38 Works

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Linking native and invader traits explains native spider population responses to plant invasion

Jennifer Smith, Douglas Emlen, Dean Pearson, Jennifer N. Smith, Douglas J. Emlen & Dean E. Pearson
Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion...

Data from: The effect of competition on responses to drought and interannual climate variability of a dominant conifer tree of western North America

Gunnar C. Carnwath & Cara R. Nelson
To accurately predict how ecosystems will respond to climate change – and how management actions can influence such responses – scientists and managers need a better understanding of how and when biotic interactions modify climate–growth relationships. However, current research has largely ignored the role of competition in modulating climate–growth relationships of mature trees. In this study, we assessed the effect of competition on tree responses to drought and interannual climate variability as well as linkages...

Data from: Ecological mismatches are moderated by local conditions in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird

Nathan Senner, Maria Stager, Brett K. Sandercock & Nathan R. Senner
Ecological mismatches between reproductive events and seasonal resource peaks are frequently proposed to be a key driver of population dynamics resulting from global climate change. Many local populations are experiencing reduced reproductive success as a consequence of mismatches, but few mismatches have led to species-level population declines. To better understand this apparent paradox, we investigated the breeding phenology and chick survival of two disjunct populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica breeding at Churchill, Manitoba and...

Data from: Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens

Toby Spribille, Veera Tuovinen, Philipp Resl, Dan Vanderpool, Heimo Wolinski, M. Catherine Aime, Kevin Schneider, Edith Stabentheiner, Merje Toome-Heller, Göran Thor, Helmut Mayrhofer, Hanna Johannesson & John P. McCutcheon
For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in Salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

Michael K. Young, Daniel J. Isaak, Kevin S. McKelvey, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kellie J. Carim, Matthew R. Campbell, Matthew P. Corsi, Dona E. Horan, David L. Nagel, Michael K. Schwartz, Dona L. Horan & David E. Nagel
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream...

Data from:Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: how useful are habitat selection models?

Gretchen H. Roffler, Michael K. Schwartz, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Sandra L. Talbot, George K. Sage, Layne G. Adams, Gordon Luikart & Kristy L. Pilgrim
Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modelling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider their explicit assumptions. We calculated pairwise genetic distances among 301 Alaskan Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) using an intensive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite...

Data from: Range expansion underlies historical introgressive hybridization in the Iberian hare

João P. Marques, Liliana Farelo, Joana Vilela, Dan Vanderpool, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Introgressive hybridization is an important and widespread evolutionary process, but the relative roles of neutral demography and natural selection in promoting massive introgression are difficult to assess and an important matter of debate. Hares from the Iberian Peninsula provide an appropriate system to study this question. In its northern range, the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, shows a northwards gradient of increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression from the arctic/boreal L. timidus, which it presumably replaced after...

Data from: Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

Lauren P. Waller, Ragan M. Callaway, John N. Klironomos, Yvette K. Ortega & John L. Maron
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. We explored whether genotypes of the annual exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle), collected from populations across the native and non-native ranges, differed in responsiveness...

Data from: Can physiographic regions substitute for genetically-determined conservation units? A case study with the threatened plant, Silene spaldingii

Peter Lesica, Brice Adams & Christian T. Smith
Protecting genetic diversity throughout the range of a species is important for conservation, as doing so provides for long-term evolutionary potential and persistence under a changing environment. Conservation of diversity at the intraspecific level requires identification of all genetically distinct population segments within species; i.e., conservation units (CUs). Silene spaldingii occurs in grasslands of the Columbia Plateau region of western North America and is listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The recovery...

Data from: Exotic invasive plants increase productivity, abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and nitrogen availability in intermountain grasslands

Morgan Luce McLeod, Cory C. Cleveland, Ylva Lekberg, John L. Maron, Laurent Philippot, David Bru & Ragan M. Callaway
1. Exotic plant invasion is often associated with dramatic increases in above-ground net primary productivity and soil nitrogen. However, most evidence for these increases comes from correlative studies of single species, leaving open the question of whether invasive plants drive these processes and if they are consistent among invaders. 2. We combined field surveys and measurements within experimental plantings to examine how plant productivity, soil nitrogen, and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) change in...

Data from: Capuchins, space, time and memory: an experimental test of what-where-when memory in wild monkeys

Charles H. Janson
There is considerable controversy about the existence, extent and adaptive value of integrated multimodal memory in non-human animals. Building on prior results showing that wild capuchin monkeys in Argentina appear to recall both the location and amount of food at patches they had previously visited, I tested whether they also track and use elapsed time as a basis for decisions about which feeding patches to visit. I presented them with an experimental array of eight...

Data from: The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major locus underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus

Margaret F. Hendrick, Findley R. Finseth, Minna E. Mathiasson, Kristen A. Palmer, Emma M. Broder, Peter Breigenzer & Lila Fishman
Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence, and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - QTL mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq), and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate...

Data from: Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus

Andrea L. Case, Findley R. Finseth, Camille M. Barr & Lila Fishman
Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus. In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of...

Data from: Detecting and quantifying introgression in hybridized populations: simplifying assumptions yield overconfidence and uncertainty

Patrick Della Croce, Geoffrey C. Poole & Gordon Luikart
A growing threat to the conservation of many native species worldwide is genetic introgression from non-native species. Although improved molecular genetic techniques are increasing the availability of species diagnostic markers for many species, efficient field sampling design and reliable data interpretation require accurate estimates of uncertainty associated with the detection of non-native alleles and the quantification of introgression in native populations. Using fish populations as examples, we developed a simulation model of an age-structured population...

Data from: Genomic imprinting, disrupted placental expression, and speciation

Thomas David Brekke, Lindy A. Henry & Jeffrey M. Good
The importance of regulatory incompatibilities to the early stages of speciation remains unclear. Hybrid mammals often show extreme parent-of-origin growth effects that are thought to be a consequence of disrupted genetic imprinting (parent-specific epigenetic gene silencing) during early development. Here we test the long-standing hypothesis that abnormal hybrid growth reflects disrupted gene expression due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in hybrid placentas, resulting in dosage imbalances between paternal growth factors and maternal growth repressors. We...

Data from: Keeping things local: subpopulation Nb and Ne in a stream network with partial barriers to fish migration

Andrew R. Whiteley, Jason A. Coombs, Matthew J. O'Donnell, Keith H. Nislow & Benjamin H. Letcher
For organisms with overlapping generations that occur in metapopulations, uncertainty remains regarding the spatio-temporal scale of inference of estimates of the effective number of breeders (N^b)and whether these estimates can be used to predict generational Ne. We conducted a series of tests of the spatio-temporal scale of inference of estimates of Nb in nine consecutive cohorts within a long-term study of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also tested a recently developed approach to estimate generational...

Data from: Environmental controls on canopy foliar N distributions in a neotropical lowland forest

Christopher S. Balzotti, Gregory P. Asner, Philip G. Taylor, Cory C. Cleveland, Rebecca Cole, Roberta E. Martin, Megan Nasto, Brooke B. Osborne, Stephen Porder & Alan R. Townsend
Distributions of foliar nutrients across forest canopies can give insight into their plant functional diversity and improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling. We used airborne remote sensing and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) to quantify canopy foliar nitrogen (N) across ~164 km2 of wet lowland tropical forest in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. We determined the relative influence of climate and topography on the observed patterns of canopy foliar N using a gradient boosting model...

Data from: Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

Ryan P. Kovach, Robert Al-Chokhachy, Diane C. Whited, David A. Schmetterling, Andrew M. Dux & Clint C. Muhlfeld
Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors. We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to...

Data from: Should scientists be required to use a model-based solution to adjust for possible distance-based detectability bias?

Richard L. Hutto
The most popular method used to gain an understanding of population trends or of differences in bird abundance among land condition categories is to use information derived from point counts. Unfortunately, various factors can affect one’s ability to detect birds, and those factors need to be controlled or accounted for so that any difference in one’s index among time periods or locations is an accurate reflection of differences in bird abundance and not differences in...

Data from: Foraging at the edge of the world: low‐altitude, high‐speed maneuvering in barn swallows

Douglas R. Warrick, Tyson L. Hedrick, Andrew A. Biewener, Kristen E. Crandell & Bret W. Tobalske
While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging...

Data from: Using camera trapping and hierarchical occupancy modelling to evaluate the spatial ecology of an African mammal community

Lindsey N. Rich, David A. W. Miller, Hugh S. Robinson, J. Weldon McNutt & Marcella J. Kelly
Emerging conservation paradigms have shifted from single to multi-species approaches focused on sustaining biodiversity. Multi-species hierarchical occupancy modelling provides a method for assessing biodiversity while accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. We analysed camera trapping data with multi-species models using a Bayesian approach to estimate the distributions of a terrestrial mammal community in northern Botswana and evaluate community, group, and species-specific responses to human disturbance and environmental variables. Groupings were based on two life-history traits:...

Data from: Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management

Ross T. Pitman, Julien Fattebert, Samual T. Williams, Kathryn S. Williams, Russell A. Hill, Luke T. B. Hunter, Hugh Robinson, John Power, Lourens Swanepoel, Rob Slotow & Guy A. Balme
Understanding resource selection and quantifying habitat connectivity are fundamental to conservation planning for both land-use and species management plans. However, datasets available to management authorities for resource selection and connectivity analyses are often highly limited and fragmentary. As a result, measuring connectivity is challenging, and often poorly integrated within conservation planning and wildlife management. To exacerbate the challenge, scale-dependent resource use makes inference across scales problematic, resource use is often modelled in areas where the...

Data from: Working with what you've got: unattractive males show greater mate-guarding effort in a duetting songbird

Jenélle Dowling & Michael S. Webster
When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • United States Geological Survey
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of North Carolina
  • Idaho Department of Fish and Game
  • University of Idaho
  • US Forest Service
  • Uppsala University
  • Cornell University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst