262 Works

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Data from: Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations

Anurag A. Agrawal, Amy P. Hastings, M. T. J. Johnson, J. L. Maron & Juha-Pekka Salminen
Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time due to changes in flowering time...

Data from: Estimation of effective population size in continuously distributed populations: there goes the neighborhood

Maile C. Neel, Kevin McKelvey, Robin S. Waples, Nils Ryman, Michael W. Lloyd, Ruth Short Bull, Fred W. Allendorf & Michael K. Schwartz
Use of genetic methods to estimate effective population size (N^e) is rapidly increasing, but all approaches make simplifying assumptions unlikely to be met in real populations. In particular, all assume a single, unstructured population, and none has been evaluated for use with continuously distributed species. We simulated continuous populations with local mating structure, as envisioned by Wright's concept of neighborhood size (NS), and evaluated performance of a single-sample estimator based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), which...

Data from: Genetic consequences of a century of protection: serial founder events and survival of the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii)

Kristina M. Ramstad, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Fred W. Allendorf & Charles H. Daugherty
We present the outcome of a century of post-bottleneck isolation of a long-lived species, the little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii, LSK) and demonstrate that profound genetic consequences can result from protecting few individuals in isolation. LSK were saved from extinction by translocation of five birds from South Island, New Zealand to Kapiti Island 100 years ago. The Kapiti population now numbers some 1200 birds and provides founders for new populations. We used 15 microsatellite loci...

Data from: Not so old Archaea - the antiquity of biogeochemical processes in the archaeal domain of life

Carrine E. Blank
Since the archaeal domain of life was first recognized, it has often been assumed that Archaea are ancient, and harbor primitive traits. In fact, the names of the major archaeal lineages reflect our assumptions regarding the antiquity of their traits. Ancestral state reconstruction and relaxed molecular clock analyses using newly articulated oxygen age constraints show that although the archaeal domain itself is old, tracing back to the Archean eon, many clades and traits within the...

Pervasive effects of Wolbachia on host temperature preference

Michael Hague, Chelsey Caldwell & Brandon Cooper
Heritable symbionts can modify a range of ecologically important host traits, including behavior. About half of all insect species are infected with maternally transmitted Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont known to alter host reproduction, nutrient acquisition, and virus susceptibility. Here, we broadly test the hypothesis that Wolbachia modify host behavior by assessing the effects of eight different Wolbachia strains on the temperature preference of six Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species. Four of the seven host genotypes infected with...

VTFT_Demography: global ageclass simulation data from the LPJ-wsl v2.0 Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

Leonardo Calle
Forest ecosystem processes follow classic responses with age, peaking production around canopy closure and declining thereafter. Although age dynamics might be more dominant in certain regions over others, demographic effects on net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) are bound to exist. Yet, explicit representation of ecosystem demography is notably absent in most global ecosystem models. This is concerning because the global community relies on these models to regularly update our collective understanding of...

Multi-scale habitat assessment of pronghorn migration routes

Andrew Jakes, Nicholas DeCesare, Paul Jones, C Cormack Gates, Scott Story, Sarah Olimb, Kyran Kunkel & Mark Hebblewhite
We studied the habitat selection of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) during seasonal migration; an important period in an animal’s annual cycle associated with broad-scale movements. We further decompose our understanding of migration habitat itself as the product of both broad- and fine-scale behavioral decisions and take a multi-scale approach to assess pronghorn spring and fall migration across the transboundary Northern Sagebrush Steppe region. We used a hierarchical habitat selection framework to assess a suite of natural...

Public opinion about management strategies for a low-profile Species across multiple jurisdictions: whitebark pine in the northern Rockies

Elizabeth Shanahan, Eric Raile, Helen Naughton, Michael Wallner & Kendall Houghton
1. As public land managers seek to adopt and implement conservation measures aimed at reversing or slowing the negative effects of climate change, they are looking to understand public opinion regarding different management strategies. 2. This study explores drivers of attitudes toward different management strategies (i.e., no management, protection, and restoration) for a low-profile but keystone tree species, the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Since the whitebark pine species has a...

Escape from natural enemies depends on the enemies, the invader, and competition

Jacob Lucero, Nafiseh Arab, Sebastian Meyer, Robert Pal, Rebecca A. Fletcher, Dávid Nagy, Ragan M. Callaway & Wolfgang Weisser
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) attributes the success of some exotic plant species to reduced top-down effects of natural enemies in the non-native range relative to the native range. Many studies have tested this idea, but very few have considered the simultaneous effects of multiple kinds of enemies on more than one invasive species in both the native and non-native ranges. Here, we examined the effects of two important groups of natural enemies – insect...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Transcriptomic regulation of seasonal coat color change in hares

Mafalda Sousa Ferreira, Paulo Célio Alves, Colin M. Callahan, Iwona Giska, Liliana Farelo, Hannes Jenny, L. Scott Mills, Klaus Hackländer, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Color molts from summer brown to winter white coats have evolved in several species to maintain camouflage year-round in environments with seasonal snow. Despite the eco-evolutionary relevance of this key phenological adaptation, its molecular regulation has only recently begun to be addressed. Here, we analyze skin transcription changes during the autumn molt of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and integrate the results with an established model of gene regulation across the spring molt of the...

Data from: Linkage mapping reveals strong chiasma interference in sockeye salmon: implications for interpreting genomic data

Morten T. Limborg, Ryan K. Waples, Fred W. Allendorf & James E. Seeb
Meiotic recombination is fundamental for generating new genetic variation and for securing proper disjunction. Further, recombination plays an essential role during the rediploidization process of polyploid-origin genomes because crossovers between pairs of homeologous chromosomes retain duplicated regions. A better understanding of how recombination affects genome evolution is crucial for interpreting genomic data; unfortunately, current knowledge mainly originates from a few model species. Salmonid fishes provide a valuable system for studying the effects of recombination in...

Data from: The transcriptional landscape of seasonal coat colour moult in the snowshoe hare

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Paulo C. Alves, Colin M. Callahan, João P. Marques, L. Scott Mills, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Seasonal coat colour change is an important adaptation to seasonally changing environments but the evolution of this and other circannual traits remains poorly understood. In this study we use gene expression to understand seasonal coat colour moulting in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). We used hair colour to follow the progression of the moult, simultaneously sampling skin from three moulting stages in hares collected during the peak of the spring moult from white winter to...

Data from: An appraisal of the enzyme stability-activity trade-off

Scott R. Miller
A longstanding idea in evolutionary physiology is that an enzyme cannot jointly optimize performance at both high and low temperatures due to a trade-off between stability and activity. Although a stability-activity trade-off has been observed for well-characterized examples, such a trade-off is not imposed by any physical chemical constraint. To better understand the pervasiveness of this trade-off, I investigated the stability-activity relationship for comparative biochemical studies of purified orthologous enzymes identified by a literature search....

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years

Shelley D. Crausbay, Philip E. Higuera, Douglas G. Sprugel & Linda B. Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the...

Data from: Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

Sara A. Kaiser, Thomas E. Martin, Juan C. Oteyza, Connor Armstad & Robert C. Fleischer
Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of non-relatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that non-breeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the...

Data from: Integrating morphology and kinematics in the scaling of hummingbird hovering metabolic rate and efficiency

Derrick J.E. Groom, M. Cecilia B. Toledo, Donald R. Powers, Bret W. Tobalske, , Derrick J. E. Groom & Kenneth C. Welch
Wing kinematics and morphology are influential upon the aerodynamics of flight. However, there is a lack of studies linking these variables to metabolic costs, particularly in the context of morphological adaptation to body size. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency from chemical energy into movement by the muscles (mechanochemical efficiency) scales with mass in terrestrial quadrupeds, but this scaling relationship has not been demonstrated within flying vertebrates. Positive scaling of efficiency with body size may reduce the...

Data from: Response of bluebunch wheatgrass to invasion: differences in competitive ability among invader-experienced and naïve populations

Alexis L. Gibson, Cara R. Nelson, Daniel Z. Atwater & Alexis Gibson
1. Invasive species may alter selective pressures on native plant populations, and there is some evidence that competition with invasive plants may lead to differences in competitive ability between populations that have experienced invasion and those that have not. Previous results have varied among species but also among populations of the same species. 2. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether there was variation in traits, or in ability to tolerate or suppress an...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone

Georgina Margaret Cooke, Erin L. Landguth & Luciano B. Beheregaray
Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This...

Data from: Detecting spatial genetic signatures of local adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes

Brenna R. Forester, Matthew R. Jones, Stéphane Joost, Erin L. Landguth & Jesse R. Lasky
The spatial structure of the environment (e.g., the configuration of habitat patches) may play an important role in determining the strength of local adaptation. However, previous studies of habitat heterogeneity and local adaptation have largely been limited to simple landscapes, which poorly represent the multi-scale habitat structure common in nature. Here, we use simulations to pursue two goals: (1) we explore how landscape heterogeneity, dispersal ability, and selection affect the strength of local adaptation, and...

Data from: Botfly infections impair the aerobic performance and survival of montane populations of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus

Luke R. Wilde, Cole J. Wolf, Stephanie M. Poerter, Maria Stager, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nathan R. Senner & Stephanie M. Porter
1. Elevations >2000 m represent consistently harsh environments for small endotherms because of abiotic stressors such as cold temperatures and hypoxia. 2. These environmental stressors may limit the ability of populations living at these elevations to respond to biotic selection pressures — such as parasites or pathogens — that in other environmental contexts would impose only minimal energetic- and fitness-related costs. 3. We studied deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) living along two elevational transects (2300...

Data from: Females know better: sex-biased habitat selection by the European wildcat

Teresa Oliveira, Fermin Urra, José María Lopez-Martín, Elena Balleteros-Duperón, José Miguel Barea-Azcón, Marcos Moleón, José Maria Gil-Sánchez, Paulo Celio Alves, Francisco Díaz-Ruíz, Pablo Ferreras & Pedro Monterroso
The interactions between animals and their environment vary across species, regions, but also with gender. Sex‐specific relations between individuals and the ecosystem may entail different behavioral choices and be expressed through different patterns of habitat use. Regardless, only rarely sex‐specific traits are addressed in ecological modeling approaches. The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is a species of conservation concern in Europe, with a highly fragmented and declining distribution across most of its range. We assessed...

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