131 Works

Data from: Recent speciation and secondary contact in endemic ants

Michael J. Jowers, Fernando Amor, Patrocinio Ortega, Alain Lenoir, Raphaël R. Boulay, Xim Cerdá & Juan A. Galarza
Gene flow is the main force opposing divergent selection, and its effects are greater in populations in close proximity. Thus, complete reproductive isolation between parapatric populations is not expected, particularly in the absence of ecological adaptation and sharp environmental differences. Here, we explore the biogeographical patterns of an endemic ant species, Cataglyphis floricola, for which two colour morphs (black and bicolour) coexist in parapatry throughout continuous sandy habitat in southern Spain. Discriminant analyses of six...

Data from: Jack of all nectars, master of most: DNA methylation and the epigenetic basis of niche width in a flower-living yeast

Carlos M. Herrera, María I. Pozo & Pilar Bazaga
In addition to genetic differences between individuals due to nucleotide sequence variation, epigenetic changes experienced by genotypes due to DNA methylation may also contribute to population niche width, an intriguing possibility that remains essentially untested. Using the nectar-living yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii as study subject, we examine the hypothesis that changes in genome-wide DNA methylation patterns underly the ability of this fugitive species to exploit a broad resource range in its heterogeneous patchy environment. Data on...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of direct reciprocal and indirect effects in a host-parasite network

Shai Pilosof, Miguel A. Fortuna, Maxim V. Vinarski, Natalia P. Korallo-Vinarskaya & Boris R. Krasnov
1. Temporal variation in the direct and indirect influence that hosts and parasites exert on each other is still poorly understood. However, variation in species’ influence due to species and interactions turnover can have important consequences for host community dynamics and/or for parasite transmission dynamics, and eventually for the risk of zoonotic diseases. 2. We used data on a network of small mammals and their ectoparasites surveyed over six years to test hypotheses exploring (1)...

Individual and synergistic effects of male external genital traits in sexual selection

Eduardo Rodriguez-Exposito, Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez & Michal Polak
Male genital traits exhibit extraordinary inter-specific phenotypic variation. This remarkable and general evolutionary trend is widely considered to be the result of sexual selection. However, we still do not have a good understanding of whether or how individual genital traits function in different competitive arenas (episodes of sexual selection), or how different genital traits may interact to influence competitive outcomes. Here, we use an experimental approach based on high-precision laser phenotypic engineering to address these...

Vastly underestimated radiation of Amazonian salamanders (Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa) and implications about plethodontid diversification

Andres Felipe Jaramillo, Ignacio De La Riva, Juan M. Guayasamin, Juan C. Chaparro, Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia, Roberto Gutierrez, Isabela Brcko, Carles Vila & Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher
We present data showing that the number of salamander species in Amazonia is vastly underestimated. We used DNA sequences of up to five genes (3 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear) of 366 specimens, 189 corresponding to 89 non-Amazonian nominal species and 177 Amazonian specimens, including types or topotypes, of eight of the nine recognized species in the region. By including representatives of all known species of Amazonian Bolitoglossa, except for one, and 73 % of the...

Paraphyletic species no more – genomic data resolve a Pleistocene radiation and validate morphological species of the Melanoplus scudderi complex (Insecta: Orthoptera)

Jen-Pan Huang, JoVonn G. Hill, Joaquín Ortego & L. Lacey Knowles
Rapid speciation events, with taxa generated over a short time period, are among the most investigated biological phenomena. However, molecular systematics often reveals contradictory results compared with morphological/phenotypical diagnoses of species under scenarios of recent and rapid diversification. In this study, we used molecular data from an average of over 29,000 loci per sample from RADseq to reconstruct the diversification history and delimit the species boundary in a short-winged grasshopper species complex (Melanoplus Scudderi group),...

Data from: Variation in seed dispersal effectiveness: the redundancy of consequences in diversified tropical frugivore assemblages

Débora C. Rother, Marco A. Pizo & Pedro Jordano
Plant–frugivore mutualistic assemblages frequently combine multiple, complementary or not (i.e. redundant), distinct effects of animal species. To a large extent, the outcomes of these interactions crucially depend on the delayed consequences of frugivore effectiveness on plant recruitment. We evaluated seed dispersal effectiveness for three plant species in a Brazilian Atlantic forest with a marked habitat heterogeneity defined by bamboo and non-bamboo patches. Twenty one, 23 and 14 bird species ate fruits of Euterpe edulis, Sloanea...

Data from: Changes in melanocyte RNA and DNA methylation favor pheomelanin synthesis and may avoid systemic oxidative stress after dietary cysteine supplementation in birds

Sol Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael Márquez, Ângela Inácio & Ismael Galván
Cysteine plays essential biological roles, but excessive amounts produce cellular oxidative stress. Cysteine metabolism is mainly mediated by the enzymes cysteine dioxygenase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, respectively coded by the genes CDO1 and GCLC. Here we test a new hypothesis posing that the synthesis of the pigment pheomelanin also contributes to cysteine homeostasis in melanocytes, where cysteine can enter the pheomelanogenesis pathway. We conducted a experiment in the Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea, a bird producing large...

Data from: From groups to communities in western lowland gorillas

Giovanni Forcina, Dominique Vallet, Pascaline J. Le Gouar, Rubén Bernardo-Madrid, Germán Illera, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Stéphane Dréano, Eloy Revilla, José Domingo Rodríguez-Tejeiro, Nelly Ménard, Magdalena Bermejo, Carles Vilà & José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro
Social networks are the result of interactions between individuals at different temporal scales. Thus, sporadic intergroup encounters and individual forays play a central role in defining the dynamics of populations in social species. We assessed the rate of intergroup encounters for three western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups with daily observations over five years, and noninvasively genotyped a larger population over four months. Both approaches revealed a social system much more dynamic than anticipated,...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: Kind to kin: weak interference competition among white stork (Ciconia ciconia) broodmates

José María Romero & Tomas Redondo
Altricial nestlings in structured families show a diverse array of behavioural mechanisms to compete for food, ranging from signalling scrambles to aggressive interference. Rates of filial infanticide are moderately high in white storks. It has been hypothesized that this unusual behaviour is an adaptive parental response to the absence of efficient mechanisms of brood reduction (aggression or direct physical interference) by nestlings. To test this latter assumption, we analyzed video recordings of 41 complete feeding...

Recipient and donor characteristics govern the hierarchical structure of heterospecific pollen competition networks

Jose B. Lanuza, Ignasi Bartomeus, Tia-Lynn Ashman & Romina Rader
Pollinator sharing can have negative consequences for plant fitness with the arrival of foreign (i.e. heterospecific) pollen, yet responses are often variable among species. Plant traits and relatedness of donor and recipient species have been suggested to drive the variations in plant fitness, but how they shape the structure of pollen competition networks has been overlooked at the community level. To understand the importance of reproductive traits and relatedness on the impacts of heterospecific pollen...

Data from: Relationships among taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic ant diversity across the biogeographic regions of Europe

Xavier Arnan, Xim Cerdá & Javier Retana
Understanding how different biodiversity components are related across different environmental conditions is a major goal in macroecology and conservation biogeography. We investigated correlations among alpha and beta taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD), and functional diversity (FD) in ant communities in the five biogeographic regions most representative of western Europe; we also examined the degree of niche conservatism. We combined data from 349 ant communities composed of 154 total species, which were characterized by 10 functional traits...

Data from: Long-term expansion of juniper populations in managed landscapes: patterns in space and time

Cristina Garcia, Eva Moracho, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado & Pedro Jordano
1. Forest cover has increased world-wide over the last decade despite continuous forest fragmentation. However, a lack of long-term demographic data hinders our understanding of the spatial dynamics of colonization in remnant populations inhabiting recently protected areas or set-aside rural lands. 2. We investigated the population expansion of the Phoenician juniper (Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata), which is an endozoochorous Mediterranean tree species inhabiting landscapes that have been managed for many centuries. By combining the photointerpretation...

Data from: Linking genetic and ecological differentiation in an ungulate with a circumpolar distribution

Glenn Yannic, Joaquín Ortego, Loïc Pellissier, Nicolas Lecomte, Louis Bernatchez & Steeve D. Côté
Genetic differentiation among populations may arise from the disruption of gene flow due to local adaptation to distinct environments and/or neutral accumulation of mutations and genetic drift resulted from geographical isolation. Quantifying the role of these processes in determining the genetic structure of natural populations remains challenging. Here, we analyze the relative contribution of isolation-by-resistance (IBR), isolation-by-environment (IBE), genetic drift and historical isolation in allopatry during Pleistocene glacial cycles on shaping patterns of genetic differentiation...

Data from: Clinal variation in seed traits influencing life cycle timing in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Alicia Montesinos-Navarro, F. Xavier Picó & Stephen J. Tonsor
Early life history transitions are crucial determining lifetime survival and fecundity. Adaptive evolution in early life history traits involves a complex interplay between the developing plant and its current and future environments. We examined the plant’s earliest life history traits, dissecting an integrated suite of pre-germination processes: primary dormancy, thermal induction of secondary dormancy, and seasonal germination response. We examined genetic variation in the three processes, genetic correlations among the processes, and the scaling of...

Data from: Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach

Joaquin Ortego, Victor Noguerales, Paul F. Gugger & Victoria L. Sork
Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analyzed inter- and intra-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species...

Data from: Evolution of cold tolerance and thermal plasticity in life history, behaviour and physiology during a poleward range expansion

José Antonio Carbonell, Ying-Jie Wang & Robby Stoks
1. Many species that are moving polewards encounter novel thermal regimes to which they have to adapt. Therefore, rapid evolution of thermal tolerance and of thermal plasticity in fitness-related traits in edge populations can be crucial for the success and speed of range expansions. 2. We tested for adaptation in cold tolerance and in life history, behavioural and physiological traits and their thermal plasticity during a poleward range expansion. 3. We reconstructed the thermal performance...

Data from: Evaluating predictive performance of statistical models explaining wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering crop

Maria Blasi Romero, Ignasi Bartomeus, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Sandra A.M. Lindström, Peter Olsson, Chiara Polce, Simon G. Potts, , Jeroen Scheper, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Yann Clough
Wild bee populations are threatened by current agricultural practices in many parts of the world, which may put pollination services and crop yields at risk. Loss of pollination services can potentially be predicted by models that link bee abundances with landscape-scale land-use, but there is little knowledge on the degree to which these statistical models are transferable across time and space. This study assesses the transferability of models for wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering...

Data from: Seed dispersal by dispersing juvenile animals: a source of functional connectivity in fragmented landscapes

Juan P. González-Varo, Sarah Díaz-García, Juan M. Arroyo & Pedro Jordano
Juvenile animals generally disperse from their birthplace to their future breeding territories. In fragmented landscapes, habitat-specialist species must disperse through the anthropogenic matrix where remnant habitats are embedded. Here, we test the hypothesis that dispersing juvenile frugivores leave a footprint in the form of seed deposition through the matrix of fragmented landscapes. We focused on the Sardinian warbler (Sylvia melanocephala), a resident frugivorous passerine. We used data from field sampling of bird-dispersed seeds in the...

Data from: Identifying 'useful' fitness models: balancing the benefits of added complexity with realistic data requirements in models of individual plant fitness

Trace Martyn, Daniel Stouffer, Oscar Godoy, Ignasi Bartomeus, Abigail Pastore & Margaret Mayfield
Direct species interactions are commonly included in individual fitness models used for coexistence and local-diversity modeling. Though widely considered important for such models, direct interactions alone are often insufficient for accurately predicting fitness, coexistence or diversity outcomes. Incorporating higher-order interactions (HOIs) can lead to more accurate individual fitness models, but also adds many model terms, which can quickly result in model over-fitting. We explore approaches for balancing the trade-off between tractability and model accuracy that...

Trophic resource partitioning drives fine-scale coexistence in cryptic bat species

Orly Razgour, Roberto Novella-Fernandez, Carlos Ibáñez, Javier Juste, Beth Clare & C. Patrick Doncaster
Understanding the processes that enable species coexistence has important implications for assessing how ecological systems will respond to global change. Morphology and functional similarity increase the potential for competition, and therefore, co-occurring morphologically similar but genetically unique species are a good model system for testing coexistence mechanisms. We used DNA metabarcoding and High Throughput Sequencing to characterise for the first time the trophic ecology of two recently-described cryptic bat species with parapatric ranges, Myotis escalerai...

Genomic insights into the origin of trans-Mediterranean disjunct distributions: The case of the saltmarsh band-winged grasshopper (Mioscirtus wagneri)

Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J. Cordero, L. Lacey Knowles & Joaquín Ortego
Aim: Two main biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the Mediterranean-Turanian disjunct distributions exhibited by numerous steppe-dwelling organisms, namely (i) dispersal during the Messinian salinity crisis (∼5.96-5.33 Ma) followed by range fragmentation and vicariance, and (ii) Pleistocene colonization and recent processes of population subdivision (<2 Ma). Despite the two hypotheses postulate the role of climatic alterations and changes in landmass configuration on determining such disjunct distributions, estimates of the timing of lineage diversification have...

Data from: Unraveling conflicting density- and distance-dependent effects on plant reproduction using a spatially-explicit approach

José M. Fedriani, Thorsten Wiegand, Gemma Calvo, Alberto Suárez-Esteban, Miguel Jácome, Magdalena Żywiec & Miguel Delibes
1. Density- and distance-dependent (DDD) mechanisms are important determinants of plant reproductive success (PRS). Different components of sequential PRS can operate either in the same or in different directions and thus reinforce or neutralize each other, and they may also operate at different spatial scales. Thus, spatially-explicit approaches are needed to detect such complex DDD effects across multiple PRS components and spatial scales. 2. To reveal DDD effects of different components of early PRS of...

Data from: Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs

Clare D. Marsden, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Dennis P. O'Brien, Jeremy F. Taylor, Oscar Ramirez, Carles Vila, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Robert D. Schnabel, Robert K. Wayne & Kirk E. Lohmueller
Population bottlenecks, inbreeding, and artificial selection can all, in principle, influence levels of deleterious genetic variation. However, the relative importance of each of these effects on genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation remains controversial. Domestic and wild canids offer a powerful system to address the role of these factors in influencing deleterious variation because their history is dominated by known bottlenecks and intense artificial selection. Here, we assess genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 90 whole-genome...

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