129 Works

Consistent concentrations of critically endangered Balearic shearwaters in UK waters revealed by at-sea surveys

Jessica Ann Phillips, Alex N. Banks, Mark Bolton, Tom Brereton, Pierre Cazenave, Natasha Gillies, Oliver Padget, Jeroen Van Der Kooij, James Waggit & Tim Guilford
Aim: Europe’s only globally critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus), is thought to have expanded its post-breeding range northwards into UK waters, though its distribution there is not yet well understood. This study aims to identify environmental factors associated with the species’ presence, and map the probability of presence of the species across the western English Channel and southern Celtic Sea, and estimate the number of individuals in this area. Location: The western...

Using vertebrate environmental DNA from seawater in biomonitoring of marine habitats

Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Felipe Torquato, Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Alec B. M. Moore, Johan Mølgård Sørensen, Pedro Range, Radhouane Ben Hamadou, Steffen Sanvig Bach, Peter Rask Møller & Philip Francis Thomsen
Conservation and management of marine biodiversity depends on biomonitoring of marine habitats, but current approaches are resource-intensive and require different approaches for different organisms. Environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from water samples is an efficient and versatile approach to detecting aquatic animals. In the ocean, eDNA composition reflects local fauna at fine spatial scales, but little is known about the effectiveness of eDNA-based monitoring of marine communities at larger scales. We investigated the potential of eDNA...

Data from: Restoring Study 329: efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in treatment of major depression in adolescence

Joanna C. Le Noury, John M. Nardo, David Healy, Jon Jureidini, Melissa Raven, Catalin Tufanaru & Elia Abi-Jaoude
Objectives: To reanalyse SmithKline Beecham’s Study 329 (published by Keller and colleagues in 2001), the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The reanalysis under the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative was done to see whether access to and reanalysis of a full dataset from a randomised controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications...

Data from: Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change.

Roger S. Thorpe, Axel Barlow, Anita Malhotra & Yann Surget-Groba
Global warming will impact species in a number of ways, and it is important to know the extent to which natural populations can adapt to anthropogenic climate change by natural selection. Parallel microevolution within separate species can demonstrate natural selection, but several studies of homoplasy have not yet revealed examples of widespread parallel evolution in a generic radiation. Taking into account primary phylogeographic divisions, we investigate numerous quantitative traits (size, shape, scalation, colour pattern and...

Data from: Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchax

Samantha V. Beck, Gary R. Carvalho, Axel Barlow, Lukas Rüber, Heok Hui Tan, Estu Nugroho, Daisy Wowor, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Fabian Herder, Zainal A. Muchlisin & Mark De Bruyn
The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have...

Data from: Recovery linked to life history of sessile epifauna following exclusion of towed mobile fishing gear

Michel J. Kaiser, Samantha Hormbrey, Jonathan R. Booth, Hilmar Hinz & Jan Geert Hiddink
1. The use of reserves as conservation tools is widespread. However, evaluating the effectiveness of reserve implementation for long-lived species has been problematic as it requires sampling programmes over long time scales that are appropriate to species’ longevity and recovery rates. In the sea, towed bottom fishing gears alter the biodiversity and ecosystem services provided by benthic communities and habitats. Marine reserves have been used to manage these impacts but our understanding of the drivers...

Data from: Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation

Louise C. Andresen, Maria T. Dominguez, Sabine Reinsch, Andy R. Smith, Inger Kappel Schmidt, Per Ambus, Claus Beier, Pascal Boeckx, Roland Bol, Giovanbattista De Dato, Bridget A. Emmett, Marc Estiarte, Mark H. Garnett, György Kröel-Dulay, Sharon L. Mason, Cecilie S. Nielsen, Josep Penuelas, Albert Tietema & Andrew R. Smith
1.Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant-soil-air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. 2.Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site...

Data from: Estimating the prevalence of food risk increasing behaviours in UK kitchens

Anna K. Jones, Paul Cross, Michael Burton, Caroline Millman, Sarah J. O'Brien, Dan Rigby & Sarah J. O’Brien
Foodborne disease poses a serious threat to public health. In the UK, half a million cases are linked to known pathogens and more than half of all outbreaks are associated with catering establishments. The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) has initiated the UK Food Hygiene Rating Scheme in which commercial food establishments are inspected and scored with the results made public. In this study we investigate the prevalence of food risk increasing behaviours among chefs,...

Data from: Does density influence relative growth performance of farm, wild, and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon in semi-natural and hatchery common garden conditions?

Alison C. Harvey, Gareth Juleff, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Monica F. Solberg, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar-Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the...

Data from: Bottom trawling affects fish condition through changes in the ratio of prey availability to density of competitors

Jan Geert Hiddink, Joan Moranta, Stephen Balestrini, Marija Sciberras, Marine Cendrier, Rosie Bowyer, Michel J. Kaiser, Mattias Sköld, Patrik Jonsson, Francois Bastardie & Hilmar Hinz
Bottom-trawl fisheries are widespread and cause mortality of benthic invertebrates, which in turn may lead to a decrease in the availability of prey for target fish species. Exploitation also reduces the abundance of the fish species themselves. Modelling studies have shown that bottom trawling could lead to both increases and decreases in fish production, but so far empirical evidence to test these ideas has been very limited. We hypothesize that the effect of bottom trawling...

Data from: Rapid assessment of forest canopy and light regime using smartphone hemispherical photography

Simone Bianchi, Christine Cahalan, Sophie Hale & James Michael Gibbons
Hemispherical photography (HP), implemented with cameras equipped with “fisheye” lenses, is a widely used method for describing forest canopies and light regimes. A promising technological advance is the availability of low-cost fisheye lenses for smartphone cameras. However, smartphone camera sensors cannot record a full hemisphere. We investigate whether smartphone HP is a cheaper and faster but still adequate operational alternative to traditional cameras for describing forest canopies and light regimes. We collected hemispherical pictures with...

Data from: Losing cichlid fish biodiversity: genetic and morphological homogenization of tilapia following colonization by introduced species

Asilatu Shechonge, Benjamin P. Ngatunga, Rashid Tamatamah, Stephanie J. Bradbeer, Jack Harrington, Antonia G.P. Ford, George F. Turner, Martin J. Genner & Antonia G. P. Ford
Among the many negative impacts of invasive species, hybridization with indigenous species has increasingly become recognized as a major issue. However, few studies have characterized the phenotypic outcomes of hybridization following biological invasions. Here we investigate the genetic and morphological consequences of stocking invasive tilapia species in two water bodies in central Tanzania. We sampled individuals from Mindu Reservoir on the Ruvu river system, and at Kidatu on the Great Ruaha-Rufiji river system. We screened...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Data from: Quantitative traits and mode of speciation in Martinique anoles

Roger Thorpe, Yann Surget-Groba, Helena Johansson & Roger S. Thorpe
We investigate extensive quantitative trait variation (dewlap hue, colour pattern, dorsum hue, body proportions and scalation) in the Martinique anole across eight transects representing nascent parapatric ecological speciation, nascent allopatric speciation, and allopatric divergence without sufficient genetic structure to suggest speciation. Quantitative trait divergence can be extremely large between adjacent sets of populations, but with one exception this is associated with difference in habitat rather than past allopatry. Nascent ecological speciation shows the greatest level...

Selection of indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of bottom trawling on seabed habitats

Jan Geert Hiddink, Michel Kaiser, Marija Sciberras, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Adriaan Rijnsdorp & Simon Jennings
1. Bottom-trawl fisheries are the most-widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries-, conservation- and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous test of a range of candidate indicators against 9 commonly-agreed criteria (concreteness, theoretical basis, public awareness, cost, measurement, historical data, sensitivity, responsiveness, specificity) has been performed. 2. Here,...

Soil chemical and physical properties from a digestate (winter wheat trial) experiment at North Wyke and Henfaes Farm, UK (2017)

S. Reinsch, I. Lebron, A.R. Sánchez-Rodríguez, A.M. Carswell, H. Carter, D.R. Chadwick, J.M. Cotton, H. Guyatt, R. Harvey, A. Hunt, D.L. Jones, P.O. Keenan, A.J. Lawlor, M.R. Marshall, T.H. Misselbrook, M. Patel, A.P. Pinder, M.G. Pereira, K.S. Saunders, B. Tanna, N. Thompson & B.A. Emmett
The data consist of soil physicochemical and biological data for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a winter wheat field experiment located at two research sites in the United Kingdom. Soil samples were collected between April 2017 and August 2017. Extractions and measurements were carried out thereafter. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon and Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales. At each site measurements were...

Sheep urine patch greenhouse gas emissions from a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK

K.A. Marsden, J.A. Holmberg, D.L. Jones & D.R. Chadwick
The dataset contains annual soil greenhouse gas emissions following sheep urine (real and artificial) applications to a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK, across two seasons (spring and autumn) within the year 2016-2017. Soil greenhouse gas data were collected using a combination of automated chambers and manually sampled chambers, both analysed via gas chromatography. Supporting data include meteorological data, soil chemistry and above ground biomass data collected on a time-series throughout the study, following...

Tensiometer measurements from a field experiment in the Conwy valley, North Wales, UK (2013 - 2015)

M.R. Marshall, D.M. Cooper, H.C. Glanville & D. Jones
Data are presented of tensiometer measurements as centimetres of water from a field experiment in the Conwy catchment. The data were collected between October 2013 and January 2015 using tensiometers inserted into boreholes. The data were collected by trained members of staff from Bangor University and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The samples were taken to provide supporting information for assessing the relationship between soil microbial populations and soil moisture status. The data were...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) plant height on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises 10 direct measurements in centimetres of plant height taken within a 1metre (m) x 1m quadrat. Also presented are the mean, standard deviation, standard error and coefficient variation values. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 m (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100 m and 100-1000 m. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) soil electrical conductivity on salt marsh sites at Morecambe Bay and Essex

H. Ford, A. Garbutt & M. Skov
The dataset comprises the electrical conductivity of a 10 gram soil sample from the top 5 centimetre (cm) of soil taken within each 1metre (m) x 1m quadrat. Sampling was conducted at six salt marsh sites at four spatial scales: 1 m (the minimal sampling unit) nested within a hierarchy of increasing scales of 1-10 m, 10-100 m and 100-1000 m. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of...

Annual soil respiration under experimental drought and warming at Clocaenog forest (1999-2016)

M. Dominguez, S. Reinsch, A. Sowerby, A.R. Smith, R.J. Harvey, J.B. Winterbourn, M.R. Brooks, D.A. Robinson & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of annual values of soil respiration for plots subjected to climate change manipulations between 1999 and 2016. Data were collected from the climate change field site Climoor that is located in Clocaenog forest, Northeast Wales. The experimental field site consists of three untreated control plots (Plots 3, 6 and 9), three plots where the plant canopy air is artificially warmed during night time hours (Plots 1, 2 and 7) and three plots...

Soil hydraulic property data from the Climoor fieldsite in the Clocaenog Forest (2010-2012) v2

D.A. Robinson, I. Lebron, A.R. Smith, M.R. Marshall, B.A. Emmett, S. Reinsch, D.M. Cooper & M.R. Brooks
This dataset contains soil hydraulic measurement data from the Climoor field site in the Clocaenog forest, in North Wales. The collection contains five data sets. 1) soil bulk density (0-5 centimetre) and saturated water content. 2) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured in the field at tensions of -2 and -6 centimetre using a mini disk infiltrometer. 3) Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured using a HYPROP (registered trademark) instrument, an instrument which determines the hydraulic properties of soil...

Low-cost tools mitigate climate change during reproduction in an endangered marine ectotherm

Leo Clarke, Rebecca Elliot, Elena Abella-Perez, Adolfo Marco, Samir Martins & Lucy Hawkes
The impacts of anthropogenic climate change will be most dramatic for species that live in narrow thermal niches, such as reptiles. Given the imminent threat to biodiversity, and that actions to reduce carbon emissions are not yet sufficient, it is important that a sound evidence base of potential mitigation options is available for conservation managers. Successful incubation and production of male sea turtle hatchlings is threatened by increased global temperatures (sex is determined by the...

Data from: The linking of plate tectonics and evolutionary divergences

Matthew J. Phillips, Timothy J. Page, Mark De Bruyn, Joel A. Huey, William F. Humphreys, Jane M. Hughes, Scott R. Santos, Daniel J. Schmidt & Jonathan M. Waters
It is exciting to be living at a time when the big questions in biology can be investigated using modern genetics and computing. Bauzà-Ribot et al. take on one of the fundamental drivers of biodiversity, the effect of continental drift in the formation of the world’s biota, employing next-generation sequencing of whole mitochondrial genomes and modern Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analysis. Bauzà-Ribot et al. conclude that vicariance via plate tectonics best explains the genetic divergence...

Data from: Resilience of tropical dry forests – a meta-analysis of changes in species diversity and composition during secondary succession

Géraldine Derroire, Patricia Balvanera, Carolina Castellanos-Castro, Guillaume Decocq, Deborah K. Kennard, Edwin Lebrija-Trejos, Jorge A. Leiva, Per-Christer Odén, Jennifer S. Powers, Víctor Rico-Gray, Mulualem Tigabu & John R. Healey
Assessing the recovery of species diversity and composition after major disturbance is key to understanding the resilience of tropical forests through successional processes, and its importance for biodiversity conservation. Despite the specific abiotic environment and ecological processes of tropical dry forests, secondary succession has received less attention in this biome than others and changes in species diversity and composition have never been synthesised in a systematic and quantitative review. This study aims to assess in...

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