We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches,...
1. Modern literature on plant dispersal by birds focuses mainly on the importance of frugivory and scatter-hoarding, yet recent studies show that endozoochory by migratory waterbirds is an important mechanism of long-distance dispersal for a broad range of plants. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical field studies that identify the plants dispersed by waterbirds, and relate them to expectations based on dispersal syndromes. To date, there are no detailed studies of the level of...
Data from: Linking genetic and ecological differentiation in an ungulate with a circumpolar distributionGlenn Yannic, Joaquín Ortego, Loïc Pellissier, Nicolas Lecomte, Louis Bernatchez & Steeve D. Côté
Genetic differentiation among populations may arise from the disruption of gene flow due to local adaptation to distinct environments and/or neutral accumulation of mutations and genetic drift resulted from geographical isolation. Quantifying the role of these processes in determining the genetic structure of natural populations remains challenging. Here, we analyze the relative contribution of isolation-by-resistance (IBR), isolation-by-environment (IBE), genetic drift and historical isolation in allopatry during Pleistocene glacial cycles on shaping patterns of genetic differentiation...
Data from: Unravelling seed dispersal through fragmented landscapes: frugivore species operate unevenly as mobile linksJuan P. González-Varo, Carolina Carvalho, Juan M. Arroyo, Pedro Jordano & Carolina S. Carvalho
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of...
Data from: Evolvability meets biogeography: evolutionary potential decreases at high and low environmental favourabilityJesús Martinez-Padilla, Alba Estrada, Regan Early & Francisco García-González
Understanding and forecasting the effects of environmental change on wild populations requires knowledge on a critical question: do populations have the ability to evolve in response to that change? However, our knowledge on how evolution works in wild conditions under different environmental circumstances is extremely limited. We investigated how environmental variation influences the evolutionary potential of phenotypic traits. We used published data to collect or calculate 135 estimates of evolvability of morphological traits of European...
Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislationCarles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...
Data from: Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirdsCasper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Ádam Lovas-Kiss, Maria Ovegård & Andy J. Green
In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested this hypothesis in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.). Cormorants regurgitate pellets daily, which we collected at seven European locations and examined for intact propagules. One-third of pellets contained at least one...
Resurrection Ecology (RE) is a very powerful approach to address a wide range of question in ecology and evolution. This approach rests on using appropriate model systems, and only few are known to be available. In this paper, we show that Artemia has multiple attractive features (short generation time, cyst bank and collections, well documented phylogeography and ecology) for a good RE model. We show in detail with a case study how cysts can be...
Data from: Exotic species enhance response diversity to land-use change but modify functional compositionJamie R. Stavert, David E. Pattemore, Anne C. Gaskett, Jacqueline R. Beggs & Ignasi Bartomeus
Two main mechanisms may buffer ecosystem functions despite biodiversity loss. First, multiple species could share similar ecological roles, thus providing functional redundancy. Second, species may respond differently to environmental change (response diversity). However, ecosystem function would be best protected when functionally redundant species also show response diversity. This linkage has not been studied directly, so we investigated whether native and exotic pollinator species with similar traits (functional redundancy) differed in abundance (response diversity) across an...
Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering cropsAinhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...
Estación Biológica de Doñana11
University of Cambridge2
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale2
Spanish National Research Council2
University of Bern2
University of Debrecen2
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences2
South African National Biodiversity Institute1