Data from: Regional productivity mediates the effects of grazing disturbance on plant cover and patch-size distribution in arid and semi-arid communitiesGastón R. Oñatibia, Luciano Boyero & Martín R. Aguiar
Patch-size distribution and plant cover are strongly associated to arid ecosystem functioning and may be a warning signal for the onset of desertification under changes in disturbance regimes. However, the interaction between regional productivity level and human-induced disturbance regime as drivers for vegetation structure and dynamics remain poorly studied. We studied grazing disturbance effects on plant cover and patchiness in three plant communities located along a regional productivity gradient in Patagonia (Argentina): a semi-desert (low-productivity...
Data from: The grass was greener: repeated evolution of specialized morphologies and habitat shifts in ghost spiders following grassland expansion in South AmericaFadia Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolas Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M. Soto, Mariana L. Barone, Miquel A. Arnedo & Martin J. Ramirez
While grasslands, one of Earth’s major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent’s grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and...
Most of our knowledge of the effect of grazing on grassland structure is based on grazed-ungrazed contrasts. The effects of grazing in the most common scenario, where grazing intensity varies from low to high grazing intensity, are less known. The objectives of this paper were to (1) quantify the effect of stocking rates on species richness and diversity of grasslands world-wide, and (2) evaluate the response under different environmental and experimental conditions. We conducted a...
Closely related species often differ in the signals involved in sexual communication and mate recognition. Determining the factors influencing signal quality (i.e. signal's content and conspicuousness) provides an important insight into the potential pathways by which these interspecific differences evolve. Host specificity could bias the direction of the evolution of sexual communication and the mate recognition system, favoring sensory channels that work best in the different host conditions. In this study, we focus on the...
Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape compositionDaniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...
Data from: Thick eggshells of brood parasitic cowbirds protect their eggs and damage host eggs during layingAnalia V. Lopez, Vanina D. Fiorini, Kevin Ellison & Brian D. Peer
Brood parasites lay thick-shelled eggs and numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the significance of this trait. We examined whether thick eggshells protect the parasite egg during laying events. We used eggs of the parasitic shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) and its hosts, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) in South America and the eggs of the parasitic brown-headed cowbird (M. ater) and its hosts the house wren and red-winged blackbird...
Data from: Jasmonic acid regulation of the anti-herbivory mechanism conferred by fungal endophytes in grassesDaniel A. Bastías, M. Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Jonathan A. Newman, Stuart D. Card, Wade J. Mace & Pedro E. Gundel
1. The most studied mechanism of protection against herbivores in grasses associated with Epichloë fungal endophytes has been the fungal production of alkaloids. However, the contribution of the plant immune responses on the level of resistance to herbivores in symbiotic grasses has been poorly explored. We studied the relationship between the plant hormone, jasmonic acid (JA), and Epichloë fungal endophytes on herbivore defenses in symbiotic grasses. We hypothesized that an exogenous application of methyl jasmonate...
University of Buenos Aires7
Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum1
University of Padua1
Universidade Federal de Goiás1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Adelaide1
Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education1
Jiangxi Agricultural University1
Estación Experimental del Zaidín1