272 Works

Data from: Herbivory and competition of Tibetan steppe vegetation in winter pasture: effects of livestock exclosure and plateau pika reduction

Richard B. Harris, Wenying Wang, , Andrew T. Smith, Donald J. Bedunah, Wang Wenying &
Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from...

Data from: Metabolic recovery from drowning by insect pupae

H. Arthur Woods & Steven J. Lane
Many terrestrial insects live in environments that flood intermittently, and some life stages may spend days underwater without access to oxygen. We tested the hypothesis that terrestrial insects with underground pupae show respiratory adaptations for surviving anoxia and subsequently reestablishing normal patterns of respiration. Pupae of Manduca sexta were experimentally immersed in water for between 0 and 13 days. All pupae survived up to 5 days of immersion regardless of whether the water was aerated...

Data from: Discovery of 20,000 RAD–SNPs and development of a 52-SNP array for monitoring river otters

Jeff B. Stetz, Seth Smith, Michael A. Sawaya, Alan B. Ramsey, Stephen J. Amish, Michael K. Schwartz & Gordon Luikart
Many North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) populations are threatened or recovering but are difficult to study because they occur at low densities, it is difficult to visually identify individuals, and they inhabit aquatic environments that accelerate degradation of biological samples. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can improve our ability to monitor demographic and genetic parameters of difficult to study species. We used restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover 20,772 SNPs present in Montana,...

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

Coordinated changes across the O2 transport pathway underlie adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice

Graham Scott, Kevin Tate, Oliver Wearing, Catherine Ivy, Zachary Cheviron, Jay Storz & Grant McClelland
Animals native to the hypoxic and cold environment at high altitude provide an excellent opportunity to elucidate the integrative mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution of complex traits. The capacity for aerobic thermogenesis can be a critical determinant of survival for small mammals at high altitude, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the evolution of thermogenic capacity remain unresolved. We examined this issue by comparing high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to low-altitude deer mice and white-footed mice...

Data from: Biotic interactions help explain variation in elevational range limits of birds among Bornean mountains

Ryan C. Burner, Andy J Boyce, Alison Styring, Tom Martin & Frederick Sheldon
Aim Physiological tolerances and biotic interactions along habitat gradients are thought to influence species occurrence. Distributional differences caused by such forces are particularly noticeable on tropical mountains, where high species turnover along elevational gradients occurs over relatively short distances and elevational distributions of particular species can shift among mountains. Such shifts are interpreted as evidence of the importance of spatial variation in interspecific competition and habitat or climatic gradients. To assess the relative importance of...

Data from: Experimental amelioration of harsh weather speeds growth and development in a tropical montane songbird

Adam Mitchell, Jordan Boersma, Anthonio Anthony, Kanehiro Kitayama & Thomas Martin
Organisms living at high elevations generally grow and develop slower than those at lower elevations. Slow montane ontogeny is thought to be an evolved adaptation to harsh environments that improve juvenile quality via physiological tradeoffs. However, slower montane ontogeny may also reflect proximate influences of harsh weather on parental care and offspring development. We experimentally heated and protected nests from rain to ameliorate harsh montane weather conditions for Mountain Blackeyes (Chlorocharis emiliae), a montane songbird...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Life history data for longer-lived tropical songbirds reduce breeding activity as they buffer impacts of drought

Thomas E Martin
Droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Population impacts of such harsh environmental events are theorized to vary with life history strategies among species. However, existing demographic models generally do not consider behavioral plasticity that may modify the impact of harsh events. Here we show that tropical songbirds in the New and Old World reduced reproduction during drought, with greater reductions in species with higher average long-term survival. Large reductions...

Data from: Assessing thermal adaptation using family-based association and FST-outlier tests in a threatened trout

Stephen J. Amish, Omar Ali, Mary Peacock, Michael Miller, Morgan Robinson, Seth Smith, Gordon Luikart & Helen Neville
Discovering genetic markers associated with phenotypic or ecological characteristics can improve our understanding of adaptation and guide conservation of key evolutionary traits. The Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi) of the northern Great Basin Desert, USA, demonstrated exceptional tolerance to high temperatures in the desert lakes where it resided historically. This trait is central to a conservation hatchery effort to protect the genetic legacy of the nearly extinct lake ecotype. We genotyped full‐sibling families from...

Data from: Extreme copy number variation at a tRNA ligase gene affecting phenology and fitness in yellow monkeyflowers

Thom Nelson, Patrick Monnahan, Mariah McIntosh, Kayli Anderson, Evan MacArthur-Waltz, Findley R. Finseth, John K. Kelly, Lila Fishman, Patrick J. Monnahan, Thomas C. Nelson & Mariah K. McIntosh
Copy number variation (CNV) is a major part of the genetic diversity segregating within populations, but remains poorly understood relative to single nucleotide variation. Here, we report on a tRNA ligase gene (RLG1a) exhibiting unprecedented, and fitness-relevant, CNV within an annual population of the yellow monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus. Variation at RLG1a was associated with multiple traits in pooled population resequencing (PoolSeq) scans of phenotypic and phenological cohorts. Five of 35 (14%) of resequenced inbred lines...

Data from: Machine learning to classify animal species in camera trap images: applications in ecology

Micheal A. Tabak, Mohammad Sadegh Norouzzadeh, Michael A. Tabak, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Paul A. Di Salvo, Ryan S. Miller, Jesse S. Lewis, Jeff Clune, Ryan K. Brook, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, James C. Beasley & Peter E. Schlichting
Motion‐activated cameras (“camera traps”) are increasingly used in ecological and management studies for remotely observing wildlife and are amongst the most powerful tools for wildlife research. However, studies involving camera traps result in millions of images that need to be analysed, typically by visually observing each image, in order to extract data that can be used in ecological analyses. We trained machine learning models using convolutional neural networks with the ResNet‐18 architecture and 3,367,383 images...

Data from: What does urbanization actually mean? A review and framework for urban metrics in wildlife research

Remington J. Moll, Jonathon D. Cepek, Patrick D. Lorch, Patricia M. Dennis, Eric Tans, Terry Robison, Joshua J. Millspaugh & Robert A. Montgomery
1. Extensive research has demonstrated that urbanization strongly alters ecological processes, often perniciously. However, quantifying the magnitude of urban effects and determining how generalized they can be across systems depends on the ways in which urbanization is measured and modelled. 2. We coupled a formal literature survey with a novel conceptual framework to document and synthesize the myriad of metrics used to quantify urbanization. The framework enables clear cataloguing of urban metrics by identifying) the...

Rainfall continentality, via the winter GAMS angle, provides a new dimension to biogeographical distributions in the Western United States

Richard Michalet, Philippe Choler, Ragan M. Callaway & Thomas G. Whitham
Aim: Drought stress, and its effects on the biogeography of vegetation, has focused primarily on water availability during the growing season, thus focusing primarly on summer. However, variation in rainfall continentality (i.e., the continental interior being insulated from oceanic influences) can produce striking vegetation differences. We aim to disentangle summer water balance from the influence of rainfall continentality on winter rainfall, to better understand how climate regulated the distributions of woody plants in the Western...

Data from: The genetic architecture of fitness drives population viability during rapid environmental change

Marty Kardos & Gordon Luikart
The rapid global loss of biodiversity calls for improved predictions of how populations will evolve and respond demographically to ongoing environmental change. The heritability (h2) of selected traits has long been known to affect evolutionary and demographic responses to environmental change. However, effects of the genetic architecture underlying the h2 of a selected trait on population responses to selection are less well understood. We use deterministic models and stochastic simulations to show that the genetic...

Plant Biomass data from: Bottom-up Herbivore-Plant Feedbacks Trump Trophic Cascades in a Wolf-Elk-Grassland System

Trevor Weeks, Evelyn Merril & Mark Hebblewhite
Top-down predator-prey effects that alter the abundance, biomass, or productivity of a population community across more than one link in a food web are referred to as trophic cascades. While these effects have been extensively studied in aquatic environments, fewer studies have examined trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems. And fewer still terrestrial studies have tested for trophic cascades between vertebrates and grassland vegetation. Across the globe, grassland plant biomass is driven by both precipitation and...

Data from: Risk of predation on offspring reduces parental provisioning, but not flight performance or survival across early life stages

James Mouton, Bret Tobalske, Natalie Wright & Thomas E. Martin
Developmental responses can help young animals reduce predation risk but can also yield costs to performance and survival in subsequent life stages with major implications for lifetime fitness. Compensatory mechanisms may evolve to offset such costs, but evidence from natural systems is largely lacking. In songbirds, increased nest predation risk should favour reduced provisioning, but also young that fledge (leave their nest) at an earlier age. Both responses can result in fledglings with shorter wings,...

Context-dependent variability in the population prevalence and individual fitness effects of plant-fungal symbiosis

Marion Donald, Teresa Bohner, Kory Kolis, Alan Shadow, Jennifer Rudgers & Tom Miller
1. Heritable symbionts, found within a diverse array of flora and fauna, are often observed at intermediate prevalence within host populations, despite expectations that positive fitness feedbacks should drive beneficial symbionts to fixation. Intermediate prevalence may reflect neutral dynamics of symbionts with weak fitness effects, transient dynamics of symbionts trending toward fixation (or elimination), or a stable intermediate outcome determined by the balance of fitness effects and failed symbiont transmission. Theory suggests these outcomes should...

Data for allometric equations of Chrysolepis sempervirens, Cornus sericea, Corylus cornuta ssp. californica, and Leucothoe davisiae.

James A. Lutz, J. A. Freund, A. J. Larson, M. E. Swanson, T. J. Furniss, K. M. L. Becker, E. M. Blomdahl, C. A. Cansier, S. J. Germain & S. M. A. Jeronimo
This data set includes measurements of 40 stems of Chrysolepis sempervirens (Kellogg) Hjelmq. (bush chinquapin), 41 stems of Cornus sericea L. (redosier dogwood), 50 stems of Corylus cornuta Marsh. ssp. californica (A. DC.) E. Murray, and 40 stems of Leucothoe davisiae Torrey (Sierra laurel), as reported in Lutz et al. (2014, 2017). Nomenclature follows Flora of North America (1993+).

Data for pre-fire and post-fire surface fuel loading in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest.

C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J., Andrew J. Larson & James A. Lutz
This data set includes measurements of the 116 fuel transects that were used in Cansler et al. (in review). The research was conducted in the Yosemite Forest Dynamics Plot, Yosemite National Park, California, USA (Lutz et al. 2012). File Cansler_et_al_YFDP_Density_By_Species_By_Decay_Class.csv This file contains the wood density values used for the calculations. File Cansler_et_al_YFDP_2011_CWD_DWD_input.xlsx File Cansler_et_al_YFDP_2014_CWD_DWD_input.xlsx These two files with identical field definitions compare the pre-fire (2011) tally of coarse woody debris (CWD) with the post-fire...

Data for tree mortality calibration of satellite and LiDAR-derived fire severity estimates.

N. Macriss, T.J. Furniss, S.M.A. Jeronimo, E. L. Crowley, O. W. Germain, S. Germain, V. R. Kane, A. J. Larson & James A. Lutz
The 55 JFSP plots were established to capture forest types, fire histories, and severity levels beyond those found within the YFPD. The plots were square 50 m × 50 m plots established in Pinus ponderosa, Pinus jeffreyi, and Abies concolor – Pinus lambertiana forest types between 1,431 m and 2,250 m elevation. Plots were installed post-fire based on a randomly chosen locations stratified by burn severity levels as calculated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio...

Data and code for: Rocky Mountain subalpine forests now burning more than any time in recent millennia

Philip Higuera, Bryan Shuman & Kyra Wolf
The 2020 fire season punctuated a decades-long trend of increased fire activity across the western United States, nearly doubling the total area burned in the central Rocky Mountains since 1984. Understanding the causes and implications of such extreme fire seasons, particularly in subalpine forests that have historically burned infrequently, requires a long-term perspective not afforded by observational records. We place 21st century fire activity in subalpine forests in the context of climate and fire history...

Registration Year

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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    272

Affiliations

  • University of Montana
    272
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    19
  • United States Geological Survey
    14
  • Utah State University
    13
  • University of Porto
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  • University of Washington
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