39 Works

Data from: Integrating morphology and kinematics in the scaling of hummingbird hovering metabolic rate and efficiency

Derrick J.E. Groom, M. Cecilia B. Toledo, Donald R. Powers, Bret W. Tobalske, , Derrick J. E. Groom & Kenneth C. Welch
Wing kinematics and morphology are influential upon the aerodynamics of flight. However, there is a lack of studies linking these variables to metabolic costs, particularly in the context of morphological adaptation to body size. Furthermore, the conversion efficiency from chemical energy into movement by the muscles (mechanochemical efficiency) scales with mass in terrestrial quadrupeds, but this scaling relationship has not been demonstrated within flying vertebrates. Positive scaling of efficiency with body size may reduce the...

Data from: Response of bluebunch wheatgrass to invasion: differences in competitive ability among invader-experienced and naïve populations

Alexis L. Gibson, Cara R. Nelson, Daniel Z. Atwater & Alexis Gibson
1. Invasive species may alter selective pressures on native plant populations, and there is some evidence that competition with invasive plants may lead to differences in competitive ability between populations that have experienced invasion and those that have not. Previous results have varied among species but also among populations of the same species. 2. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to determine whether there was variation in traits, or in ability to tolerate or suppress an...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Botfly infections impair the aerobic performance and survival of montane populations of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus

Luke R. Wilde, Cole J. Wolf, Stephanie M. Poerter, Maria Stager, Zachary A. Cheviron, Nathan R. Senner & Stephanie M. Porter
1. Elevations >2000 m represent consistently harsh environments for small endotherms because of abiotic stressors such as cold temperatures and hypoxia. 2. These environmental stressors may limit the ability of populations living at these elevations to respond to biotic selection pressures — such as parasites or pathogens — that in other environmental contexts would impose only minimal energetic- and fitness-related costs. 3. We studied deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) living along two elevational transects (2300...

Data from: Females know better: sex-biased habitat selection by the European wildcat

Teresa Oliveira, Fermin Urra, José María Lopez-Martín, Elena Balleteros-Duperón, José Miguel Barea-Azcón, Marcos Moleón, José Maria Gil-Sánchez, Paulo Celio Alves, Francisco Díaz-Ruíz, Pablo Ferreras & Pedro Monterroso
The interactions between animals and their environment vary across species, regions, but also with gender. Sex‐specific relations between individuals and the ecosystem may entail different behavioral choices and be expressed through different patterns of habitat use. Regardless, only rarely sex‐specific traits are addressed in ecological modeling approaches. The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is a species of conservation concern in Europe, with a highly fragmented and declining distribution across most of its range. We assessed...

Data from: The hidden cost of sexually selected traits: the metabolic expense of maintaining a sexually selected weapon

Ummat Somjee, H. Arthur Woods, Meghan Duell & Christine W. Miller
Sexually selected weapons are among the most exaggerated traits in nature. Theory frequently assumes a high cost of this exaggeration; yet, those costs are rarely measured. We know very little about the energetic resources required to maintain these traits at rest and the difference in energetic costs for the largest relative to the smallest individuals. Knowledge in this area is crucial; resting metabolic rate can account for 30-40% of daily energy expenditure in wild animals....

Data from: Life in interstitial space: biocrusts inhibit exotic but not native plant establishment in semi-arid grasslands

Mandy L. Slate, Ragan M. Callaway & Dean E. Pearson
1. Exotic plant species commonly exploit disturbances more successfully than native plants. This outcome is widely attributed to the fact that disturbance reduces biotic resistance from native plant competitors. However, biocrusts, communities of mosses, lichens and microorganisms, are a prominent component of semi-arid grasslands occurring in the interstitial spaces between vascular plants. Biocrusts may provide an important source of biotic resistance to invaders, different from native plant competition, but poorly understood. 2. We established a...

Data from: Maladaptive phenotypic plasticity in cardiac muscle growth is suppressed in high-altitude deer mice

Jonathan Paul Velotta, Catherine M. Ivy, Cole J. Wolf, Graham R. Scott & Zachary A. Cheviron
How often phenotypic plasticity acts to promote or inhibit adaptive evolution is an ongoing debate among biologists. Recent work suggests that adaptive phenotypic plasticity promotes evolutionary divergence, though several studies have also suggested that maladaptive plasticity can potentiate adaptation. The role of phenotypic plasticity, adaptive or maladaptive, in evolutionary divergence remains controversial. We examined the role of plasticity in evolutionary divergence between two species of Peromyscus mice that differ in native elevations. We used cardiac...

Data from: Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves

Lauren E. Walker, John M. Marzluff, Matthew C. Metz, Aaron J. Wirsing, L. Monika Moskal, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
1. Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide-ranging and intelligent omnivores that commonly take advantage of anthropogenic food resources. In areas where they overlap with wolves, however, ravens are numerous and ubiquitous scavengers of wolf-acquired carrion. 2. We aimed to determine whether subsidies...

Data from: Declining demographic performance and dispersal limitation influence the geographic distribution of the perennial forb, Astragalus utahensis (fabaceae)

Kathryn C. Baer & John L. Maron
1. A central goal of ecology is understanding the determinants of species’ distributions. ‘Metapopulation’ models for the existence of distributional boundaries predict that species’ geographic ranges arise from the landscape-scale deterioration of habitat suitability towards the range edge (i.e. niche mechanisms), which simultaneously hinders demographic performance and limits dispersal to suitable habitat beyond the edge (i.e. dispersal limitation). However, few studies have examined both of these mechanisms for the same species by examining abundance and...

Data from: Productivity and related soil properties mediate the population-level consequences of rodent seed predation on Blanketflower, Gaillardia aristata

Ryan J. Hegstad & John L. Maron
1. Plants are frequently attacked by consumers that reduce seed numbers. However, our ability to predict whether seed loss results in parallel changes in future recruitment or plant abundance remains poor. Progress in this area requires simultaneously understanding: 1) how spatial variation in environmental conditions influence recruitment and other demographic rates, and 2) how the magnitude of seed loss varies spatially and relative to seed limitation. 2. We experimentally assessed how post-dispersal seed predation by...

Data from: Functional responses in habitat selection: clarifying hypotheses and interpretations

Joseph D. Holbrook, Lucretia E. Olson, Nicholas J. DeCesare, Mark Hebblewhite, John R. Squires & Robin Steenweg
A fundamental challenge in habitat ecology and management is understanding the mechanisms generating animal distributions. Studies of habitat selection provide a lens into such mechanisms, but are often limited by unrealistic assumptions. For example, most studies assume that habitat selection is constant with respect to the availability of resources, such that habitat use remains proportional to availability. To the contrary, a growing body of work has shown the fallacy of this assumption, indicating that animals...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of a heterospecific nesting association

Rose J Swift, Amanda D Rodewald & Nathan R Senner
The costs and benefits of interactions among species can vary spatially or temporally, making them context-dependent. For example, benefits associated with nesting near species that deter predators may give way to costs if the association increases the risk of predation during other stages of reproduction. We examined the extent to which the costs and benefits of heterospecific aggregations between a declining shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica), and a potential protector and predator, the Mew...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Data from: The fluctuating resource hypothesis explains invasibility, but not exotic advantage following disturbance

Dean E. Pearson, Yvette K. Ortega, Diego Villarreal, Ylva Lekberg, Marina C. Cock, Ozkan Eren & Jose L. Hierro
Invasibility is a key indicator of community susceptibility to changes in structure and function. The fluctuating resource hypothesis (FRH) postulates that invasibility is an emergent community property, a manifestation of multiple processes that cannot be reliably predicted by individual community attributes like diversity or productivity. Yet, research has emphasized the role of these individual attributes, with the expectation that diversity should deter invasibility and productivity enhance it. In an effort to explore how these and...

Data from: Density-independent predation affects migrants and residents equally in a declining partially migratory elk population

Mark Hebblewhite, Daniel R. Eacker, Scott Eggeman, Holger Bohm & Evelyn H. Merrill
Migration is expected to benefit individuals through exposure to higher quality forage and reducing predation rates more than non-migratory conspecifics. Previous studies of partially migratory ungulates (with migrant and resident individuals) have focused on bottom–up factors regulating resident and migrant segments, yet differential predation between strategies could also be a density-dependent regulatory mechanism. Our study tested for density-dependence in mortality, as well as mechanisms of bottom–up or top–down regulation in the resident and migrant portions...

Data from: Trait responses to AM fungi are stronger and more consistent than fixed differences among populations of Asclepias speciosa

Lauren P. Waller, Philip G. Hahn, John L. Maron & Ylva Lekberg
Premise of the study: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can promote plant growth and reproduction, but other plant physiological traits or traits that provide defense against herbivores can also be affected by AM fungi. However, whether responses of different traits to AM fungi are correlated, and whether these relationships vary among plants from different populations is unresolved. Methods: We assessed whether different populations of the perennial forb, Asclepias speciosa, grown from seed collected from different environmental...

Data from: Pre-dispersal seed predation and pollen limitation constrain population growth across the geographic distribution of Astragalus utahensis

Kathryn C. Baer & John L. Maron
1. A central focus of ecology is to understand the conditions under which biotic interactions affect species’ abundance and distribution. Classic and recent studies have shown that biotic interactions can strongly impact local or regional patterns of species abundance, but two fundamental questions remain largely unaddressed for non-competitive biotic interactions. First, do the effects of these interactions on population performance change predictably with environmental context? Second, to what extent do population-scale effects contribute to limiting...

Data from: Winter coat color polymorphisms identify global hotspots for evolutionary rescue from climate change

L. Scott Mills, Eugenia V. Bragina, Alexander V. Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J.R. Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M. Davis, Klaus Hacklander, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good, Jose Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V. Abramov, Natalia Lopatina & Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically-driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 22 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white...

Data from: Rodent seed predators and a dominant grass competitor affect coexistence of co-occurring forb species that vary in seed size

John L. Maron, Kayrn L. Hajek, Philip G. Hahn, Dean E. Pearson & Karyn L. Hajek
1. Propagule size and number often vary by several orders of magnitude among co-occurring plant species. Explaining the maintenance of this variation and understanding how propagule size contributes to coexistence remains a central challenge for community ecologists. The dominant paradigm is that a competition-colonization trade-off maintains interspecific variation in seed size, but empirical support is limited and other coexistence mechanisms, such as size-dependent seed predation, have not been examined. 2. We examined how seed size,...

Data from: Relative importance of competition and plant-soil feedback, their synergy, context dependency and implications for coexistence

Ylva Lekberg, James D. Bever, Rebecca A. Bunn, Ray M. Callaway, Miranda M. Hart, Stephanie N. Kivlin, John Klironomos, Beau G. Larkin, John L. Maron, Kurt O. Reinhart, Michael Remke, Wim H. Van Der Putten & Ragan M. Callaway
Plants interact simultaneously with each other and with soil biota, yet the relative importance of competition versus plant soil feedback (PSF) on plant performance is poorly understood. Using a meta-analysis of 38 published studies and 150 plant species, we show that effects of interspecific competition (either growing plants with a competitor or singly, or comparing inter- vs. intraspecific competition) and PSF (comparing home vs. away soil, live vs. sterile soil, or control vs. fungicide-treated soil)...

Data from: Age and performance at fledging is a cause and consequence of juvenile mortality between life stages

Thomas E. Martin, Bret Tobalske, Margaret M. Riordan, Samuel B. Case & Kenneth P. Dial
Should they stay or should they leave? The age at which young transition between life stages, such as living in a nest versus leaving it, differs among species and the reasons why are unclear. We show that offspring of songbird species that leave the nest at a younger age have less-developed wings that cause poorer flight performance and greater mortality after fledging. Experimentally delayed fledging verified that older age and better developed wings provide benefits...

Data from: The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence

Andrew Ladle, Robin Steenweg, Brenda Shepherd & Mark S. Boyce
Species distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data from: Mammal communities are larger and more diverse in moderately developed areas

Arielle Waldstein Parsons, Tavis Forrester, Megan C. Baker-Whatton, William J. McShea, Christopher T. Rota, Stephanie G. Schuttler, Joshua J. Millspaugh & Roland Kays
Developed areas are thought to have low species diversity, low animal abundance, few native predators, and thus low resilience and ecological function. Working with citizen scientist volunteers to survey mammals at 1427 sites across two development gradients (wild-rural-exurban-suburban-urban) and four plot types (large forests, small forest fragments, open areas and residential yards) in the eastern US, we show that developed areas actually had significantly higher or statistically similar mammalian occupancy, relative abundance, richness and diversity...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of Kansas
  • Parks Canada
  • Utah State University
  • Princeton University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of North Carolina