58 Works

El campesinado en el cine documental cubano de la primera etapa de la Revolución (1959-1961)

Hernán Dopazo
Artigo sobre as representações do campesinato que o cinema documental da primeira etapa da Revolução construiu, através da análise de uma série de filmes, organizada em eixos temáticos: Esta tierra nuestra (1959), de Tomás Gutiérrez Alea, ¿Por qué nació el Ejército Rebelde? (1960), de José Massip e Tierra olvidada (1960), de Oscar Torres. A análise permitiu identificar a representação de dois campos opostos que delimitam um “eles-passado opressor” de um “nós-atualidade de redenção”.

Data from: Morphological evolution of the bivalve Ptychomya through the Lower Cretaceous of Argentina

Pablo S. Milla Carmona, Dario G. Lazo & Ignacio M. Soto
The complex morphological evolution of the bivalve Ptychomya throughout the well studied Agrio Formation in the Neuquén Basin (west-central Argentina, lower/upper Valanginian – lowest Barremian) constitutes an ideal opportunity to study evolutionary patterns and processes occurring at geological timescales. Ptychomya is represented in this unit by four species, the morphological variation of which need to be temporally assessed in order to obtain a thorough picture of the evolution of the group. Here we use geometric...

Data from: Drosophila wing modularity revisited through a quantitative genetic approach

Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Valeria Paula Carreira, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Victoria Estefanía Ortiz, Rolando González-José, Ignacio M. Soto & Victoria Ortiz
To predict the response of complex morphological structures to selection it is necessary to know how the covariation among its different parts is organized. Two key features of covariation are modularity and integration. The Drosophila wing is currently considered a fully integrated structure. Here, we study the patterns of integration of the Drosophila wing and test the hypothesis of the wing being divided into two modules along the proximo-distal axis, as suggested by developmental, biomechanical,...

Data from: Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background

Pedro E. Gundel, María A. Martínez-Ghersa, Marina Omacini, Romina Cuyeu, Elba Pagano, Raúl Ríos & Claudio M. Ghersa
Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically-transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, since it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus, mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants,...

Data from: A shady business: pine afforestation alters the primary controls on litter decomposition along a precipitation gradient in Patagonia, Argentina

Patricia I. Araujo & Amy T. Austin
Our understanding of the principal controls on litter decomposition is critical for our capacity to predict how global changes will impact terrestrial ecosystems. Although climate, litter quality and soil organisms clearly modulate carbon (C) and nutrient turnover, land-use change affecting plant species composition and structure can alter the relative importance of such controls. We took advantage of prior land-use changes of intentional planting of exotic forest species along a broad precipitation gradient [250–2200 mm mean...

The more the merrier: evaluating managed pollinators in highbush blueberry

Walter Farina, Maria Estravis Barcala, Florencia Palottini, Ivana Macri, Denise Nery & Walter Farina
As the global stock of Apis mellifera colonies is growing slower than agricultural demands for pollination services, there is great interest in managing alternative species. Highbush blueberry floral morphology limits the access of bees to nectar and pollen, requiring growers to rent a considerable number of beehives. Recently, the South American bumblebee Bombus pauloensis is increasingly managed alongside honeybees. Herein, we evaluated their foraging patterns, in relation to the potential pollen transfer between two blueberry...

Data from: Systematics of spiny-backed treefrogs (Hylidae: Osteocephalus): an Amazonian puzzle

Karl-Heinz Jungfer, Julián Faivovich, José M. Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Mariana M. Lyra, Bianca Von Muller Berneck, Patricia P. Iglesias, Philippe J. R. Kok, Ross T. Macculloch, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Vanessa K. Verdade, Claudia P. Torres Gastello, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Paula H. Valdujo, Steffen Reichle, Jiří Moravec, Václav Gvoždík, Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia, Raffael Ernst, Ignacio De La Riva, Donald Bruce Means, Albertina P. Lima, J. Celsa Señaris, Ward C. Wheeler & Célio F. B. Haddad
Spiny-backed tree frogs of the genus Osteocephalus are conspicuous components of the tropical wet forests of the Amazon and the Guiana Shield. Here, we revise the phylogenetic relationships of Osteocephalus and its sister group Tepuihyla, using up to 6134 bp of DNA sequences of nine mitochondrial and one nuclear gene for 338 specimens from eight countries and 218 localities, representing 89% of the 28 currently recognized nominal species. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal (i) the paraphyly...

Worlds apart: location above- or belowground determines plant litter decomposition in a semiarid Patagonian steppe

Paula Berenstecher, Patricia I. Araujo & Amy T. Austin
1. While considerable attention has been devoted to how precipitation modulates net primary productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, the emergence of multi-faceted controls on carbon (C) turnover suggests that there is much to be understood with respect to the mechanistic controls on plant litter decomposition. 2. In the Patagonian steppe, we conducted a long-term factorial experiment, evaluating the importance of position, litter quality, tissue origin and soil resources on rates of C turnover under...

Urbanization buffers seasonal change in composition of bird communities: a multi-continental meta-analysis

Lucas Leveau, Jukka Jokimäki & Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki
Aim: Urbanization buffers the seasonality of climate conditions and food availability and, therefore, may cause a seasonal homogenization of animal communities. However, the global effect of urbanization on the seasonal dynamics of animal communities remains unexplored. Our aim was to study the multi-continental relationship between urbanization and the seasonal change in bird composition and explore the influence of climatic factors on the urban-induced reduction of seasonality of bird composition. Location: Multi-continental Methods: We performed a...

Mowing does not redress the negative effect of nutrient addition on alpha and beta diversity in a temperate grassland

Cecilia Denisse Molina
Species loss due to an increasing number of added nutrients has been explained by both light competition through biomass increase and by niche dimension reduction as a result of species specific limiting soil resources trade-offs. Disturbances, by reducing community biomass, species dominance and increasing light availability, may counteract above ground nutrient effects. However, it is unknown if diversity loss at local or spatial scales generated by increasing number of added nutrients can be redressed with...

Oportunidades transatlánticas: Pilar Sinués de Marco y Emilia Pardo Bazán, corresponsales del ultramar en la prensa argentina

María Vicens
Este artículo analiza las corresponsalías de ultramar que María del Pilar Sinués de Marco y Emilia Pardo Bazán publicaron en los diarios argentinos La Prensa y La Nación y cómo, gracias a ese espacio periodístico maleable y cosmopolita, consolidaron perfiles autorales novedosos y de alcance trasnacional. Pese a las notables diferencias que presentan estas escritoras en sus discursos, estéticas y trayectorias literarias, compartieron sin embargo un rol periodístico que les dio la libertad de moverse...

Data from: Regional productivity mediates the effects of grazing disturbance on plant cover and patch-size distribution in arid and semi-arid communities

Gastón R. Oñatibia, Luciano Boyero & Martín R. Aguiar
Patch-size distribution and plant cover are strongly associated to arid ecosystem functioning and may be a warning signal for the onset of desertification under changes in disturbance regimes. However, the interaction between regional productivity level and human-induced disturbance regime as drivers for vegetation structure and dynamics remain poorly studied. We studied grazing disturbance effects on plant cover and patchiness in three plant communities located along a regional productivity gradient in Patagonia (Argentina): a semi-desert (low-productivity...

Data from: Single‐cell profiling screen identifies microtubule‐dependent reduction of variability in signaling

C. Gustavo Pesce, William J. Peria, Stefan Zdraljevic, Daniel Rockwell, Richard C. Yu, Alejandro Colman-Lerner, Roger Brent, Alan Bush & María Victoria Repetto
Populations of isogenic cells often respond coherently to signals, despite differences in protein abundance and cell state. Previously, we uncovered processes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response system (PRS) that reduced cell‐to‐cell variability in signal strength and cellular response. Here, we screened 1,141 non‐essential genes to identify 50 “variability genes”. Most had distinct, separable effects on strength and variability of the PRS, defining these quantities as genetically distinct “axes” of system behavior. Three genes affected...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Experimental hybridization in allopatric species of the Drosophila repleta group (Diptera, Drosophilidae): implications in the mode of speciation

Betina Colines, Ignacio M. Soto, Diego N. De Panis & Julian Padro
The Pleistocene refugia theory proposes that recurrent expansions and contractions of xerophytic vegetation over climate change periods affected the evolution of cactophilic Drosophila in South American continent. The resulting demographic fluctuations linked to the available patches of vegetation should have been prone to bottlenecks and founder events, affecting the fate of gene pool dynamics. However, these events also promoted the diversification of cacti, creating an ecological opportunity for host specialization. We tested the hypothesis of...

Data from: Directional selection for flowering time leads to adaptive evolution in Raphanus raphanistrum (Wild radish)

Michael B. Ashworth, Michael J. Walsh, Kenneth C. Flower, Martin M. Vila-Aiub, Stephen B. Powles & Ken C. Flower
Herbicides have been the primary tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds from agro-ecosystems, resulting in the evolution of widespread herbicide resistance. In response, nonherbicidal techniques have been developed which intercept weed seeds at harvest before they enter the soil seed bank. However, the efficiency of these techniques allows an intense selection for any trait that enables weeds to evade collection, with early-flowering ecotypes considered likely to result in early seed shedding. Using...

Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Emily E. Puckett, Jane Park, Matthew Combs, Michael J. Blum, Juliet E. Bryant, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Eva E. Deinum, Alexandra Esther, Chelsea G. Himsworth, Peter D. Keightley, Albert Ko, Ake Lundkvist, Lorraine M. McElhinney, Serge Morand, Judith Robins, James Russell, Tanja M. Strand, Olga Suarez, Lisa Yon & Jason Munshi-South
Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes....

Data from: Psychostimulant-induced testicular toxicity in mice: evidence of cocaine and caffeine effects on the local dopaminergic system

Candela R. González, Betina González, Maria E. Matzkin, Javier A. Muñiz, Jean Lud Cadet, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Francisco J. Urbano, Alfredo D. Vitullo & Veronica Bisagno
Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or...

Data from: Litter microbial and soil faunal communities stimulated in the wake of a volcanic eruption in a semi-arid woodland in Patagonia, Argentina

Paula Berenstecher, Daniela Gangi, Adelia González-Arzac, M. Laura Martínez, Eliseo J. Chaves, Eduardo A. Mondino & Amy T. Austin
Large-scale disturbances can be important components of the temporal landscape of natural ecosystems, but generalities regarding ecosystem impacts are difficult due to their infrequent and unpredictable nature. Volcanic eruptions figure as one of the most prominent of these natural disturbances, but the effects on microbes and ground-dwelling arthropods, which modulate carbon and nutrient turnover, are relatively unknown. We evaluated the effects of the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Patagonia, Argentina, on the litter and soil...

Protection offered by leaf fungal endophytes to an invasive species against native herbivores depends on soil nutrients

Pamela Graff, Pedro Gundel, Adriana Salvat, Diego Cristos & Enrique Chaneton
1. Natural grassland ecosystems are increasingly threatened by excessive loadings of nutrients and by the presence of species bred for high productivity. By manipulating grazing regimes and nutrient availability, agricultural practices facilitate the establishment and spread of certain forage plant species outside managed landscapes, challenging local biodiversity. The ecological success of some species in the invaded range sometimes seems to be associated with the symbiosis with foliar fungal endophytes. Symbiotic fungi may increase the competitiveness...

Data from: Endophytes shape the legacy left by the above- and below ground litter of the host affecting the establishment of a legume

Alexia Minás, Pablo García-Parisi, Hugo Chludil & Marina Omacini
Plant litter is a key component of plant-soil feedback (PSF), given its strong potential impacts on plant establishment and growth, through chemical and physical pathways. Although PSF of the layer of dead plant material on the soil surface (aboveground litter) has been widely studied little is known about the role of dead roots (belowground litter) and the impact of plant symbionts on host litter legacy. Here, we examined whether the fungal endophyte Epichloë occultans changed...

Data from: Community disassembly and invasion of remnant native grasslands under fluctuating resource supply

Pedro Maximiliano Tognetti & Enrique Jose Chaneton
1. Native vegetation fragments embedded in anthropogenic landscapes are increasingly threatened by land-use intensification. Managing disturbance regimes and nutrient inputs may help maintain species diversity in such remnants. Yet it is unclear the extent to which changes in resource availability due to reduced capture by resident plants and/or increased supply rates may trigger native community disassembly and exotic invasions. 2. We examined how mowing disturbance and N fertilizer addition affected plant community recovery after a...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships of toads of the Rhinella granulosa group (Anura: Bufonidae): a molecular perspective with comments on hybridization and introgression

Martín O. Pereyra, Diego Baldo, Boris L. Blotto, Patricia P. Iglesias, Maria T. C. Thomé, Célio F. B. Haddad, César Barrio-Amorós, Roberto Ibáñez & Julián Faivovich
The Rhinella granulosa group consists of 13 species of toads distributed throughout open areas of South America and Panama. In this paper we perform a phylogenetic analysis considering all but one species of the group, employing five nuclear and four mitochondrial genes, for up to 7910 bp per specimen. Separate phylogenetic analyses under direct optimization (DO) of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences recovered the R. granulosa group as monophyletic and revealed topological incongruence that can be...

Data from: Giving taxonomic significance to morphological variability in the bivalve Ptychomya Agassiz

Pablo S. Milla Carmona, Dario G. Lazo & Ignacio M. Soto
The taxonomic significance of the morphological variability present in the genus Ptychomya Agassiz has remained obscure due to inadequacy of the traditional qualitative approach to account for complex patterns of variation. In this work, we focus on solving the distinction between intra- and interspecific variability in Ptychomya from Hauterivian marine beds of the Neuquén Basin (west-central Argentina), a longstanding and unresolved palaeontological issue, using the quantitative framework provided by geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics. The...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

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