843 Works

Seeing Like a State Cultural Agency: Creative Place-Making Transcripts of Local and State Actors

Jennifer Abrams

Neoliberal Capitlism and the Evolution of the U.S. Healthcare System

Samantha Sterba

THREE ESSAYS ON THE PAST AND FUTURE OF SOCIALISM

Mihnea Tudoreanu

MICRO-PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELS TO MIMIC MUCOSAL BARRIER COMPLEXITY OF THE HUMAN INTESTINE IN VITRO

ABHINAV SHARMA`

Probing RNN Encoder-Decoder Generalization of Subregular Functions using Reduplication

Max Nelson, Hossep Dolatian, Jonathan Rawski & Brandon Prickett

Phonotactic learning with neural language models

Connor Mayer & Max Nelson

Binding and Coreference in Vietnamese

Thuy Bui
This dissertation investigates the real-time comprehension and final interpretation of object pronouns in Vietnamese, a language in which reflexive and non-reflexive pronominal forms have overlapping meanings. It addresses the questions of whether and how Principle B is applied as a structural constraint to determine the appropriate antecedent for pronouns in the language. The central argument is that Vietnamese speakers rely on two distinct mechanisms to resolve anaphoric relations: Within a pronoun's local domain, even though...

Dam Impoundments Sediment Mass – Tributaries to the Hudson River

Brian Yellen & Jonathan Woodruff
This repository contains data from sediment cores collected during 2017-2018 from 17 impoundments that are located on tributaries to the tidal portion of the Hudson River as part of a larger NERRs collaborative project entitled Dams and Sediment on the Hudson (DaSH). A companion dataset that contains sediment core data from Hudson tidal marshes is archived at UMass Scholarworks data repository. Sediment cores collected from impoundments behind dams were recovered via piston push coring, which...

Source data for \"Writing with librarians: Reporting back on turning your poster or presentation into an article.\"

Kristin Lee & Thea Atwood

The role of Religious Sites and Structures in Rural Landscapes and Communities

Elizabeth Brabec
This panel explores the heritage of religious sites in rural landscapes and communities of central and eastern Europe, and Morocco. Religious sites and their community networks within the rural landscape are often overlooked as a collective resource. However, they provide overlapping levels of order in the landscape that derive from various social classes and religious traditions. Often these layers of class and spiritual tradition are invisible to those outside of the class/social/cultural group that created...

Development of the Taxonomy of Policy Levers to Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling: An Initial Test of its Utility and Comprehensiveness

Oyaziwo Aluede, Barbara Brady, Yuan Ying Jin, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed & John C. Carey

Development of a Taxonomy of Policy Levers to Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling

Mohammad Mahboob Morshed & John C. Carey

Data from: Modularity and scaling in fast movements: power amplification in mantis shrimp

Thomas Claverie, Elliot Chan & Sheila N. Patek
Extremely fast animal actions are accomplished with mechanisms that reduce the duration of movement. This process is known as power amplification. While many studies have examined the morphology and performance of power-amplified systems, little is known about their development and evolution. Here we examine scaling and modularity in the powerful predatory appendages of a mantis shrimp, Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Crustacea, Stomatopoda). We propose that power-amplified systems can be divided into three units: an engine (e.g., muscle),...

Data from: Dietary hardness, loading behavior, and the evolution of skull form in bats

Sharlene E. Santana, Ian R. Grosse & Elizabeth R. Dumont
The morphology and biomechanics of the vertebrate skull reflect the physical properties of diet and behaviors used in food acquisition and processing. We use phyllostomid bats, the most diverse mammalian dietary radiation, to investigate if and how changes in dietary hardness and loading behaviors during feeding shaped the evolution of skull morphology and biomechanics. When selective regimes of food hardness are modeled, we found that species consuming harder foods have evolved skull shapes that allow...

Data from: Common evolutionary trends underlie the four-bar linkage systems of sunfish and mantis shrimp

Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S.L. Anderson & Philip S. L. Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate...

Data from: A local evaluation of the individual state-space to scale up Bayesian spatial capture recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Christophe Bonenfant, Henrik Brøseth, Øystein Flagstad, Chris Sutherland & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) are used to estimate animal density and to investigate a range of problems in spatial ecology that cannot be addressed with traditional non-spatial methods. Bayesian approaches in particular offer tremendous flexibility for SCR modelling. Increasingly, SCR data are being collected over very large spatial extents making analysis computational intensive, sometimes prohibitively so. 2. To mitigate the computational burden of large-scale SCR models, we developed an improved formulation of the Bayesian...

Data from: Large mammal declines and the incipient loss of mammal-bird mutualisms in an African savanna ecosystem

Nathan Diplock, Kate Johnston, Antoine Mellon, Laura Mitchell, Madison Moore, Daniel Schneider, Alyssa Taylor, Jess Whitney, Kera Zegar, John Kioko & Christian Kiffner
Over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout East Africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. While it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. Using a space-for-time observational approach, we quantified the large mammal community...

Data from: Modularity and rates of evolutionary change in a power-amplified prey capture system

Thomas Claverie & S. N. Patek
The dynamic interplay among structure, function and phylogeny form a classic triad of influences on the patterns and processes of biological diversification. While these dynamics are widely recognized as important, quantitative analyses of their interactions have infrequently been applied to biomechanical systems. Here we analyze these factors using a fundamental biomechanical mechanism: power amplification. Power-amplified systems use springs and latches to generate extremely fast and powerful movements. This study focuses specifically on the power amplification...

Data from: Take this broken tail and learn to jump: the ability to recover from reduced in-air stability in tailless green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis [Squamata: Dactyloidae])

Chi-Yun Kuo, Gary B. Gillis & Duncan J. Irschick
Locomotion is involved in various fitness related tasks, such as foraging, acquiring mates and escaping from predators. Despite the importance of locomotor performance in determining fitness, animals often encounter situations in nature during which their locomotor performance is severely compromised. For animals that actively discard appendages as an antipredator strategy, the loss of appendages can cause a severe reduction in locomotor performance. However, whether animals can compensate for the impact on locomotor performance after autotomy...

Data from: Vertebral evolution and the diversification of squamate reptiles

Philip J. Bergmann & Duncan J. Irschick
Taxonomic, morphological and functional diversity are often discordant and independent components of diversity. A fundamental and largely unanswered question in evolutionary biology is why some clades diversify primarily in some of these components and not others. Dramatic variation in trunk vertebral numbers (14 to >300) among squamate reptiles coincides with different body shapes, and snake-like body shapes have evolved numerous times. However, whether increased evolutionary rates or numbers of vertebrae underlie body shape and taxonomic...

Data from: Geckos as springs: mechanics explain across-species scaling of adhesion

Casey A. Gilman, Michael J. Imburgia, Michael D. Bartlett, Daniel R. King, Alfred J. Crosby & Duncan J. Irschick
One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive...

Data from: A characterization of autumn nocturnal migration detected by weather surveillance radars in the northeastern US

Andrew Farnsworth, Benjamin Mark Van Doren, Wesley M. Hochachka, Daniel Sheldon, Kevin Winner, Jed Irvine, Jeffrey Geevarghese & Steve Kelling
Billions of birds migrate at night over North America each year. However, few studies have described the phenology of these movements, such as magnitudes, directions, and speeds, for more than one migration season and at regional scales. In this study, we characterize density, direction, and speed of nocturnally migrating birds using data from 13 weather surveillance radars in the autumns of 2010 and 2011 in the northeastern US. After screening radar data to remove precipitation,...

Data from: Trpc2 Pseudogenization dynamics in bats reveal ancestral vomeronasal signaling, then pervasive loss

Laurel R. Yohe, Ramatu Abubakar, Christina Giordano, Elizabeth Dumont, Karen Sears, Stephen J. Rossiter, Liliana M. Davalos & Karen E. Sears
Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals vomerolfaction detects chemical cues mediating many social and reproductive behaviors and is highly conserved, but all bats exhibit degraded vomeronasal structures with the exception of two families (Phyllostomidae and Miniopteridae). These families either regained vomerolfaction after ancestral loss, or...

Data from: Joined at the hip: linked characters and the problem of missing data in studies of disparity

Andrew John Smith, Michael V. Rosario, Thomas P. Eiting & Elizabeth R. Dumont
Paleontological investigations into morphological diversity, or disparity, are often confronted with large amounts of missing data. We illustrate how missing discrete data effects disparity using a novel simulation for removing data based on parameters from published datasets that contain both extinct and extant taxa. We develop an algorithm that assesses the distribution of missing characters in extinct taxa, and simulates data loss by applying that distribution to extant taxa. We term this technique ‘linkage’. We...

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