272 Works

Data from: The hidden cost of sexually selected traits: the metabolic expense of maintaining a sexually selected weapon

Ummat Somjee, H. Arthur Woods, Meghan Duell & Christine W. Miller
Sexually selected weapons are among the most exaggerated traits in nature. Theory frequently assumes a high cost of this exaggeration; yet, those costs are rarely measured. We know very little about the energetic resources required to maintain these traits at rest and the difference in energetic costs for the largest relative to the smallest individuals. Knowledge in this area is crucial; resting metabolic rate can account for 30-40% of daily energy expenditure in wild animals....

Data from: Life in interstitial space: biocrusts inhibit exotic but not native plant establishment in semi-arid grasslands

Mandy L. Slate, Ragan M. Callaway & Dean E. Pearson
1. Exotic plant species commonly exploit disturbances more successfully than native plants. This outcome is widely attributed to the fact that disturbance reduces biotic resistance from native plant competitors. However, biocrusts, communities of mosses, lichens and microorganisms, are a prominent component of semi-arid grasslands occurring in the interstitial spaces between vascular plants. Biocrusts may provide an important source of biotic resistance to invaders, different from native plant competition, but poorly understood. 2. We established a...

Data from: Maladaptive phenotypic plasticity in cardiac muscle growth is suppressed in high-altitude deer mice

Jonathan Paul Velotta, Catherine M. Ivy, Cole J. Wolf, Graham R. Scott & Zachary A. Cheviron
How often phenotypic plasticity acts to promote or inhibit adaptive evolution is an ongoing debate among biologists. Recent work suggests that adaptive phenotypic plasticity promotes evolutionary divergence, though several studies have also suggested that maladaptive plasticity can potentiate adaptation. The role of phenotypic plasticity, adaptive or maladaptive, in evolutionary divergence remains controversial. We examined the role of plasticity in evolutionary divergence between two species of Peromyscus mice that differ in native elevations. We used cardiac...

Data from: Desiccation and rehydration of mosses greatly increases resource fluxes that alter soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

Mandy L. Slate, Benjamin W. Sullivan & Ray M. Callaway
1. Mosses often have positive effects on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, but we know little about how environmentally determined cycles of desiccation and rehydration in mosses influence these processes. 2. In this context, we compared carbon and nitrogen in throughfall after precipitation passed through eight moss species that were either hydrated continuously or desiccated and rehydrated. Also, the throughfall of four moss species was added to soil and used to determine the net effect...

Data from: Measuring individual inbreeding in the age of genomics: marker-based measures are better than pedigrees

Martin Kardos, Gordon Luikart & Fred W. Allendorf
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) can dramatically reduce the fitness of offspring by causing parts of the genome to be identical by descent. Thus, measuring individual inbreeding is crucial for ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We used computer simulations to test whether the realized proportion of the genome that is identical by descent (IBDG) is predicted better by the pedigree inbreeding coefficient (FP) or by genomic (marker-based) measures of inbreeding. Genomic estimators of IBDG included the...

Data from: Are exotic plants more abundant in the introduced versus native range?

Dean E. Pearson, Özkan Eren, Yvette K. Ortega, Diego Villarreal, Muhyettin Şentürk, Florencia M. Miguel, Miguel C. Weinzettel, Aníbal Prina & José L. Hierro
Many invasion hypotheses postulate that introducing species to novel environments allows some organisms to escape population controls within the native range to attain higher abundance in the introduced range. However, introductions may also allow inherently successful species access to new regions where they may flourish without increasing in abundance. To examine these hypotheses, we randomly surveyed semi-arid grasslands in the native and two introduced ranges (12,000-21,000 km2 per range) to quantify local abundance (mean cover...

Data from: Fire-regime variability impacts forest carbon dynamics for centuries to millennia

Tara W. Hudiburg, Philip E. Higuera & Jeffrey A. Hicke
Wildfire is a dominant disturbance agent in forest ecosystems, shaping important biogeochemical processes including net carbon (C) balance. Long-term monitoring and chronosequence studies highlight a resilience of biogeochemical properties to large, stand-replacing, high-severity fire events. In contrast, the consequences of repeated fires or temporal variability in a fire regime (e.g., the characteristic timing or severity of fire) are largely unknown, yet theory suggests that such variability could strongly influence forest C trajectories (i.e., future states...

Data from: A comparison of regression methods for model selection in individual-based landscape genetic analysis

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
Anthropogenic migration barriers fragment many populations and limit the ability of species to respond to climate-induced biome shifts. Conservation actions designed to conserve habitat connectivity and mitigate barriers are needed to unite fragmented populations into larger, more viable metapopulations, and to allow species to track their climate envelope over time. Landscape genetic analysis provides an empirical means to infer landscape factors influencing gene flow, and thereby inform such conservation actions. However, there are currently many...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Competition and specialization in an African forest carnivore community

David Mills, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Hugh Robinson, Sam Isoke, Rob Slotow & Luke Hunter
Globally, human activities have led to the impoverishment of species assemblages and the disruption of ecosystem function. Determining whether this poses a threat to future ecosystem stability necessitates a thorough understanding of mechanisms underpinning community assembly and niche selection. Here, we tested for niche segregation within an African small carnivore community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We used occupancy modelling based on systematic camera trap surveys and fine-scale habitat measures, to identify opposing preferences between...

Data from: Native forage mediates influence of irrigated agriculture on migratory behavior of elk

Kristin J. Barker, Michael S. Mitchell & Kelly M. Proffitt
1. Ungulates migrate to maximize nutritional intake when forage varies seasonally. Populations of ungulates often include both migratory and non-migratory individuals, but the mechanisms driving individual differences in migratory behavior are not well-understood. 2. We quantified associations between hypothesized drivers of partial migration and the likelihood of migration for individual ungulates that experienced a range of environmental conditions and anthropogenic influences. 3. We evaluated the effects of forage variation, conspecific density, and human land uses...

Data from: Linking native and invader traits explains native spider population responses to plant invasion

Jennifer Smith, Douglas Emlen, Dean Pearson, Jennifer N. Smith, Douglas J. Emlen & Dean E. Pearson
Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion...

Experimental admixture among geographically disjunct populations of an invasive plant yields a global mosaic of reproductive incompatibility and heterosis

Ramona E. Irimia, José L. Hierro, Soraia Branco, Gastón Sotes, Lohengrin A. Cavieres, Özkan Eren, Christopher J. Lortie, Kristine French, Ragan M. Callaway & Daniel Montesinos
1. Invasive species have the ability to rapidly adapt in the new regions where they are introduced. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that the accumulation of genetic differences over time in allopatric isolation may lead to reproductive incompatibilities resulting in decreases in reproductive success and, eventually, to speciation. However, experimental evidence for this theoretical prediction in the context of invasive species is lacking. We aimed to test for the potential of allopatry to determine reproductive success...

Data from: Sex-specific contributions to nest building in birds

Mark Mainwaring, Jenó Nagy & Mark Hauber
The causes and consequences of interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to animal parental care are relatively well understood during pregnancy or incubation and during offspring provisioning, but comparative patterns of sex-biased investment during nest-, den-, or other shelter-building have been almost completely overlooked. This is surprising because birthing shelter properties have important fitness consequences for both parents and offspring. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by testing predictions concerning sex-specific contributions to avian...

Data from: The stoichiometric signature of high-frequency fire in forest floor food webs

Orpheus Butler, Tom Lewis, Sarah Maunsell, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, James Elser, Brendan Mackey & Chengrong Chen
Fire regimes are shifting under climate change. Decadal-scale shifts in fire regime can disrupt the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) within forest ecosystems, but the full extent of these disruptions is unknown. It is also unclear whether these disruptions have consequences for the ecological characteristics (e.g., biomass, abundance, and composition) of microbial and invertebrate communities, which together comprise the majority of terrestrial biodiversity and underpin many ecosystem processes. The theoretical...

Positive interactions between an exotic invader and moss biocrusts vary across life-stage and correspond with the effect of water pulses on soil nitrogen

Mandy Slate, Morgan McLeod & Ragan Callaway
The size and frequency of resource pulses can affect plant interactions and increase the abundance of invasive species relative to native species. We examined resource pulses generated during desiccation and rehydration of communities of native biological soil crust (biocrust) forming mosses, in the context of positive associations between biocrusts and the invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe. We surveyed Centaurea and biocrust cover and evaluated how interactions among Centaurea, biocrusts, and water pulses influenced plant biomass and...

Avian plumage and eggshell colouration covary with sex-specific contributions to nest building

Jenő Nagy, Mark E. Hauber & Mark C. Mainwaring
Interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to nest building remain poorly understood. We examine whether the colouration of parents and of eggs influences sex-specific nest building contributions in 521 species of Western Palearctic birds. Having colourful plumage and laying colourful eggs are costly because of the deposition of pigments (in feathers and eggs) and/or forming costly nanostructural substrates (of feathers). We tested the hypotheses that species in which females alone build nests (i) exhibit sexual plumage...

Habitat loss on seasonal migratory range imperils an endangered ungulate

Sara Williams, Robin Steenweg, Troy Hegel, Mike Russell, Dave Hervieux & Mark Hebblewhite
Endangered species policies and their associated recovery documents and management actions do not always sufficiently address the importance of migratory behavior and seasonal ranges for imperiled populations. Using a telemetry location dataset spanning 1981 – 2018, we tested for changes in prevalence of migratory tactics (resident, migrant) over time, switching between tactics, shifts in seasonal space-use including migration corridors, and survival consequences of migrant and resident tactics for 237 adult female endangered woodland mountain caribou...

Tree growth data, ISSR tree genetics data, and monotorpene concentration data relating to mountain pine beetle attacks on whitebark pine at Vipond Park, Montana, 2017-2018

Diana Six
Abstract This record contains three zip files of data. First, for the file treeGeneticISSRData, the data consists of genetic ISSR band scores. Two sets of trees were sampled for genetic analyses - large trees surviving mountain pine beetle and 'general population' trees that we just a little to small to be attacked that served as a proxy for the population without beetle selection. Second, for the file Treegrowthdata_, this dataset includes files that record tree...

Data from: Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves

Lauren E. Walker, John M. Marzluff, Matthew C. Metz, Aaron J. Wirsing, L. Monika Moskal, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
1. Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide-ranging and intelligent omnivores that commonly take advantage of anthropogenic food resources. In areas where they overlap with wolves, however, ravens are numerous and ubiquitous scavengers of wolf-acquired carrion. 2. We aimed to determine whether subsidies...

Data from: The effect of competition on responses to drought and interannual climate variability of a dominant conifer tree of western North America

Gunnar C. Carnwath & Cara R. Nelson
To accurately predict how ecosystems will respond to climate change – and how management actions can influence such responses – scientists and managers need a better understanding of how and when biotic interactions modify climate–growth relationships. However, current research has largely ignored the role of competition in modulating climate–growth relationships of mature trees. In this study, we assessed the effect of competition on tree responses to drought and interannual climate variability as well as linkages...

Data from: Ecological mismatches are moderated by local conditions in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird

Nathan Senner, Maria Stager, Brett K. Sandercock & Nathan R. Senner
Ecological mismatches between reproductive events and seasonal resource peaks are frequently proposed to be a key driver of population dynamics resulting from global climate change. Many local populations are experiencing reduced reproductive success as a consequence of mismatches, but few mismatches have led to species-level population declines. To better understand this apparent paradox, we investigated the breeding phenology and chick survival of two disjunct populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica breeding at Churchill, Manitoba and...

Data from: Robust inference on large-scale species habitat use with interview data: the status of jaguars outside protected areas in Central America

Lisanne S. Petracca, Jacqueline L. Frair, Jonathan B. Cohen, Ana Patricia Calderón, Javier Carazo-Salazar, Franklin Castañeda, Daniel Corrales-Gutiérrez, Rebecca J. Foster, Bart Harmsen, Sandra Hernández-Potosme, Luis Herrera, Melva Olmos, Sandy Pereira, Hugh S. Robinson, Nathaniel Robinson, Roberto Salom-Pérez, Yahaira Urbina, Kathy A. Zeller & Howard Quigley
Evaluating range-wide habitat use by a target species requires information on species occurrence over broad geographic regions, a process made difficult by species rarity, large spatiotemporal sampling domains, and imperfect detection. We address these challenges in an assessment of habitat use for jaguars (Panthera onca) outside protected areas in Central America. Occurrence records were acquired within 12 putative corridors using interviews with knowledgeable corridor residents. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model to gain robust...

Data from: A comparison of individual-based genetic distance metrics for landscape genetics

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
A major aim of landscape genetics is to understand how landscapes resist gene flow and thereby influence population genetic structure. An empirical understanding of this process provides a wealth of information that can be used to guide conservation and management of species in fragmented landscapes, and also to predict how landscape change may affect population viability. Statistical approaches to infer the true model among competing alternatives are based on the strength of the relationship between...

Data from: Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, Rahel Sollmann & L. Scott Mills
Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session...

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