272 Works

Data from: Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore

David E. Ausband, Michael S. Mitchell & Lisette P. Waits
1. Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition, and recruitment. 2. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding gray...

Data from: Forest succession and climate variability interacted to control fire activity over the last four centuries in an Alaskan boreal landscape

Tyler J. Hoecker & Philip E. Higuera
Context: The boreal forest is globally important for its influence on Earth’s energy balance, and its sensitivity to climate change. Ecosystem functioning in boreal forests is shaped by fire activity, so anticipating the impacts of climate change requires understanding the precedence for, and consequences of, climatically induced changes in fire regimes. Long-term records of climate, fire, and vegetation are critical for gaining this understanding. Objectives: We investigated the relative importance of climate and landscape flammability...

Data from: Steller’s jays assess and communicate about predator risk using detection cues and identity

Alexis C. Billings, Erick Greene & Dylan MacArthur-Waltz
Predators can vary in the risk they pose, depending upon the factors such as body size, maneuverability, hunting strategy, and diet. Prey can also detect predators with different senses, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling them. We presented wild Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri annectens) with visual cues (robotic raptors) or acoustic cues (call playbacks) of 4 different raptors to test how they assess risk and how this influences their alarm calls. The assessment of risk...

Data from: Declining demographic performance and dispersal limitation influence the geographic distribution of the perennial forb, Astragalus utahensis (fabaceae)

Kathryn C. Baer & John L. Maron
1. A central goal of ecology is understanding the determinants of species’ distributions. ‘Metapopulation’ models for the existence of distributional boundaries predict that species’ geographic ranges arise from the landscape-scale deterioration of habitat suitability towards the range edge (i.e. niche mechanisms), which simultaneously hinders demographic performance and limits dispersal to suitable habitat beyond the edge (i.e. dispersal limitation). However, few studies have examined both of these mechanisms for the same species by examining abundance and...

Data from: Productivity and related soil properties mediate the population-level consequences of rodent seed predation on Blanketflower, Gaillardia aristata

Ryan J. Hegstad & John L. Maron
1. Plants are frequently attacked by consumers that reduce seed numbers. However, our ability to predict whether seed loss results in parallel changes in future recruitment or plant abundance remains poor. Progress in this area requires simultaneously understanding: 1) how spatial variation in environmental conditions influence recruitment and other demographic rates, and 2) how the magnitude of seed loss varies spatially and relative to seed limitation. 2. We experimentally assessed how post-dispersal seed predation by...

Data from: Functional responses in habitat selection: clarifying hypotheses and interpretations

Joseph D. Holbrook, Lucretia E. Olson, Nicholas J. DeCesare, Mark Hebblewhite, John R. Squires & Robin Steenweg
A fundamental challenge in habitat ecology and management is understanding the mechanisms generating animal distributions. Studies of habitat selection provide a lens into such mechanisms, but are often limited by unrealistic assumptions. For example, most studies assume that habitat selection is constant with respect to the availability of resources, such that habitat use remains proportional to availability. To the contrary, a growing body of work has shown the fallacy of this assumption, indicating that animals...

Data from: Low rates of lateral gene transfer among metabolic genes define the evolving biogeochemical niches of archaea through deep time

Carrine E. Blank
Phylogenomic analyses of archaeal genome sequences are providing windows into the group's evolutionary past, even though most archaeal taxa lack a conventional fossil record. Here, phylogenetic analyses were performed using key metabolic genes that define the metabolic niche of microorganisms. Such genes are generally considered to have undergone high rates of lateral gene transfer. Many gene sequences formed clades that were identical, or similar, to the tree constructed using large numbers of genes from the...

Data from: Chromosomal rearrangements and the genetics of reproductive barriers in Mimulus (monkeyflowers)

Lila Fishman, Angela Stathos, Paul M. Beardsley, Charles F. Williams & Jeffrey P. Hill
Chromosomal rearrangements may directly cause hybrid sterility and can facilitate speciation by preserving local adaptation in the face of gene flow. We used comparative linkage mapping with shared gene-based markers to identify potential chromosomal rearrangements between the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological speciation. We then re-mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral traits and flowering time (pre-mating isolation) and hybrid sterility (post-zygotic isolation). We identified three major...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Data from: Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens

Toby Spribille, Veera Tuovinen, Philipp Resl, Dan Vanderpool, Heimo Wolinski, M. Catherine Aime, Kevin Schneider, Edith Stabentheiner, Merje Toome-Heller, Göran Thor, Helmut Mayrhofer, Hanna Johannesson & John P. McCutcheon
For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in Salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

Michael K. Young, Daniel J. Isaak, Kevin S. McKelvey, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kellie J. Carim, Matthew R. Campbell, Matthew P. Corsi, Dona E. Horan, David L. Nagel, Michael K. Schwartz, Dona L. Horan & David E. Nagel
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream...

Data from:Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: how useful are habitat selection models?

Gretchen H. Roffler, Michael K. Schwartz, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Sandra L. Talbot, George K. Sage, Layne G. Adams, Gordon Luikart & Kristy L. Pilgrim
Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modelling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider their explicit assumptions. We calculated pairwise genetic distances among 301 Alaskan Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) using an intensive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite...

Data from: Range expansion underlies historical introgressive hybridization in the Iberian hare

João P. Marques, Liliana Farelo, Joana Vilela, Dan Vanderpool, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Introgressive hybridization is an important and widespread evolutionary process, but the relative roles of neutral demography and natural selection in promoting massive introgression are difficult to assess and an important matter of debate. Hares from the Iberian Peninsula provide an appropriate system to study this question. In its northern range, the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, shows a northwards gradient of increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression from the arctic/boreal L. timidus, which it presumably replaced after...

Data from: Divergence with gene flow in a population of thermophilic bacteria: a potential role for spatially varying selection

Christopher A. Wall, Gregory J. Koniges & Scott R. Miller
A fundamental goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how ecological diversity arises and is maintained in natural populations. We have investigated the contributions of gene flow and divergent selection to the distribution of genetic variation in an ecologically-differentiated population of a thermophilic cyanobacterium (Mastigocladus laminosus) found along the temperature gradient of a nitrogen-limited stream in Yellowstone National Park. For most loci sampled, gene flow appears to be sufficient to prevent substantial genetic divergence. However,...

Data from: Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches

Ondi L. Crino, Colin T. Prather, Stephanie C. Driscoll, Jeffrey M. Good & Creagh W. Breuner
There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress...

Data from: Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

Lauren P. Waller, Ragan M. Callaway, John N. Klironomos, Yvette K. Ortega & John L. Maron
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. We explored whether genotypes of the annual exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle), collected from populations across the native and non-native ranges, differed in responsiveness...

Data from: Can physiographic regions substitute for genetically-determined conservation units? A case study with the threatened plant, Silene spaldingii

Peter Lesica, Brice Adams & Christian T. Smith
Protecting genetic diversity throughout the range of a species is important for conservation, as doing so provides for long-term evolutionary potential and persistence under a changing environment. Conservation of diversity at the intraspecific level requires identification of all genetically distinct population segments within species; i.e., conservation units (CUs). Silene spaldingii occurs in grasslands of the Columbia Plateau region of western North America and is listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The recovery...

Data from: Exotic invasive plants increase productivity, abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and nitrogen availability in intermountain grasslands

Morgan Luce McLeod, Cory C. Cleveland, Ylva Lekberg, John L. Maron, Laurent Philippot, David Bru & Ragan M. Callaway
1. Exotic plant invasion is often associated with dramatic increases in above-ground net primary productivity and soil nitrogen. However, most evidence for these increases comes from correlative studies of single species, leaving open the question of whether invasive plants drive these processes and if they are consistent among invaders. 2. We combined field surveys and measurements within experimental plantings to examine how plant productivity, soil nitrogen, and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) change in...

Data from: Centromere–associated meiotic drive and female fitness variation in Mimulus

Lila Fishman & John Kennedy Kelly
Female meiotic drive, in which chromosomal variants preferentially segregate to the egg pole during asymmetric female meiosis, is a theoretically pervasive but still mysterious form of selfish evolution. Like other selfish genetic elements, driving chromosomes may be maintained as balanced polymorphisms by pleiotropic or linked fitness costs. A centromere-associated driver (D) with a ∼58:42 female-specific transmission advantage occurs at intermediate frequency (32-40%) in the Iron Mountain population of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus. Previously determined...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of a heterospecific nesting association

Rose J Swift, Amanda D Rodewald & Nathan R Senner
The costs and benefits of interactions among species can vary spatially or temporally, making them context-dependent. For example, benefits associated with nesting near species that deter predators may give way to costs if the association increases the risk of predation during other stages of reproduction. We examined the extent to which the costs and benefits of heterospecific aggregations between a declining shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica), and a potential protector and predator, the Mew...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Data from: Cryptic inbreeding depression in a growing population of a long-lived species

Helen R. Taylor, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Nicola J. Nelson, Fred W. Allendorf & Kristina M. Ramstad
Genetic effects are often overlooked in endangered species monitoring, and populations showing positive growth are often assumed to be secure. However, the continued reproductive success of a few individuals may mask issues such as inbreeding depression, especially in long-lived species. Here, we test for inbreeding depression in little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii) by comparing a population founded with two birds to one founded with 40 birds, both from the same source population and both showing...

Data from: Models for assessing local-scale co-abundance of animal species while accounting for differential detectability and varied responses to the environment

Jedediah F. Brodie, Olga E. Helmy, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano & Elise Zipkin
We developed a new modeling framework to assess how the local abundance of one species influences the local abundance of a potential competitor while explicitly accounting for differential responses to environmental conditions. Our models also incorporate imperfect detection as well as abundance estimation error for both species. As a case study, we applied the model to four pairs of mammal species in Borneo, surveyed by extensive and spatially widespread camera trapping. We detected different responses...

Data from: The fluctuating resource hypothesis explains invasibility, but not exotic advantage following disturbance

Dean E. Pearson, Yvette K. Ortega, Diego Villarreal, Ylva Lekberg, Marina C. Cock, Ozkan Eren & Jose L. Hierro
Invasibility is a key indicator of community susceptibility to changes in structure and function. The fluctuating resource hypothesis (FRH) postulates that invasibility is an emergent community property, a manifestation of multiple processes that cannot be reliably predicted by individual community attributes like diversity or productivity. Yet, research has emphasized the role of these individual attributes, with the expectation that diversity should deter invasibility and productivity enhance it. In an effort to explore how these and...

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