasets simulated under a lattice-like, a dendritic and a circular landscape to test the influence of dendritic connectivity on neutral genetic diversity. The circular landscape had a level of connectivity similar to that of the dendritic landscape, so as to isolate...

Data from: Cryptic differences in colour among Müllerian mimics: how can the visual capacities of predators and prey shape the evolution of wing colours?

Violaine Llaurens, Mathieu Joron & Marc Théry
Antagonistic interactions between predators and prey often lead to co-evolution. In the case of toxic prey, aposematic colours act as warning signals for predators and play a protective role. Evolutionary convergence in colour patterns among toxic prey evolves due to positive density-dependent selection and the benefits of mutual resemblance in spreading the mortality cost of educating predators over a larger prey assemblage. Comimetic species evolve highly similar colour patterns, but such convergence may interfere with...

Scale-dependent shifts in functional and phylogenetic structure of Mediterranean island plant communities over two centuries

Chunhui Zhang, Marc William Cadotte, Alessandro Chiarucci, Michel Loreau, Charles Willis, Xingfeng Si, Lanping Li & Marcus Cianciaruso
1. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rapid global population and economic expansion has had tremendous impacts on biodiversity across spatial scales, especially for islands. While changes in species richness are easily inferred, the impact of human activity on the underlying community assembly processes has been difficult to ascertain because of lack of long-term community data. 2. Here, we document how the manifestations of plant community assembly have changed over time and space in a Mediterranean...

Pollen records of Miocene thermal maximum

Jean-Pierre Suc, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno & Mostefa Bessedik
In order to identify the northern latitudinal limit between mangroves composed of Avicennia only and diversified mangroves during the Cenozoic thermal maxima, a special attention was paid to the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO: 17–14 Ma) in the Mediterranean s.l. region, including the Mediterranean Basin s.s. and its former brackish appendix, the Paratethys (Popescu et al., accepted, Journ. Biogeogr.). Pollen data come from forty-five biostratigraphically well-dated marine samples from 8 locations belonging to the MMCO....

Testing the potential contribution of Wolbachia to speciation when cytoplasmic incompatibility becomes associated with host‐related reproductive isolation

Daniel Bruzzese, Hannes Schuler, Thomas Wolfe, Mary Glover, Joseph Mastroni, Meredith Doellman, Cheyenne Tait, Wee Yee, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Glen Hood, Robert Goughnour, Christian Stauffer, Patrik Nosil, Jeffery Feder, Daniel J. Bruzzese, Thomas M. Wolfe, Mary M. Glover, Meredith M. Doellman, Wee L. Yee, Glen R. Hood & Jeffery L. Feder
Endosymbiont induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) may play an important role in arthropod speciation. However, whether CI consistently becomes associated or coupled with other host-related forms of reproductive isolation (RI) to impede the transfer of endosymbionts between hybridizing populations and further the divergence process remains an open question. Here, we show varying degrees of pre- and post-mating RI exist among allopatric populations of two interbreeding cherry-infesting tephritid fruit flies (Rhagoletis cingulata and R. indifferens) across North...

Data from: The representational dynamics of perceived voice emotions evolve from categories to dimensions

Bruno L. Giordano, Caroline Whiting, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Sonja A. Kotz, Joachim Gross & Pascal Belin
Long-standing affective science theories conceive the perception of emotional stimuli either as discrete categories (for example, an angry voice) or continuous dimensional attributes (for example, an intense and negative vocal emotion). Which position provides a better account is still widely debated. Here we contrast the positions to account for acoustics-independent perceptual and cerebral representational geometry of perceived voice emotions. We combined multimodal imaging of the cerebral response to heard vocal stimuli (using functional magnetic resonance...

Ancient tropical extinctions at high latitudes contributed to the latitudinal diversity gradient

Andrea Sánchez Meseguer & Fabien Condamine
Global biodiversity currently peaks at the equator and decreases toward the poles. Growing fossil evidence suggest this hump-shaped latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) has not been persistent through time, with similar diversity across latitudes flattening out the LDG during past greenhouse periods. However, when and how diversity declined at high latitudes to generate the modern LDG remains an open question. Although diversity-loss scenarios have been proposed, they remain mostly undemonstrated. We outline the ‘asymmetric gradient of...

A Data Management Plan Template for Archaeology

Nathalie Le Tellier-Becquart, Emmanuelle Morlock & Emmanuelle Bryas

Comprendre les dessous de la carte scolaire (2/2) - De la ségrégation résidentielle aux contournements des collèges publics

Cédric Hugrée & Tristan Poullaouec
Après une première planche mettant en avant le poids du clivage entre collèges publics et privés dans la fabrique de la ségrégation scolaire, celle-ci rappelle que la ségrégation scolaire n’est pas que le reflet des inégalités sociales dans les mondes urbains. Elle est aussi le produit d’une offre scolaire sectorisée et hiérarchisée entre les collèges, dont se saisissent plus particulièrement certains groupes sociaux.

La géographie sociale des travailleurs pauvres nantais

Claire Auzuret & batardy christophe
Selon une vision largement répandue dans le grand public, les centres des métropoles françaises seraient peuplés de familles aisées, et leurs quartiers seraient pour la plupart en voie de gentrification ou d’embourgeoisement. Or les travailleurs pauvres sont nombreux à résider au cœur des mondes urbains, y compris les plus dynamiques économiquement. Alors que l’on s’attendrait à ce que la majorité d’entre eux réside dans les grands ensembles du parc public d’habitat social et bénéficie d’aides...

Data from: Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin

Bert Van Bocxlaer
Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from...

Data from: Evolutionary processes driving spatial patterns of intra-specific genetic diversity in river ecosystems

Ivan Paz-Viñas, Géraldine Loot, Virginie M. Stevens, Simon Blanchet & I. Paz-Vinas
Describing, understanding and predicting the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is a central issue in biological sciences. In river landscapes, it is generally predicted that neutral genetic diversity should increase downstream, but there have been few attempts to test and validate this assumption across taxonomic groups. Moreover, it is still unclear what are the evolutionary processes that may generate this apparent spatial pattern of diversity. Here, we quantitatively synthesized published results from diverse taxa living...

Data from: UV wavelengths experienced during development affect larval newt visual sensitivity and predation efficiency

Mélissa Martin, Marc Théry, Gwendolen Rodgers, Delphine Goven, Stéphane Sourice, Pascal Mège & Jean Secondi
We experimentally investigated the influence of developmental plasticity of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity on predation efficiency of the larval smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. We quantified expression of SWS1 opsin gene (UV-sensitive protein of photoreceptor cells) in the retinas of individuals who had developed in the presence (UV+) or absence (UV−) of UV light (developmental treatments), and tested their predation efficiency under UV+ and UV− light (testing treatments). We found that both SWS1 opsin expression and...

Data from: Diversity increases with elevation: empidine dance flies (Diptera, Empididae) challenge a predominant pattern

Paul Chatelain, Adrian Plant, Adeline Soulier, Christophe Daugeron & Adeline Soulier-Perkins
Tropical mountain forests are important reservoirs of biodiversity. They are usually species rich and often support endemic species making them prime targets for conservation effort. The aim of this study is to investigate elevational patterns of species diversity and phenology in order to provide a meaningful understanding of insects’ spatio-temporal distributions along a tropical gradient of elevation. Our study focuses on the Empidinae communities (Diptera, Empididae) from Doi Inthanon (north Thailand, gradient 400–2556 m.a.s.l), sampled...

Data from: Immigrant and extrinsic hybrid seed inviability contribute to reproductive isolation between forest and dune ecotypes of Epipactis helleborine (Orchidaceae)

Hans Jacquemyn, Hanne De Kort, An Vanden Broeck & Rein Brys
Reproductive isolation caused by divergent natural selection arising from differences between ecological environments or ecological interactions represents a major mechanism contributing to speciation, but its relative importance is poorly known. In this study, controlled reciprocal crossings and seed germination experiments were combined with genetic and morphometric analyses to test the hypothesis that previously described differences in mycorrhizal communities between forest and dune ecotypes of Epipactis helleborine were sufficiently strong to create complete reproductive isolation between...

Analyse des corrélations avec easystats

Le Campion Grégoire
Cette fiche vise à présenter une méthode efficace et simple pour réaliser, analyser et représenter des corrélations avec R, de la mise en forme des données à la réalisation de graphiques. Elle ne contient que de brefs rappels sur la notion de corrélation en statistique.

Epistasis, inbreeding depression and the evolution of self-fertilization

Denis Roze
Inbreeding depression resulting from partially recessive deleterious alleles is thought to be the main genetic factor preventing self-fertilizing mutants from spreading in outcrossing hermaphroditic populations. However, deleterious alleles may also generate an advantage to selfers in terms of more efficient purging, while the effects of epistasis among those alleles on inbreeding depression and mating system evolution remain little explored. In this paper, we use a general model of selection to disentangle the effects of different...

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