45 Works

Competition as a demolition derby: Why tolerating competitors is more important than suppressing them

Daniel Atwater, Ragan M. Callaway & Sa Xiao
Tolerance and suppression are distinct components of competition among plants, and recognizing how they affect competitive outcomes is important for understanding the mechanisms and consequences of competition. We used simulations informed by experimental trials to ask whether tolerance or suppression of competitors was more important for the survival of native plants experiencing competition with an exotic invasive species. When competition was pairwise, tolerance and suppression contributed equally to competitive rank in simulations. However, when multiple...

Nest predation and adult mortality relationships with post-natal metabolic rates and growth among songbird species

Riccardo Ton & Thomas Eduard Martin
Metabolism is thought to mediate the connection between environmental selection pressures and a broad array of life history tradeoffs, but tests are needed. High juvenile predation correlates with fast growth, which may be achieved via fast juvenile metabolism. Fast offspring metabolism and growth can create physiological costs later in life that should be minimized in species with low adult mortality. Yet, relations between juvenile metabolism and mortality at offspring versus adult stages are unexplored. We...

LTREB: Yaha Tinda Elk Project

Hans Martin, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn Merrill
The Ya Ha Tinda Elk project is now amongst the longest running elk research project in the world. Initiated in 2000, the Ya Ha Tinda elk project is the result of a collaboration between University of Alberta, University of Montana, Parks Canada, and Alberta Environment and Parks, Fish and Wildlife Division. While early studies in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s lead by Dr. Luigi Morgantini laid the foundation for our latter studies (Morgantini and...

Data from: Simulating effects of fitness and dispersal on the use of Trojan sex chromosomes for invasive species management

Casey Day, Erin Landguth, Ryan Simmons, Bill Baker, Andrew Whiteley, Paul Lukacs & Andrew Bearlin
The use of Trojan Y Chromosomes (TYC) for controlling invasive species involves manipulating the sex chromosomes of captive-raised individuals. Once released, the offspring of these individuals consist of only one sex, thereby skewing the sex-ratio of the invasive population and potentially leading to eradication. Simulation models are needed that can inform managers on how to maximize the likelihood of species eradication, since implementation of this novel management approach in the field is still rare. Here,...

The origin and spread of locally adaptive seasonal camouflage in snowshoe hares

Matthew R. Jones, L. Scott Mills, Jeffrey D. Jensen & Jeffrey M. Good
Adaptation is central to population persistence in the face of environmental change, yet we seldom precisely understand the origin and spread of adaptive variation in natural populations. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) along the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast have evolved brown winter camouflage through positive selection on recessive variation at the Agouti pigmentation gene introgressed from black-tailed jackrabbits (L. californicus). Here we combine new and published whole genome and exome sequences with targeted genotyping of Agouti...

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

Data from: Quantifying natural disturbances using a large-scale dendrochronological reconstruction to guide forest management

Vojtěch Čada, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Pavel Janda, Martin Mikolas, Radek Bace, Thomas Nagel, Robert Morrissey, Alan Tepley, Ondřej Vostarek, Krešimir Begović, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Martin Dušátko, Ondrej Kameniar, Daniel Kozák, Jana Lábusová, Jakub Málek, Peter Meyer, Joseph Pettit, Jonathan Schurman, Kristýna Svobodová, Michal Synek, Marius Teodosiu, Karol Ujházy & Miroslav Svoboda
Estimates of historical disturbance patterns are essential to guide forest management aimed at ensuring the sustainability of ecosystem functions and biodiversity. However, quantitative estimates of various disturbance characteristics required in management applications are rare in longer-term historical studies. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) quantify past disturbance severity, patch size, and stand proportion disturbed, and (2) test for temporal and sub-regional differences in these characteristics. We developed a comprehensive dendrochronological method to evaluate an approximately...

Data from: Cybernetic combatants support the importance of duels in the evolution of extreme weapons

Murray Fea, Romain Boisseau, Douglas Emlen & Gregory Holwell
A current evolutionary hypothesis predicts that the most extreme forms of animal weaponry arise in systems where combatants fight each other one-to-one, in duels. It has also been suggested that arms races in human interstate conflicts are more likely to escalate in cases where there are only two opponents. However, directly testing whether duels matter for weapon investment is difficult in animals and impossible in interstate conflicts. Here, we test whether superior combatants experience a...

Sex linkage of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) explains apparent deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of tetrodotoxin-resistance alleles in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Kerry Gendreau, Michael Hague, Chris Feldman, , & Joel McGlothlin
The arms race between tetrodotoxin-bearing Pacific newts (Taricha) and their garter snake predators (Thamnophis) in western North America has become a classic example of coevolution, shedding light on predator-prey dynamics, the molecular basis of adaptation, and patterns of convergent evolution. Newts are defended by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that binds to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav proteins), arresting electrical activity in nerves and muscles and paralyzing would-be predators. However, populations of the common garter snake (T....

Data from: Developing a Stopover-CORT hypothesis: corticosterone predicts body composition and refueling rate in Gray Catbirds during migratory stopover

Joely DeSimone, Mariamar Gutierrez Ramirez, Cory Elowe, Michael Griego, Creagh Breuner & Alexander Gerson
Migratory flight is energetically challenging, requiring alternating phases of fuel catabolism and fuel accumulation, accompanied by dramatic changes in body composition and behavior. Baseline corticosterone (CORT; the primary glucocorticoid in birds) is thought to underlie transitions between fuel catabolism during flight, fuel deposition during stopover, and the initiation of migratory flight. However, studies of CORT on stopover physiology and behavior remain disparate efforts, lacking the cohesion of a general hypothesis. Here we develop a Stopover-CORT...

Data from: Riparian habitat restoration increases the availability and occupancy of Yellow-breasted Chat territories but brood parasitism is the primary influence on reproductive performance

Timothy Robert Forrester, David J. Green, René McKibbin, A. Michael Bezener & Christine A. Bishop
Implementation and evaluation of conservation efforts requires an understanding of the habitat selection and reproductive success of endangered populations. As populations recover, established territory holders may force new arrivals into lower-quality habitat, which can reduce reproductive success, especially in disturbed landscapes where suitable habitat is scarce. The endangered Western Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens auricollis) population in the fragmented riparian zone of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, has rapidly increased in response to habitat restoration....

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

Data from: Arctic and boreal paleofire records reveal drivers of fire activity and departures from Holocene variability

Tyler Hoecker, Philip Higuera, Ryan Kelly & Feng Sheng Hu
Boreal forest and tundra biomes are key components of the Earth system because the mobilization of large carbon stocks and changes in energy balance could act as positive feedbacks to ongoing climate change. In Alaska, wildfire is a primary driver of ecosystem structure and function, and a key mechanism coupling high-latitude ecosystems to global climate. Paleoecological records reveal sensitivity of fire regimes to climatic and vegetation change over centennial-millennial time scales, highlighting increased burning concurrent...

Genomic population structure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear River

Nathalie LeBlanc, Benjamin Gahagan, Samuel Andrews, Trevor Avery, Gregory Puncher, Benjamin Reading, Colin Buhariwalla, R Allen Curry, Andrew Whitely & Scott Pavey
Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792), is an anadromous fish species that supports fisheries throughout North America and is native to the North American Atlantic Coast. Due to long coastal migrations that span multiple jurisdictions, a detailed understanding of population genomics is required to untangle demographic patterns, understand local adaptation, and characterize population movements. This study used 1256 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci to investigate genetic structure of 477 Striped Bass sampled from 15 locations...

Data from: Species-specific variation in germination rates contributes to spatial coexistence more than adult plant water use in four closely-related annual flowering plants

Aubrie James, Timothy Burnette, Jasmine Mack, David James, Vince Eckhart & Monica Geber
1. Spatial partitioning is a classic hypothesis to explain plant species coexistence, but evidence linking local environmental variation to spatial sorting, demography, and species’ traits is sparse. If co-occurring species’ performance is optimized differently along environmental gradients because of trait variation, then spatial variation might facilitate coexistence. 2. We used a system of four naturally co-occurring species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) to ask if distribution patchiness corresponds to variation in two environmental variables that contribute to...

Data from: Snow-mediated plasticity does not prevent camouflage mismatch

Alexander Kumar, Marketa Zimova, James Sparks & L Scott Mills
Global reduction in snow cover duration is one of the most consistent and widespread climate change outcomes. Declining snow duration has severe negative consequences for diverse taxa including seasonally color molting species, which rely on snow for camouflage. However, phenotypic plasticity may facilitate adaptation to reduced snow duration. Plastic responses could occur in the color molt phenology or through behavior that minimizes coat color mismatch or its consequences. We quantified molt phenology of 200 wild...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Data from: A phylogeny for the Drosophila montium species group: a model clade for comparative analyses

William Conner, Emily Delaney, Michael Bronski, Paul Ginsberg, Timothy Wheeler, Kelly Richardson, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Kevin Kim, Masayoshi Watada, Ary Hoffmann, Michael Eisen, Artyom Kopp, Brandon Cooper & Michael Turelli
The Drosophila montium species group is a clade of 94 named species closely related to the model D. melanogaster species group. The montium species group is distributed over a broad geographic range throughout Asia, Africa, and Australasia. Species of this group possess a wide range of morphologies, mating behaviors, and endosymbiont associations, making this clade useful for comparative analyses. We use genomic data from 42 available species to estimate the phylogeny and relative divergence times...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Evolutionary divergence of potential drought adaptations between two subspecies of an annual plant: Are trait combinations facilitated, independent, or constrained?

Vincent Eckhart & Timothy Burnette
Premise: Whether drought-adaptation mechanisms tend to evolve together, evolve independently, and/or evolve constrained by genetic architecture is incompletely resolved, particularly for water relations traits besides gas exchange. We addressed this issue in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), California winter annuals that separated approximately 65,000 years ago and are adapted, partly by differences in flowering time, to native ranges differing in precipitation. Methods: In these subspecies and in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Utah State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Virginia
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • McMaster University
  • University of Porto