It has long been believed that Neanderthals originated and flourished on the European continent. However, recent morphological and genetic studies have suggested that they may have received a genetic contribution from a yet unknown non-European group. Here we report on the recent discovery of archaic Homo fossils from the site of Nesher Ramla, Israel, which we dated to 140,000 to 120,000 years ago. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parietal bones, mandible, and lower...
Variation and correlation in the timing of breeding of North Atlantic seabirds across multiple scalesKatharine Keogan, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Richard Phillips, David Alvarez, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Robert Barrett, Claus Bech, Peter Becker, Per-Arvid Berglund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Zofia Burr, Olivier Chastel, Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Sébastien Descamps, Tony Diamond, Kyle Elliott, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mike Harris, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Martin Heubeck, Magdalene Langset, Svein Lorentsen, Heather Major, Mark Mallory … & Stephen Kress
Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which different populations positively covary in their annual phenology to infer whether phenological responses to environmental drivers are likely to be (i) shared across...
Notosuchia is a group of mostly terrestrial crocodyliforms. The presence of a prominent crest overhanging the acetabulum, slender straight-shafted long bones with muscular insertions close to the joints, and a stable knee joint, suggests that they had an erect posture. This stance has been proposed to be linked to endothermy because it is present in mammals and birds, and it contributes to the efficiency of their respiratory systems. However, a bone paleohistological study unexpectedly suggested...
In seasonal environments, the timing of reproduction often matches with the peak of food resources. One well-known effect of global warming is an earlier phenology of resources, leading to a possible mismatch between timing of reproduction for consumers and food peak. However, global warming may also change the dynamics of food resources, such as the intensity and frequency of pulsed mast seeding. How quantitative changes in mast seeding influence the timing of reproduction of seed...
A new tree-based methodological framework to infer the evolutionary history of Mesopolyploid lineages: An application to the Brassiceae tribe (Brassicaceae)Laura Hénocq, Sophie Gallina, Eric Schmitt, Vincent Castric, Xavier Vekemans & Céline Poux
Whole genome duplication events are notably widespread in plants and this poses particular challenges for phylogenetic inference in allopolyploid lineages, i.e. lineages that result from the merging of two or more diverged genomes after interspecific hybridization. The nuclear genomes resulting from allopolyploidization contain homologous gene copies from different evolutionary origins called homoeologs, whose orthologs must be sorted out in order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of polyploid clades. In this study, we propose a methodological...
Longtemps restreints aux seuls quartiers de résidence, les travaux relatifs aux « effets de lieu » considèrent désormais la mobilité quotidienne des individus et leurs lieux d’activités avec l’idée que l’influence que les lieux exercent sur les comportements des individus serait proportionnelle au temps qu’ils y passent. Pourtant, ce mécanisme d’exposition cumulée nécessite d’être questionné : certains lieux fréquentés épisodiquement pourraient avoir des effets plus forts sur les comportements des individus que les lieux fréquentés...
Plant root growth against a mechanical obstacle: The early growth response of a maize root facing an axial resistance is consistent with the Lockhart modelEvelyne Kolb, Manon Quiros, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot & Etienne Couturier
Plant root growth is dramatically reduced in compacted soils, affecting the growth of the whole plant. Through a model experiment coupling force and kinematics measurements, we probed the force-growth relationship of a primary root contacting a stiff resisting obstacle, that mimics the strongest soil impedance variation encountered by a growing root. The growth of maize roots just emerging from a corseting agarose gel and contacting a force sensor (acting as an obstacle) was monitored by...
The ULR analysis center has participated in the third reprocessing campaign (repro3) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). Its ULR-repro3 solution (aka ULR7) included 601 stations for which the GNSS data available between 2000.0 and 2021.0 was reprocessed using the models and corrections adopted by the IGS for repro3. The main steps and features of ULR-repro3 reanalysis are as follows. First, daily GNSS solutions were computed using a free-network weighted least squares adjustment strategy. That...
Dans toutes les disciplines mobilisant l’analyse de réseau, on considère qu’elle est issue de la théorie des graphes, cette dernière étant supposée remonter au XVIIIe siècle. L’étude des premiers textes de géographie prétendant s’appuyer sur la théorie des graphes montre que le lien entre les deux est ténu, la théorie des graphes devenant un domaine des mathématiques clairement identifiable seulement dans les années 1950. Fondée sur une étude approfondie des articles et ouvrages fondant la...
Premise of the study: As part of global change, climate warming and pollinator decline are expected to affect plant phenology and plant-pollinator interactions. This paper aims at characterizing rapid evolution of life history traits and floral traits over two decades in the wild pansy (Viola arvensis), a common weed in agrosystems. Methods: We used a resurrection ecology approach with genotypes sampled in 1991 and 2012 from a population in Burgundy (France). The species has a...
Centre national de la recherche scientifique7
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique4
National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment1
University of Oviedo1
Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium1
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology1
LIttoral, ENvironment and Societies1