44 Works

Data from: The transcriptional landscape of seasonal coat colour moult in the snowshoe hare

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Paulo C. Alves, Colin M. Callahan, João P. Marques, L. Scott Mills, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Seasonal coat colour change is an important adaptation to seasonally changing environments but the evolution of this and other circannual traits remains poorly understood. In this study we use gene expression to understand seasonal coat colour moulting in wild snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). We used hair colour to follow the progression of the moult, simultaneously sampling skin from three moulting stages in hares collected during the peak of the spring moult from white winter to...

Data from: An appraisal of the enzyme stability-activity trade-off

Scott R. Miller
A longstanding idea in evolutionary physiology is that an enzyme cannot jointly optimize performance at both high and low temperatures due to a trade-off between stability and activity. Although a stability-activity trade-off has been observed for well-characterized examples, such a trade-off is not imposed by any physical chemical constraint. To better understand the pervasiveness of this trade-off, I investigated the stability-activity relationship for comparative biochemical studies of purified orthologous enzymes identified by a literature search....

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years

Shelley D. Crausbay, Philip E. Higuera, Douglas G. Sprugel & Linda B. Brubaker
Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the...

Data from: Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

Sara A. Kaiser, Thomas E. Martin, Juan C. Oteyza, Connor Armstad & Robert C. Fleischer
Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of non-relatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that non-breeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the...

Data from: Are exotic plants more abundant in the introduced versus native range?

Dean E. Pearson, Özkan Eren, Yvette K. Ortega, Diego Villarreal, Muhyettin Şentürk, Florencia M. Miguel, Miguel C. Weinzettel, Aníbal Prina & José L. Hierro
Many invasion hypotheses postulate that introducing species to novel environments allows some organisms to escape population controls within the native range to attain higher abundance in the introduced range. However, introductions may also allow inherently successful species access to new regions where they may flourish without increasing in abundance. To examine these hypotheses, we randomly surveyed semi-arid grasslands in the native and two introduced ranges (12,000-21,000 km2 per range) to quantify local abundance (mean cover...

Data from: Fire-regime variability impacts forest carbon dynamics for centuries to millennia

Tara W. Hudiburg, Philip E. Higuera & Jeffrey A. Hicke
Wildfire is a dominant disturbance agent in forest ecosystems, shaping important biogeochemical processes including net carbon (C) balance. Long-term monitoring and chronosequence studies highlight a resilience of biogeochemical properties to large, stand-replacing, high-severity fire events. In contrast, the consequences of repeated fires or temporal variability in a fire regime (e.g., the characteristic timing or severity of fire) are largely unknown, yet theory suggests that such variability could strongly influence forest C trajectories (i.e., future states...

Data from: A comparison of regression methods for model selection in individual-based landscape genetic analysis

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
Anthropogenic migration barriers fragment many populations and limit the ability of species to respond to climate-induced biome shifts. Conservation actions designed to conserve habitat connectivity and mitigate barriers are needed to unite fragmented populations into larger, more viable metapopulations, and to allow species to track their climate envelope over time. Landscape genetic analysis provides an empirical means to infer landscape factors influencing gene flow, and thereby inform such conservation actions. However, there are currently many...

Data from: Robust inference on large-scale species habitat use with interview data: the status of jaguars outside protected areas in Central America

Lisanne S. Petracca, Jacqueline L. Frair, Jonathan B. Cohen, Ana Patricia Calderón, Javier Carazo-Salazar, Franklin Castañeda, Daniel Corrales-Gutiérrez, Rebecca J. Foster, Bart Harmsen, Sandra Hernández-Potosme, Luis Herrera, Melva Olmos, Sandy Pereira, Hugh S. Robinson, Nathaniel Robinson, Roberto Salom-Pérez, Yahaira Urbina, Kathy A. Zeller & Howard Quigley
Evaluating range-wide habitat use by a target species requires information on species occurrence over broad geographic regions, a process made difficult by species rarity, large spatiotemporal sampling domains, and imperfect detection. We address these challenges in an assessment of habitat use for jaguars (Panthera onca) outside protected areas in Central America. Occurrence records were acquired within 12 putative corridors using interviews with knowledgeable corridor residents. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model to gain robust...

Data from: A comparison of individual-based genetic distance metrics for landscape genetics

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
A major aim of landscape genetics is to understand how landscapes resist gene flow and thereby influence population genetic structure. An empirical understanding of this process provides a wealth of information that can be used to guide conservation and management of species in fragmented landscapes, and also to predict how landscape change may affect population viability. Statistical approaches to infer the true model among competing alternatives are based on the strength of the relationship between...

Data from: Genetic sampling for estimating density of common species

Ellen Cheng, Karen E. Hodges, Rahel Sollmann & L. Scott Mills
Understanding population dynamics requires reliable estimates of population density, yet this basic information is often surprisingly difficult to obtain. With rare or difficult-to-capture species, genetic surveys from noninvasive collection of hair or scat has proved cost-efficient for estimating densities. Here, we explored whether noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) also offers promise for sampling a relatively common species, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777), in comparison with traditional live trapping. We optimized a protocol for single-session...

Data from: Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore

David E. Ausband, Michael S. Mitchell & Lisette P. Waits
1. Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition, and recruitment. 2. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding gray...

Data from: Steller’s jays assess and communicate about predator risk using detection cues and identity

Alexis C. Billings, Erick Greene & Dylan MacArthur-Waltz
Predators can vary in the risk they pose, depending upon the factors such as body size, maneuverability, hunting strategy, and diet. Prey can also detect predators with different senses, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling them. We presented wild Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri annectens) with visual cues (robotic raptors) or acoustic cues (call playbacks) of 4 different raptors to test how they assess risk and how this influences their alarm calls. The assessment of risk...

Data from: Cryptic inbreeding depression in a growing population of a long-lived species

Helen R. Taylor, Rogan M. Colbourne, Hugh A. Robertson, Nicola J. Nelson, Fred W. Allendorf & Kristina M. Ramstad
Genetic effects are often overlooked in endangered species monitoring, and populations showing positive growth are often assumed to be secure. However, the continued reproductive success of a few individuals may mask issues such as inbreeding depression, especially in long-lived species. Here, we test for inbreeding depression in little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii) by comparing a population founded with two birds to one founded with 40 birds, both from the same source population and both showing...

Data from: Models for assessing local-scale co-abundance of animal species while accounting for differential detectability and varied responses to the environment

Jedediah F. Brodie, Olga E. Helmy, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano & Elise Zipkin
We developed a new modeling framework to assess how the local abundance of one species influences the local abundance of a potential competitor while explicitly accounting for differential responses to environmental conditions. Our models also incorporate imperfect detection as well as abundance estimation error for both species. As a case study, we applied the model to four pairs of mammal species in Borneo, surveyed by extensive and spatially widespread camera trapping. We detected different responses...

Data from: Selection on an extreme weapon in the frog legged leaf beetle (Sagra femorata)

Devin M. O'Brien, Masako Katsuki & Douglas J. Emlen
Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hindleg length), and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hindleg...

Data from: Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States

K. K. McLauchlan, L. M. Gerhart, J. J. Battles, J. M. Craine, A. J. Elmore, P. E. Higuera, M. C. Mack, B. E. McNeil, D. M. Nelson, N. Pederson & S. S. Perakis
Forests cover 30% of the terrestrial Earth surface and are a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Humans have doubled the amount of global reactive nitrogen (N), increasing deposition of N onto forests worldwide. However, other global changes—especially climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations—are increasing demand for N, the element limiting primary productivity in temperate forests, which could be reducing N availability. To determine the long-term, integrated effects of global changes...

Data from: Signatures of polygenic adaptation associated with climate across the range of a threatened fish species with high genetic connectivity

Katherine A. Harrisson, Stephen J. Amish, Alexandra Pavlova, Shawn R. Narum, Marina Telonis-Scott, Meaghan L. Rourke, Jarod Lyon, Zeb Tonkin, Dean M. Gilligan, Brett A. Ingram, Mark Lintermans, Han Ming Gan, Christopher M. Austin, Gordon Luikart & Paul Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species’ ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation...

Data from: Winter storms drive rapid phenotypic, regulatory and genomic shifts in the green anole lizard

Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nicholas Rochette, Julian Catchen, Jonathan B. Losos & Scott V. Edwards
Extreme environmental perturbations offer opportunities to observe the effects of natural selection in wild populations. During the winter of 2013–2014, the southeastern United States endured an extreme cold event. We used thermal performance, transcriptomics, and genome scans to measure responses of lizard populations to storm-induced selection. We found significant increases in cold tolerance at the species’ southern limit. Gene expression in southern survivors shifted toward patterns characteristic of northern populations. Comparing samples before and after...

Nutrient Criterion Data

Paul M. Jakus, Nanette Nelson & Jeffery Ostenmiller
We present a scientific replication of a benthic algae nuisance threshold study originally conducted in Montana, but we do so using a different sampling methodology in a different state. Respondents are asked to rate eight photographs that depict varying algae conditions. Our initial results show that Utah resident preferences for benthic algae levels are quite similar to those of Montana residents, thus replicating the Montana study. For the full Utah sample, though, Cronbachís ? indicated...

Data from: Apparent annual survival estimates of tropical songbirds better reflect life history variation when based on intensive field methods

Thomas E. Martin, Margaret M. Riordan, Rimi Repin, James C. Mouton & William M. Blake
Aim: Adult survival is central to theories explaining latitudinal gradients in life history strategies. Life history theory predicts higher adult survival in tropical than north temperate regions given lower fecundity and parental effort. Early studies were consistent with this prediction, but standard-effort netting studies in recent decades suggested that apparent survival rates in temperate and tropical regions strongly overlap. Such results do not fit with life history theory. Targeted marking and resighting of breeding adults...

Data from: Using simulations to evaluate Mantel-based methods for assessing landscape resistance to gene flow

Katherine A. Zeller, Tyler G. Creech, Katie L. Millette, Rachel S. Crowhurst, Robert A. Long, Helene H. Wagner, Niko Balkenhol & Erin L. Landguth
Mantel-based tests have been the primary analytical methods for understanding how landscape features influence observed spatial genetic structure. Simulation studies examining Mantel-based approaches have highlighted major challenges associated with the use of such tests and fueled debate on when the Mantel test is appropriate for landscape genetics studies. We aim to provide some clarity in this debate using spatially explicit, individual-based, genetic simulations to examine the effects of the following on the performance of Mantel-based...

Data from: Hovering in the heat: effects of environmental temperature on heat regulation in foraging hummingbirds

Donald R. Powers, Kathleen M. Langland, Susan M. Wethington, Sean D. Powers, Catherine H. Graham & Bret W. Tobalske
At high temperature (>40 ºC) endotherms experience reduced passive heat dissipation (radiation, conduction, and convection) and increased reliance on evaporative heat loss. High temperatures challenge flying birds due to heat produced by wing muscles. Hummingbirds depend on flight for foraging, yet inhabit hot regions. We used infrared thermography to explore how lower passive heat dissipation during flight impacts body-heat management in broad-billed (Cynanthus latirostris, 3.0g), black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri, 3.0g), Rivoli’s (Eugenes fulgens, 7.5g), and blue-throated...

Data from: Spatial genetic structure in American black bears (Ursus americanus): female philopatry is variable and related to population history

Thea V. Kristensen, Emily E. Puckett, Erin L. Landguth, Jerrold L. Belant, John T. Hast, Colin Carpenter, Jaime L. Sajecki, Jeff Beringer, Myron Means, John J. Cox, Lori S. Eggert, & Kimberly G. Smith
Previously, American black bears (Ursus americanus) were thought to follow the pattern of female philopatry and male-biased dispersal. However, recent studies have identified deviations from this pattern. Such flexibility in dispersal patterns can allow individuals greater ability to acclimate to changing environments. We explored dispersal and spatial genetic relatedness patterns across ten black bear populations—including long established (historic), with known reproduction >50 years ago, and newly established (recent) populations, with reproduction recorded <50 years ago—in...

Data from: Strong indirect herbicide effects on mycorrhizal associations through plant community shifts and secondary invasions

Ylva Lekberg, Viktoria Wagner, Alexii Rummel, Morgan McLeod & Philip W. Ramsey
Million of acres of US wildlands are sprayed with herbicides to control invasive species, but relatively little is known about non-target effects of herbicide use. We combined greenhouse, field and laboratory experiments involving the invasive forb spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and native bunchgrasses to assess direct and indirect effects of the forb-specific herbicide picloram on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are beneficial soil fungi that colonize most plants. Picloram had no effect on bunchgrass viability...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • University of Washington
  • Utah State University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of British Columbia
  • Harvard University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University
  • Panthera Corporation