71 Works

Using aerobic exercise to evaluate sub-lethal tolerance of acute warming in fishes

David McKenzie
We investigated whether fatigue from sustained aerobic swimming provides a sublethal endpoint to define tolerance of acute warming in fishes, as an alternative to loss of equilibrium (LOE) during a critical thermal maximum protocol (CTmax). Two species were studied, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus. Each fish underwent an incremental swim test to determine gait transition speed (UGT), where it first engaged the unsteady anaerobic swimming mode that preceded fatigue. After suitable recovery...

Sex-specific patterns of senescence in artificial insect populations varying in sex-ratio to manipulate reproductive effort

Charly Jehan, Manon Chogne, Thierry Rigaud & Yannick Moret
Background: The disposable soma theory of ageing assumes that organisms optimally trade-off limited resources between reproduction and longevity to maximize fitness. Early reproduction should especially trade-off against late reproduction and longevity because of reduced investment into somatic protection, including immunity. Moreover, as optimal reproductive strategies of males and females differ, sexually dimorphic patterns of senescence may evolve. In particular, as males gain fitness through mating success, sexual competition should be a major factor accelerating male...

Data from: Rapid diversification rates in Amazonian Chrysobalanaceae inferred from plastid genome phylogenetics

Jerome Chave
We studied the evolutionary history of Chrysobalanaceae with phylogenetic analyses of complete plastid genomes from 156 species to assess the tempo of diversification in the Neotropics and help to unravel the causes of Amazonian plant diversification. These plastid genomes had a mean length of 162,204 base pairs, and the nearly complete DNA sequence matrix, with reliable fossils, was used to estimate a phylogenetic tree. Chrysobalanaceae diversified from 38.9 Mya (95% highest posterior density, 95%HPD: 34.2-43.9...

Les femmes et les hommes dans la ville : la parité au quotidien

Julie Vallée
Le mouvement #MeToo ainsi que l’épidémie de la Covid19 (au cours de laquelle les femmes ont davantage été en « première ligne » que les hommes) ont récemment participé à rendre plus visible dans le débat public la question des inégalités de genre. Cette question renvoie aussi à celle de la cohabitation des femmes et des hommes dans la ville, qui varie selon les heures de la journée. Directement liée aux déplacements quotidiens, les quartiers...

Les mutations de la géographie des prix de l’immobilier résidentiel

Mericskay Boris, Jean Rivière & Stéphane LORET
La question de l’augmentation du coût des logements est au cœur des débats sur les effets (et la pertinence) des politiques qui visent à rendre les métropoles toujours plus attractives. Depuis le début des années 2000 et au même titre que d’autres grandes villes françaises dynamiques, l’aire urbaine de Nantes connaît une forte hausse des prix d’achat des appartements comme des maisons. Cette augmentation n’est toutefois pas homogène dans l’espace métropolitain, et cette planche permet...

La multiplication des évènements de courses à pied, un véritable phénomène de société

François Madoré & Stéphane LORET
La course à pied est en plein développement en France depuis quelques décennies, à l’image des tronçons nantais des bords de l’Erdre ou des autres cours d’eau qui traversent l’agglomération, dont les chemins sont largement appropriés par les runners le week-end. Cette pratique s’accompagne d’une multiplication des évènements sportifs dans de nombreux territoires, avec pas moins d’un quart des communes de l’aire urbaine de Nantes qui ont organisé une épreuve en 2017.

Translation Inhibitory Elements from Hoxa3 and Hoxa11 mRNAs use uORFs for translation inhibition

Franck Martin, Fatima Alghoul, Laure Schaeffer & Gilbert Eriani
During embryogenesis, Hox mRNA translation is tightly regulated by a sophisticated molecular mechanism that combines two RNA regulons located in their 5’UTR. First, an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) enables cap-independent translation. The second regulon is a Translation Inhibitory Element or TIE, which ensures concomitant cap-dependent translation inhibition. In this study, we deciphered the molecular mechanisms of mouse Hoxa3 and a11 TIE elements. Both TIEs possess an upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF) that is critical...

Data from: Cryptic differences in colour among Müllerian mimics: how can the visual capacities of predators and prey shape the evolution of wing colours?

Violaine Llaurens, Mathieu Joron & Marc Théry
Antagonistic interactions between predators and prey often lead to co-evolution. In the case of toxic prey, aposematic colours act as warning signals for predators and play a protective role. Evolutionary convergence in colour patterns among toxic prey evolves due to positive density-dependent selection and the benefits of mutual resemblance in spreading the mortality cost of educating predators over a larger prey assemblage. Comimetic species evolve highly similar colour patterns, but such convergence may interfere with...

Data from: Dendritic connectivity shapes spatial patterns of genetic diversity: a simulation-based study

Ivan Paz-Vinas & Simon Blanchet
Landscape features notoriously affect spatial patterns of biodiversity. For instance, in dendritic ecological networks (such as river basins), dendritic connectivity has been proposed to create unique spatial patterns of biodiversity. Here, we compared genetic datasets simulated under a lattice-like, a dendritic and a circular landscape to test the influence of dendritic connectivity on neutral genetic diversity. The circular landscape had a level of connectivity similar to that of the dendritic landscape, so as to isolate...

Data from: Mechanisms of reciprocity and diversity in social networks: a modelling and comparative approach

Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke, Sebastian Sosa, Bernard Thierry & Cedric Sueur
Three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie reciprocation of social behaviors in gregarious animals: ‘calculated reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’ and ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’. Among these explanations, emotional book-keeping has received the broadest support from experimental and observational studies. On the other hand, three individual-based models have shown that reciprocation may emerge via ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’, or a combination of both mechanisms. Here we use these three models to assess their relative fit with empirical data on...

Ancient tropical extinctions at high latitudes contributed to the latitudinal diversity gradient

Andrea Sánchez Meseguer & Fabien Condamine
Global biodiversity currently peaks at the equator and decreases toward the poles. Growing fossil evidence suggest this hump-shaped latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) has not been persistent through time, with similar diversity across latitudes flattening out the LDG during past greenhouse periods. However, when and how diversity declined at high latitudes to generate the modern LDG remains an open question. Although diversity-loss scenarios have been proposed, they remain mostly undemonstrated. We outline the ‘asymmetric gradient of...

Data from: The representational dynamics of perceived voice emotions evolve from categories to dimensions

Bruno L. Giordano, Caroline Whiting, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Sonja A. Kotz, Joachim Gross & Pascal Belin
Long-standing affective science theories conceive the perception of emotional stimuli either as discrete categories (for example, an angry voice) or continuous dimensional attributes (for example, an intense and negative vocal emotion). Which position provides a better account is still widely debated. Here we contrast the positions to account for acoustics-independent perceptual and cerebral representational geometry of perceived voice emotions. We combined multimodal imaging of the cerebral response to heard vocal stimuli (using functional magnetic resonance...

Testing the potential contribution of Wolbachia to speciation when cytoplasmic incompatibility becomes associated with host‐related reproductive isolation

Daniel Bruzzese, Hannes Schuler, Thomas Wolfe, Mary Glover, Joseph Mastroni, Meredith Doellman, Cheyenne Tait, Wee Yee, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Glen Hood, Robert Goughnour, Christian Stauffer, Patrik Nosil, Jeffery Feder, Daniel J. Bruzzese, Thomas M. Wolfe, Mary M. Glover, Meredith M. Doellman, Wee L. Yee, Glen R. Hood & Jeffery L. Feder
Endosymbiont induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) may play an important role in arthropod speciation. However, whether CI consistently becomes associated or coupled with other host-related forms of reproductive isolation (RI) to impede the transfer of endosymbionts between hybridizing populations and further the divergence process remains an open question. Here, we show varying degrees of pre- and post-mating RI exist among allopatric populations of two interbreeding cherry-infesting tephritid fruit flies (Rhagoletis cingulata and R. indifferens) across North...

Pollen records of Miocene thermal maximum

Jean-Pierre Suc, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno & Mostefa Bessedik
In order to identify the northern latitudinal limit between mangroves composed of Avicennia only and diversified mangroves during the Cenozoic thermal maxima, a special attention was paid to the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO: 17–14 Ma) in the Mediterranean s.l. region, including the Mediterranean Basin s.s. and its former brackish appendix, the Paratethys (Popescu et al., accepted, Journ. Biogeogr.). Pollen data come from forty-five biostratigraphically well-dated marine samples from 8 locations belonging to the MMCO....

Scale-dependent shifts in functional and phylogenetic structure of Mediterranean island plant communities over two centuries

Chunhui Zhang, Marc William Cadotte, Alessandro Chiarucci, Michel Loreau, Charles Willis, Xingfeng Si, Lanping Li & Marcus Cianciaruso
1. Since the Industrial Revolution, the rapid global population and economic expansion has had tremendous impacts on biodiversity across spatial scales, especially for islands. While changes in species richness are easily inferred, the impact of human activity on the underlying community assembly processes has been difficult to ascertain because of lack of long-term community data. 2. Here, we document how the manifestations of plant community assembly have changed over time and space in a Mediterranean...

Database PCA: A middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel

Hila May, Israel Hershkovitz, Rachel Sarig, Ariel Pokhojaev, Dominique Grimaud-Hervé, Emiliano Bruner, Cinzia Fornai, Rolf Quam, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Viktoria A. Krenn, Maria Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez De Castro, Laura Martín-Francés, Viviane Slon, Lou Albessard-Ball, Amélie Vialet, Tim Schüler, Giorgio Manzi, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Gerhard W. Weber & Yossi Zaidner
It has long been believed that Neanderthals originated and flourished on the European continent. However, recent morphological and genetic studies have suggested that they may have received a genetic contribution from a yet unknown non-European group. Here we report on the recent discovery of archaic Homo fossils from the site of Nesher Ramla, Israel, which we dated to 140,000 to 120,000 years ago. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parietal bones, mandible, and lower...

Data from: The demographic history of populations experiencing asymmetric gene flow: combining simulated and empirical data.

Ivan Paz Viñas, Erwan Quéméré, Lounès Chikhi, Géraldine Loot & Simon Blanchet
Population structure can significantly affect genetic-based demographic inferences, generating spurious bottleneck-like signals. Previous studies have typically assumed island or stepping-stone models, which are characterized by symmetric gene flow. However, many organisms are characterized by asymmetric gene flow. Here, we combined simulated and empirical data to test whether asymmetric gene flow affects the inference of past demographic changes. Through the analysis of simulated genetic data with three methods (i.e. bottleneck, M-ratio and msvar), we demonstrated that...

Data from: A genetic polymorphism affecting reliance on personal versus public information in a spatial learning task in Drosophila melanogaster

Julien Foucaud, Anne-Sophie Philippe, Celine Moreno & Frederic Mery
Organisms that face behavioural challenges can use different types of information to guide their decisions. First, they can use the personal information they sample in their environment. Second, they can use the inadvertent social information provided by the behaviour of conspecifics or heterospecifics (i.e. public information). Currently, little is known about the interaction between genetic variation and the use of personal versus public information in natural populations. Here, we investigated whether a natural genetic polymorphism...

Data from: Genetic architecture of sensory exploitation: QTL mapping of female and male receiver traits in an acoustic moth

Sylvain Alem, Réjane Streiff, Brigitte Courtois, Saliha Zenboudji, Denis Limousin & Michael D. Greenfield
The evolution of extravagant sexual traits by sensory exploitation occurs if males incidentally evolve features that stimulate females owing to a pre-existing environmental response that arose in the context of natural selection. The sensory exploitation process is thus expected to leave a specific genetic imprint, a pleiotropic control of the original environmental response and the novel sexual response in females. However, females may be subsequently selected to improve their discrimination of environmental and sexual stimuli....

Data from: Ecology of information: social transmission dynamics within groups of non-social insects

Marine Battesti, Cristian Pasquaretta, Celine Moreno, Serafino Teseo, Dominique Joly, Elizabeth Klensch, Odile Petit, Cedric Sueur & Frederic Mery
While many studies focus on how animals use public information, the dynamics of information spread and maintenance within groups, i.e. the ‘ecology of information’, have received little attention. Here we use fruitflies trained to lay eggs on specific substrates to implement information into groups containing both trained and untrained individuals. We quantify inter-individual interactions and then measure the spread of oviposition preference with behavioural tests. Untrained individuals increase their interactive approaches in the presence of...

Data from: Detection of invasive mosquito vectors using environmental DNA (eDNA) from water samples

Judith Schneider, Alice Valentini, Tony Dejean, Fabrizio Montarsi, Pierre Taberlet, Olivier Glaizot & Luca Fumagalli
Repeated introductions and spread of invasive mosquito species (IMS) have been recorded on a large scale these last decades worldwide. In this context, members of the mosquito genus Aedes can present serious risks to public health as they have or may develop vector competence for various viral diseases. While the Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is a well-known vector for e.g. dengue and chikungunya viruses, the Asian bush mosquito (Ae. j. japonicus) and Ae. koreicus have...

Data from: How social network structure affects decision-making in Drosophila melanogaster

Cristian Pasquaretta, Marine Battesti, Elizabeth Klenschi, Christophe A. H. Bousquet, Cedric Sueur & Frederic Mery
Animals use a number of different mechanisms to acquire crucial information. During social encounters animals can pass information from one to another but, ideally, they would only use information that benefits survival and reproduction. Therefore, individuals need to be able to determine the value of the information they receive. One cue can come from the behaviour of other individuals that are already using the information. Here we study how individual decision-making is influenced by the...

Data from: Genetic variation in aggregation behaviour and interacting phenotypes in Drosophila

Anne Sophie Philippe, Raphael Jeanson, Cristian Pasquaretta, Francois Rebaudo, Cedric Sueur & Frederic Mery
Aggregation behaviour is the tendency for animals to group together which may have important consequences on individual fitness. We used a combination of experimental and simulation approaches to study how genetic variation and social environment interact to influence aggregation dynamics in Drosophila. To do this, we use two different natural lines of Drosophila that arise from a polymorphism in the foraging gene (“rovers” and “sitters”). We placed groups of flies in a heated arena. Flies...

Data from: Axial symptoms predict mortality in patients with Parkinson disease with subthalamic stimulation

Brian Lau, Niklaus Meier, Giulia Serra, Virginie Czernecki, Michael Schuepbach, Soledad Navarro, Philippe Cornu, David Grabli, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Carine Karachi & Marie-Laure Welter
Objective: To characterize how disease progression is associated with mortality in a large cohort of PD patients with long-term follow-up after STN-DBS. Methods: Motor and cognitive disabilities were assessed before, and 1, 2, 5 and 10 years after STN-DBS in 143 consecutive PD patients. We measured motor symptoms Off and On levodopa and STN-DBS, and recorded causes of death. We used linear mixed-models to characterize symptom progression, including interactions between treatment conditions and time to...

Going Green – Publishing Academic Grey Literature in Laboratory Collections on HAL

Joachim Schopfel, El Hadji Ibrahima Ndiaye & Helene Prost
HAL is the national open repository for documents and data from French scientists. The deposits are organized in institutional portals and collections from research laboratories and projects. The paper analyses how grey literature is represented in the collections of French research laboratories on HAL. We assess the grey literature deposits on HAL from the 66 research laboratories affiliated to the University of Lille, covering all STM and SSH fields. The focus is on conference papers,...

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  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
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