38 Works

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Linking native and invader traits explains native spider population responses to plant invasion

Jennifer Smith, Douglas Emlen, Dean Pearson, Jennifer N. Smith, Douglas J. Emlen & Dean E. Pearson
Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 times more abundant on simulated invasion...

Data from: The effect of competition on responses to drought and interannual climate variability of a dominant conifer tree of western North America

Gunnar C. Carnwath & Cara R. Nelson
To accurately predict how ecosystems will respond to climate change – and how management actions can influence such responses – scientists and managers need a better understanding of how and when biotic interactions modify climate–growth relationships. However, current research has largely ignored the role of competition in modulating climate–growth relationships of mature trees. In this study, we assessed the effect of competition on tree responses to drought and interannual climate variability as well as linkages...

Data from: Ecological mismatches are moderated by local conditions in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird

Nathan Senner, Maria Stager, Brett K. Sandercock & Nathan R. Senner
Ecological mismatches between reproductive events and seasonal resource peaks are frequently proposed to be a key driver of population dynamics resulting from global climate change. Many local populations are experiencing reduced reproductive success as a consequence of mismatches, but few mismatches have led to species-level population declines. To better understand this apparent paradox, we investigated the breeding phenology and chick survival of two disjunct populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica breeding at Churchill, Manitoba and...

Data from: Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens

Toby Spribille, Veera Tuovinen, Philipp Resl, Dan Vanderpool, Heimo Wolinski, M. Catherine Aime, Kevin Schneider, Edith Stabentheiner, Merje Toome-Heller, Göran Thor, Helmut Mayrhofer, Hanna Johannesson & John P. McCutcheon
For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen–one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in Salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

Michael K. Young, Daniel J. Isaak, Kevin S. McKelvey, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kellie J. Carim, Matthew R. Campbell, Matthew P. Corsi, Dona E. Horan, David L. Nagel, Michael K. Schwartz, Dona L. Horan & David E. Nagel
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream...

Data from:Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: how useful are habitat selection models?

Gretchen H. Roffler, Michael K. Schwartz, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Sandra L. Talbot, George K. Sage, Layne G. Adams, Gordon Luikart & Kristy L. Pilgrim
Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modelling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider their explicit assumptions. We calculated pairwise genetic distances among 301 Alaskan Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) using an intensive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite...

Data from: Range expansion underlies historical introgressive hybridization in the Iberian hare

João P. Marques, Liliana Farelo, Joana Vilela, Dan Vanderpool, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Introgressive hybridization is an important and widespread evolutionary process, but the relative roles of neutral demography and natural selection in promoting massive introgression are difficult to assess and an important matter of debate. Hares from the Iberian Peninsula provide an appropriate system to study this question. In its northern range, the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, shows a northwards gradient of increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression from the arctic/boreal L. timidus, which it presumably replaced after...

Data from: Reduced mycorrhizal responsiveness leads to increased competitive tolerance in an invasive exotic plant

Lauren P. Waller, Ragan M. Callaway, John N. Klironomos, Yvette K. Ortega & John L. Maron
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can exert a powerful influence on the outcome of plant–plant competition. Since some exotic plants interact differently with soil biota such as AM fungi in their new range, range-based shifts in AM responsiveness could shift competitive interactions between exotic and resident plants, although this remains poorly studied. We explored whether genotypes of the annual exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle), collected from populations across the native and non-native ranges, differed in responsiveness...

Data from: Can physiographic regions substitute for genetically-determined conservation units? A case study with the threatened plant, Silene spaldingii

Peter Lesica, Brice Adams & Christian T. Smith
Protecting genetic diversity throughout the range of a species is important for conservation, as doing so provides for long-term evolutionary potential and persistence under a changing environment. Conservation of diversity at the intraspecific level requires identification of all genetically distinct population segments within species; i.e., conservation units (CUs). Silene spaldingii occurs in grasslands of the Columbia Plateau region of western North America and is listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The recovery...

Data from: Exotic invasive plants increase productivity, abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and nitrogen availability in intermountain grasslands

Morgan Luce McLeod, Cory C. Cleveland, Ylva Lekberg, John L. Maron, Laurent Philippot, David Bru & Ragan M. Callaway
1. Exotic plant invasion is often associated with dramatic increases in above-ground net primary productivity and soil nitrogen. However, most evidence for these increases comes from correlative studies of single species, leaving open the question of whether invasive plants drive these processes and if they are consistent among invaders. 2. We combined field surveys and measurements within experimental plantings to examine how plant productivity, soil nitrogen, and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) change in...

Data from: Using camera trapping and hierarchical occupancy modelling to evaluate the spatial ecology of an African mammal community

Lindsey N. Rich, David A. W. Miller, Hugh S. Robinson, J. Weldon McNutt & Marcella J. Kelly
Emerging conservation paradigms have shifted from single to multi-species approaches focused on sustaining biodiversity. Multi-species hierarchical occupancy modelling provides a method for assessing biodiversity while accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty. We analysed camera trapping data with multi-species models using a Bayesian approach to estimate the distributions of a terrestrial mammal community in northern Botswana and evaluate community, group, and species-specific responses to human disturbance and environmental variables. Groupings were based on two life-history traits:...

Data from: Cats, connectivity and conservation: incorporating datasets and integrating scales for wildlife management

Ross T. Pitman, Julien Fattebert, Samual T. Williams, Kathryn S. Williams, Russell A. Hill, Luke T. B. Hunter, Hugh Robinson, John Power, Lourens Swanepoel, Rob Slotow & Guy A. Balme
Understanding resource selection and quantifying habitat connectivity are fundamental to conservation planning for both land-use and species management plans. However, datasets available to management authorities for resource selection and connectivity analyses are often highly limited and fragmentary. As a result, measuring connectivity is challenging, and often poorly integrated within conservation planning and wildlife management. To exacerbate the challenge, scale-dependent resource use makes inference across scales problematic, resource use is often modelled in areas where the...

Data from: Working with what you've got: unattractive males show greater mate-guarding effort in a duetting songbird

Jenélle Dowling & Michael S. Webster
When mates are limited, individuals should allocate resources to mating tactics that maximize fitness. In species with extra-pair paternity (EPP), males can invest in mate guarding, or, alternatively, in seeking EPP. Males should optimize fitness by adjusting investment according to their attractiveness to females, such that attractive males seek EPP, and unattractive males guard mates. This theory has received little empirical testing, leaving our understanding of the evolution of mating tactics incomplete; it is unclear...

Data from: Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

John H. Powell, Stephen J. Amish, Gwilym D. Haynes, Gordon Luikart & Emily K. Latch
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum...

Data from: The importance of factors controlling species abundance and distribution varies in native and non-native species.

José L. Hierro, Liana Khetsuriani, Krikor Andonian, Özkan Eren, Diego Villarreal, Grigor Janoian, Kurt O. Reinhart & Ragan M. Callaway
How variation in factors controlling species abundance and distribution between native and non-native ranges compares to that within ranges remains poorly understood. We used a globally distributed ruderal, Centaurea solstitialis (Centaurea), to explore the possibility that the importance of those factors exhibits great variation between and within ranges. To test our hypothesis, we established seed addition experiments with soil disturbance (turnover and control) and biocide (fungicides, insecticide, and control) treatments in two regions within native...

Data from: Linking landscape-scale differences in forage to ungulate nutritional ecology

Kelly M. Proffitt, Mark Hebblewhite, Wibke Peters, Nicole Hupp & Julee Shamhart
Understanding how habitat and nutritional condition affect ungulate populations is necessary for informing management, particularly in areas experiencing carnivore recovery and declining ungulate population trends. Variations in forage species availability, plant phenological stage, and the abundance of forage make it challenging to understand landscape-level effects of nutrition on ungulates. We developed an integrated spatial modeling approach to estimate landscape-level elk (Cervus elaphus) nutritional resources in two adjacent study areas that differed in coarse measures of...

Data from: Climatic thresholds shape northern high-latitude fire regimes and imply vulnerability to future climate change

Adam M. Young, Philip E. Higuera, Paul A. Duffy & Feng Sheng Hu
Boreal forests and arctic tundra cover 33% of global land area and store an estimated 50% of total soil carbon. Because wildfire is a key driver of terrestrial carbon cycling, increasing fire activity in these ecosystems would likely have global implications. To anticipate potential spatiotemporal variability in fire-regime shifts, we modeled the spatially explicit 30-yr probability of fire occurrence as a function of climate and landscape features (i.e. vegetation and topography) across Alaska. Boosted regression...

Data from: Camera-based occupancy monitoring at large scales: power to detect trends in grizzly bears across the Canadian Rockies

Robin Steenweg, Mark Hebblewhite & Paul M. Lukacs
Monitoring carnivores is critical for conservation, yet challenging because they are rare and elusive. Few methods exist for monitoring wide-ranging species over large spatial and sufficiently long temporal scales to detect trends. Remote cameras are an emerging technology for monitoring large carnivores around the world because of their low cost, non-invasive methodology, and their ability to capture pictures of species of concern that are difficult to monitor. For species without uniquely identifiable spots, stripes, or...

Data from: Three-dimensional simulation for fast forward flight of a calliope hummingbird

Jialei Song, Bret W. Tobalske, Donald R. Powers, Tyson L. Hedrick & Haoxiang Luo
We present a computational study of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a calliope hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope) during fast forward flight. Three-dimensional wing kinematics were incorporated into the model by extracting time-dependent wing position from high-speed videos of the bird flying in a wind tunnel at 8.3 m s−1. The advance ratio, i.e. the ratio between flight speed and average wingtip speed, is around one. An immersed-boundary method was used to simulate flow around the wings and bird...

Data from: SNP discovery in candidate adaptive genes using exon capture in a free-ranging alpine ungulate

Gretchen H. Roffler, Stephen J. Amish, Seth Smith, Ted Cosart, Marty Kardos, Michael K. Schwartz & Gordon Luikart
Identification of genes underlying genomic signatures of natural selection is key to understanding adaptation to local conditions. We used targeted resequencing to identify SNP markers in 5,321 candidate adaptive genes associated with known immunological, metabolic, and growth functions in ovids and other ungulates. We selectively targeted 8,161 exons in protein-coding and nearby 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of chosen candidate genes. Targeted sequences were taken from bighorn sheep (O. canadensis) exon capture data and directly...

Shrub Consumption and Immediate Changes in Shrub Community and Spatial Patterns by Reintroduced Fire in Yosemite National Park, California, USA; Supplemental Information

J.A. Lutz, T. J. Lutz, S. J. Germain, K. M. L. Becker, E. M. Blomdahl, S. A. Jeronimo, C. A. Cansier, J. A. Freund, M. E. Swanson & A. J. Larson
Fire behavior in the Yosemite Forest Dynamics Plot during the Rim Fire as captured by the USFS Fire Behavior Assessment Team and reported in Ewell, C., D.F. Smith, M. Hilden, S. Greene, D. Coultrap, K. Robinson, N. Vaillant, A. Reiner, T. Norman. 2015. 2013 Rim Fire Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park Fire Behavior Assessment Team Summary Report. Each video was started based on a thermocouple trigger when the fire reached it.

Data from: Capuchins, space, time and memory: an experimental test of what-where-when memory in wild monkeys

Charles H. Janson
There is considerable controversy about the existence, extent and adaptive value of integrated multimodal memory in non-human animals. Building on prior results showing that wild capuchin monkeys in Argentina appear to recall both the location and amount of food at patches they had previously visited, I tested whether they also track and use elapsed time as a basis for decisions about which feeding patches to visit. I presented them with an experimental array of eight...

Data from: The genetics of extreme microgeographic adaptation: an integrated approach identifies a major locus underlying leaf trichome divergence in Yellowstone Mimulus guttatus

Margaret F. Hendrick, Findley R. Finseth, Minna E. Mathiasson, Kristen A. Palmer, Emma M. Broder, Peter Breigenzer & Lila Fishman
Microgeographic adaptation provides a particularly interesting context for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic divergence, and may also present unique empirical challenges. In particular, plant adaptation to extreme soil mosaics may generate barriers to gene flow or shifts in mating system that confound simple genomic scans for adaptive loci. Here, we combine three approaches - QTL mapping of candidate intervals in controlled crosses, population resequencing (PoolSeq), and analyses of wild recombinant individuals - to investigate...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • United States Geological Survey
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of North Carolina
  • Idaho Department of Fish and Game
  • University of Idaho
  • US Forest Service
  • Uppsala University
  • Cornell University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst