548 Works

Structural evolution drives diversification of the large LRR-RLK gene family

Jarrett Man, Joseph Gallagher Gallagher & Madelaine Bartlett
Cells are continuously exposed to chemical signals that they must discriminate between and respond to appropriately. In embryophytes, the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinases (LRR-RLKs) are signal receptors critical in development and defense. LRR-RLKs have diversified to hundreds of genes in many plant genomes. Although intensively studied, a well-resolved LRR-RLK gene tree has remained elusive. To resolve the LRR-RLK gene tree, we developed an improved gene discovery method based on iterative Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-searching and...

Data from: Developing a Stopover-CORT hypothesis: corticosterone predicts body composition and refueling rate in Gray Catbirds during migratory stopover

Joely DeSimone, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez, Cory Elowe, Michael Griego, Creagh Breuner & Alexander Gerson
Migratory flight is energetically challenging, requiring alternating phases of fuel catabolism and fuel accumulation, accompanied by dramatic changes in body composition and behavior. Baseline corticosterone (CORT; the primary glucocorticoid in birds) is thought to underlie transitions between fuel catabolism during flight, fuel deposition during stopover, and the initiation of migratory flight. However, studies of CORT on stopover physiology and behavior remain disparate efforts, lacking the cohesion of a general hypothesis. Here we develop a Stopover-CORT...

Data from: Does facial hair greying in chimpanzees provide a salient progressive cue of aging?

Elizabeth Tapanes, Jason Kamilar, Brenda Bradley & Stephanie Anestis
The greying of human head hair is arguably the most salient marker of human aging. In wild mammal populations, greying can change with life history or environmental factors (e.g., sexual maturity in silverback gorillas). Yet, whether humans are unique in our pattern of age-related hair depigmentation is unclear. We examined the relationship between pigmentation loss in facial hair (greying) to age, population, and sex in wild and captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Digital facial photographs representing...

Effect of soil carbon amendments in reversing the legacy effect of plant invasion

Vidya Suseela, Ziliang Zhang & Prasanta Bhowmik
1. Invasive plant species are key drivers of global environmental changes leading to the disruption of ecosystems they invade. Many invasive species engage in novel niche construction through plant-soil feedbacks facilitated by the input of secondary compounds, which help their further spread and survival. These compounds can persist in soil even after the removal of the invader thus creating a legacy effect that inhibits the return of native flora and fauna. Thus, formulating active intervention...

Hedgehog signaling is necessary and sufficient to mediate craniofacial plasticity in teleosts

Craig Albertson, Dina Navon, Ira Male, Emily Tetrault, Benjamin Aaronson & Rolf Karlstrom
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes under different environmental conditions, is critical for the origins and maintenance of biodiversity; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying plasticity as well as how variation in those mechanisms can drive evolutionary change remain poorly understood. Here, we examine the cichlid feeding apparatus, an icon of both prodigious evolutionary divergence and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. We first provide a tissue-level mechanism for plasticity in craniofacial shape...

Data from: Shifts in timing and duration of breeding for 73 boreal bird species over four decades

Maria Hällfors, Laura Antão, Malcolm Itter, Aleksi Lehikoinen, Tanja Lindholm, Tomas Roslin & Marjo Saastamoinen
Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding, but also its termination, and thus the length of the breeding period. We use an extensive dataset of over 820K nesting records of 73 bird species across the boreal region in Finland to...

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

Improving Chinese Mothers' Health Literacy: A Wechat Intervention

Qiong Chen
The health literacy and eHealth literacy of women during the reproductive age is crucial, as it can affect their health and the health of their children. Promoting health literacy is essential to achieve mothers’ empowerment by improving access to and capacity of using health information effectively. However, functional, interactive, and critical health literacy and eHealth literacy have never been assessed among Chinese women. The first study during this dissertation assessed functional, interactive, and critical health...

Exploring Signatures of Host-Microbial Coevolution Between Colonic Bifidobacterium Species and Host Dietary Carbohydrates

Korin Albert
The human body is covered in trillions of microbes that interface with our own cells. A majority of these microbes are present within the lower digestive tract. This gut microbial ecosystem, termed the ‘gut microbiome’, is an assemblage of 1014 microbes that play an important role in human health and nutrition. A thorough understanding of the gut microbiome is key to our perception of the digestive system as a whole. The gut microbiome is inhabited...

Motion Segmentation - Segmentation of Independently Moving Objects in Video

Pia Bideau
The ability to recognize motion is one of the most important functions of our visual system. Motion allows us both to recognize objects and to get a better understanding of the 3D world in which we are moving. Because of its importance, motion is used to answer a wide variety of fundamental questions in computer vision such as: (1) Which objects are moving independently in the world? (2) Which objects are close and which objects...

ROUGH AIRFOIL SIMULATION FOR WIND TURBINE APPLICATIONS

Nathaniel deVelder
As a result of insects or other environmental fouling, surface roughness on wind turbine blades can reduce power output significantly. Superhydrophobic surfaces, though possibly a passive, cost-saving, answer to the problem of ice accretion on wind turbine rotors in cold climates, may alter turbulence development in the blade boundary layer similar to environmental roughness. This work uses an equivalent sand grain extension to the Turbulent Potential model to computationally assess the aerodynamic effects of surface...

EXPLOITING UNLABELED DATA AND QUERY STRATEGY OPTIMIZATION WITH ADVERSAL ATTACKS IN ACTIVE LEARNING

Weilong Hu

Learning Latent Characteristics of Data and Models using Item Response Theory

John Lalor

Higher-Order Representations for Visual Recognition

Tsung-Yu Lin

COMPILING FROM TYPED SCHEME TO WEBASSEMBLY

In Theory, There's Hope: Queer Co-(m)motions of Science and Subjectivity

Cordelia Sand

Polymer Modification with Multifunctional Additives and Unique Processing Methods

The Genealogy of Dislocated Memory: Yugoslav Cinema after the Break

Interpreting

Genres of Dialogic Discussion in High School English: A Cross-Case Study of Two Courses

Morphology Characterization of Low Band Gap Polymer-based Organic Photovoltaics

Direct Measurement of the pp Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

Registration Year

  • 2020
    548

Resource Types

  • Text
    507
  • Dataset
    37
  • Audiovisual
    4

Affiliations

  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    548
  • Cornell University
    5
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
    2
  • University of New Hampshire
    2
  • University of Louisiana at Lafayette
    2
  • University of San Diego
    2
  • University of Alaska Anchorage
    2
  • Yale University
    2
  • Ambrose Alli University
    1
  • University of Montana
    1