620 Works

Data from: Pre-infection effects of nectar secondary compounds on a bumble bee gut pathogen

Kristen Michaud, Rebecca Irwin, Nicholas Barber & Lynn Adler
Bumble bee pollinators can be exposed to pathogens when foraging on flowers previously visited by infected individuals. Infectious cells may be deposited in floral nectar, providing a site for pathogens to interact with nectar secondary compounds prior to infecting bees. Some nectar secondary compounds can reduce pathogen counts in infected bumble bees, but we know less about how exposure to these compounds directly affects pathogens prior to being ingested by their host. We exposed the...

Learning and transfer in hierarchically structured concept attainment tasks.

Something old, something new: evolution of Colombian weedy rice (Oryza spp.) through de novo de-domestication, exotic gene flow, and hybridization

Veronica Hoyos, Guido Plaza & Ana L. Caicedo
Weedy rice (Oryza spp.) is a worldwide weed of domesticated rice (O. sativa), considered particularly problematic due to its strong competition with the crop, which leads to reduction of yields and harvest quality. Several studies have established multiple independent origins for weedy rice populations in the U.S. and various parts of Asia; however, the origins of weedy rice in South America have not been examined in a global context. We evaluated the genetic variation of...

Data from: The comparative hydrodynamics of rapid rotation by predatory appendages

Mathew J. McHenry, Philip S. L. Anderson, Sam Van Wassenbergh, David Matthews, Adam Summers & S. N. Patek
Countless aquatic animals rotate appendages through the water, yet fluid forces are typically modeled with translational motion. To elucidate the hydrodynamics of rotation, we analyzed the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate computational fluid-dynamic model. Taking advantage of this efficiency, we compared the...

Data from: Common evolutionary trends underlie the four-bar linkage systems of sunfish and mantis shrimp

Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S.L. Anderson & Philip S. L. Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate...

Data from: Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts

Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud & Michael Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen...

Data from: Trpc2 Pseudogenization dynamics in bats reveal ancestral vomeronasal signaling, then pervasive loss

Laurel R. Yohe, Ramatu Abubakar, Christina Giordano, Elizabeth Dumont, Karen Sears, Stephen J. Rossiter, Liliana M. Davalos & Karen E. Sears
Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals vomerolfaction detects chemical cues mediating many social and reproductive behaviors and is highly conserved, but all bats exhibit degraded vomeronasal structures with the exception of two families (Phyllostomidae and Miniopteridae). These families either regained vomerolfaction after ancestral loss, or...

Data and analyses from: Herbivory and time since flowering shape floral rewards and pollinator-pathogen interactions

Luis A. Aguirre, Julie K. Davis, Philip C. Stevenson & Lynn S. Adler
Herbivory can induce chemical changes throughout plant tissues including flowers, which could affect pollinator-pathogen interactions. Pollen is highly defended compared to nectar, but no study has examined whether herbivory affects pollen chemistry. We assessed the effects of leaf herbivory on nectar and pollen alkaloids in Nicotiana tabacum, and how herbivory-induced changes in nectar and pollen affect pollinator-pathogen interactions. We damaged leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta and compared nicotine and anabasine...

Data from: Large mammal declines and the incipient loss of mammal-bird mutualisms in an African savanna ecosystem

Nathan Diplock, Kate Johnston, Antoine Mellon, Laura Mitchell, Madison Moore, Daniel Schneider, Alyssa Taylor, Jess Whitney, Kera Zegar, John Kioko & Christian Kiffner
Over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout East Africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. While it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. Using a space-for-time observational approach, we quantified the large mammal community...

Data from: Adaptive developmental plasticity in rhesus macaques: the serotonin transporter gene interacts with maternal care to affect juvenile social behaviour

Jesus E. Madrid, Tara M. Mandalaywala, Sean P. Coyne, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Joseph P. Garner, Christina S. Barr, Dario Maestripieri & Karen J. Parker
Research has increasingly highlighted the role that developmental plasticity-the ability of a particular genotype to produce variable phenotypes in response to different early environments-plays as an adaptive mechanism. One of the most widely studied genetic contributors to developmental plasticity in humans and rhesus macaques is a serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which determines transcriptional efficiency of the serotonin transporter gene in-vitro and modifies the availability of synaptic serotonin in these species. A majority of...

Data from: A local evaluation of the individual state-space to scale up Bayesian spatial capture recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Christophe Bonenfant, Henrik Brøseth, Øystein Flagstad, Chris Sutherland & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) are used to estimate animal density and to investigate a range of problems in spatial ecology that cannot be addressed with traditional non-spatial methods. Bayesian approaches in particular offer tremendous flexibility for SCR modelling. Increasingly, SCR data are being collected over very large spatial extents making analysis computational intensive, sometimes prohibitively so. 2. To mitigate the computational burden of large-scale SCR models, we developed an improved formulation of the Bayesian...

Data from: Conserved but flexible modularity in the zebrafish skull: implications for craniofacial evolvability

Kevin J. Parsons, Young H. Son, Amelie Crespel, Davide Thambithurai, Shaun Killen, Matthew P. Harris & R. Craig Albertson
Morphological variation is the outward manifestation of development and provides fodder for adaptive evolution. Because of this contingency, evolution is often thought to be biased by developmental processes and functional interactions among structures, which are statistically detectable through forms of covariance among traits. This can take the form of substructures of integrated traits, termed modules, which together comprise patterns of variational modularity. While modularity is essential to an understanding of evolutionary potential, biologists currently have...

Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

John Martinis, Sergio Boixo, Hartmut Neven, Frank Arute, Kunal Arya, Ryan Babbush, Dave Bacon, Joseph C. Bardin, Rami Barends, Rupak Biswas, Fernando G. S. L. Brandao, David A. Buell, Brian Burkett, Yu Chen, Zijun Chen, Ben Chiaro, Roberto Collins, William Courtney, Andrew Dunsworth, Edward Farhi, Brooks Foxen, Austin Fowler, Craig Gidney, Marissa Giustina, Rob Graff … & John M. Martinis
The tantalizing promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here, we report using a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 2^53 ∼ 10^16. Measurements from repeated...

Imagery and language coding in deaf and hearing adolescents.

The role of Religious Sites and Structures in Rural Landscapes and Communities

Elizabeth Brabec
This panel explores the heritage of religious sites in rural landscapes and communities of central and eastern Europe, and Morocco. Religious sites and their community networks within the rural landscape are often overlooked as a collective resource. However, they provide overlapping levels of order in the landscape that derive from various social classes and religious traditions. Often these layers of class and spiritual tradition are invisible to those outside of the class/social/cultural group that created...

Source data for \"Writing with librarians: Reporting back on turning your poster or presentation into an article.\"

Kristin Lee & Thea Atwood

FUNCTIONAL PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE POLYMERS: PRODRUGS AND BIOMATERIALS

Protein Behavior Directed by Heparin Charge and Chain Length

Episode 3: Fire and Ice: Massachusetts in the Cold War

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Types of corn suited to Massachusetts conditions

Binding and Coreference in Vietnamese

Thuy Bui
This dissertation investigates the real-time comprehension and final interpretation of object pronouns in Vietnamese, a language in which reflexive and non-reflexive pronominal forms have overlapping meanings. It addresses the questions of whether and how Principle B is applied as a structural constraint to determine the appropriate antecedent for pronouns in the language. The central argument is that Vietnamese speakers rely on two distinct mechanisms to resolve anaphoric relations: Within a pronoun's local domain, even though...

Y así les nació la conciencia. Las emociones políticas en Balún Canán de Rosario Castellanos y Abeng de Michelle Cliff

Pilar Osorio
In this dissertation, I track the political emotions present in Abeng by Jamaican Michelle Cliff and Balún Canán by Mexican Rosario Castellanos in order to identify the personal notions of justice held by each of the protagonists. Their personal definitions of justice are tangible in the protagonists' actions and the narrators' tone and decisions. In this research, I engage in a close reading analysis of the emotional legacies that each girl-protagonists accept or reject from...

PLACE ATTACHMENT AND HOUSING DISPLACEMENT AS MOTIVATIONS FOR CIVIC ENGAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ZEIS IN FORTALEZA, BRAZIL

Lara Furtado
One of the challenges in urban development is to promote civic engagement, especially in processes that involve vulnerable lower-income populations. Participation in civic life is often tied to subjective factors such as their experiences within a community; memories and care for place or even situations of trauma such as housing evictions. Thus, this dissertation identifies place-based emotional factors that motivate civic engagement in informal settlements. I observed the process of zoning regulation in the city...

Non-cationic Polymeric Materials for Therapeutic Delivery Applications

Ziwen Jiang

Testing the convergent retrieval learning theory of testing effects

William Hopper

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