Background: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e.g., flies are specialists on flowers of a single gender of a single species of...
Data from: Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles, and bacterial infection riskDaniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen pathogen transmission likely depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a four-year study of 369 common vampire bats across ten sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and...
Data from: No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the late Miocene of PeruOlivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Walter Landini, Klaas Post, Benjamin Ramassamy, Claudio Di Celma, Mario Urbina-Schmitt & Giovanni Bianucci
Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus...
A set of 130 digital precipitation maps of the tropical Andes, covering Colombia, Ecuador and Peru at a 5km resolution. The maps represent different realizations of mean precipitation totals of the period 1981-2010 using different satellite-gauge merging methods. The work draws on a large database of 723 rain gauges and the full 5km Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (TPR) record from 1998 to 2014. Each map is approximately 1MB
Data from: Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae) with descriptions of three new species from PeruCésar Aguilar, , Juan C. Cusi, Alfredo Guzmán, Frank Huari, Mikael Lundberg, Emma Mortensen, César Ramírez, Daniel Robles, Juana Suárez, Andres Ticona, Víctor J. Vargas, Pablo J. Venegas, , Perry Wood & Jack Sites
Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes) to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within...
Evolutionary tradeoffs between male secondary sexual traits revealed by a phylogeny of the hyperdiverse tribe Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)Wendy A. Valencia-Montoya, Tiago B. Quental, João Filipe R. Tonini, Gerard Talavera, James D. Crall, Gerardo Lamas, Robert C. Busby, Ana Paula S. Carvalho, Ana B. Morais, Nicolás Oliveira Mega, Helena Piccoli Romanowski, Marjorie A. Liénard, Shayla Salzman, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Akito Y. Kawahara, David J. Lohman, Robert K. Robbins & Naomi E. Pierce
Male butterflies in the hyperdiverse tribe Eumaeini possess an unusually complex and diverse repertoire of secondary sexual characteristics involved in pheromone production and dissemination. Maintaining multiple sexually selected traits is likely to be metabolically costly, potentially resulting in trade-offs in the evolution of male signals. However, a phylogenetic framework to test hypotheses regarding the evolution and maintenance of male sexual traits in Eumaeini has been lacking. Here, we infer a comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny from 379...
The Deseadan South American Land Mammal Age (late Early Oligocene – Late Oligocene) attests to a time of great diversification in the caviomorph rodent fossil record. Nevertheless, Deseadan rodent-bearing localities in Neotropical lowlands are few and poorly known. Here we describe the rodent assemblages from two Late Oligocene localities, near Contamana, Loreto, Peru. Seven taxa are new to science: Palaeosteiromys amazonensis gen. et sp. nov., Plesiosteiromys newelli gen. et sp. nov., Loretomys minutus gen. et...
Data from: Cough frequency during treatment associated with baseline cavitary volume and proximity to the airway in pulmonary TBAlvaro Proaño, David P. Bui, José W. López, Nancy M. Vu, Marjory A. Bravard, Gwenyth O. Lee, Brian H. Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J. Mollura, Jon S. Friedland, David A. J. Moore, Carlton A. Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H. Gilman & Tuberculosis Working Group In Peru
Background: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has never been studied. Methods: We analyzed 41 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis throughout treatment. Cough recordings were based on the Cayetano Cough...
Data from: Cenozoic colonization and diversification patterns of tropical American palms: evidence from Astrocaryum (Arecaceae)Julissa Roncal, Francis Kahn, Betty Millan, Thomas L. P. Couvreur & Jean-Christophe Pintaud
With 788 species in 67 genera in the Neotropics, Arecaceae are an important ecological and economic component of the region. We review the influence of geological events such as the Pebas system, the Andean uplift and the land connections between South and Central/North America, on the historical assembly of Neotropical palms. We present a case study of the palm genus Astrocaryum (40 species) as a model for evaluating colonization and diversification patterns of lowland Neotropical...
Data from: Mating patterns and post-mating isolation in three cryptic species of the Engystomops petersi species complexPaula A. Trillo, Andrea E. Narvaez, Santiago R. Ron & Kim L. Hoke
Determining the extent of reproductive isolation in cryptic species with dynamic geographic ranges can give us important insights into the processes that generate and maintain genetic divergence in the absence of severe geographic barriers. We studied mating patterns, propensity to crossbreed in nature and subsequent fertilization rates, as well as survival and development of hybrid F1 offspring for three species of the E. petersi species complex in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador. We found at least...
Andean orogenesis has driven the development of very high plant diversity in the Neotropics through its impact on landscape evolution and climate. The analysis of the intraspecific patterns of genetic structure in plants would permit inferring the effects of Andean uplift on the evolution and diversification of Neotropical flora. In this study, using microsatellite markers and Bayesian clustering analyses, we report the presence of four genetic clusters for the palm Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua which...
Data from: A new small, mesorostrine inioid (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinida) from four late Miocene localities of the Pisco Basin, PeruOlivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Aldo Benites-Palomino, Claudio Di Celma, Christian De Muizon, Mario Urbina & Giovanni Bianucci
The moderately rich past diversity of the superfamily Inioidea (Cetacea, Odontoceti) in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans contrasts with the present survival of a single genus (Inia, Amazon river dolphin, family Iniidae) in freshwater deposits of South America and of a single species (Pontoporia blainvillei, Franciscana, family Pontoporiidae) along the eastern coast of that continent. However, part of the late Miocene to Pliocene inioid fossil record is made of relatively fragmentarily known species, for...
Andean non-volant small mammals: a dataset of community assemblages of non-volant small mammals from the high AndesEdgardo M. Rengifo, Jorge Brito, Jorge Pablo Jayat, Raisa Cairampoma, Agustina Novillo, Natali Hurtado, Ignacio Ferro, Cesar E. Medina, Alonso Arguero, Sergio Solari, Jose Urquizo, Ariatna Villareal, Elena Vivar, Pablo Teta, Marcial Quiroga-Carmona, Guillermo D'Elía & Alexandre Reis Percequillo
Information from diversity inventories is used to study patterns of biodiversity and species distribution; likewise, it may be useful to identify priority areas for conservation, and to guide future sampling efforts. In this context, we compiled information on non-volant small mammal communities from the high Andes (> 2,000 m.). Here we present an open resource data set containing information diversity (species composition, number of individuals captured ), inventory design (type of traps, sampling efforts), and...
National University of San Marcos12
United States Department of Agriculture2
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador2
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences2
University of Pisa2
National Scientific and Technical Research Council2
Imperial College London2
University of Camerino1
Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional1
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos1