24 Works

Rapid recovery by fat- and muscle-depleted Blackpoll Warblers following trans-oceanic migration is driven by time-minimization

Nicholas J. Bayly, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Ryan Norris, Philip D. Taylor & Keith A. Hobson
Non-stop endurance flights are a defining characteristic of many long-distance migratory birds but subsequent recovery phases are not typically distinguished from fueling phases (collectively ‘stopovers’), despite endurance flights inducing marked physiological changes including flight muscle atrophy and gastrointestinal tract reductions. Here, we hypothesize that recovery requires unique behavioral adaptations, leading to departures from the predictions of optimal migration theory for time-minimizing migrants. We predict that recovering birds will 1) select (moist) food-rich habitats on arrival;...

Sympatrically-breeding congeneric seabirds (Stercorarius spp.) from Arctic Canada migrate to four oceans

Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Paul Woodard, Mark Mallory & Jennie Rausch
Polar systems of avian migration remain unpredictable. For seabirds nesting in the Nearctic, it is often difficult to predict which of the world’s oceans birds will migrate to after breeding. Here we report on three related seabird species that migrated across four oceans following sympatric breeding at a central Canadian high Arctic nesting location. Using telemetry we tracked pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus, n=1) to the Arctic Ocean to the western Pacific Ocean; parasitic jaeger (S....

Processed GPS tracks for breeding Herring Gulls from four colonies in the eastern Gulf of Maine, Canada

Sarah Gutowsky
Opportunist gulls use anthropogenic food subsidies, which can bolster populations, but negatively influence sensitive local ecosystems and areas of human settlement. In the eastern Gulf of Maine, Canada, breeding herring gulls Larus argentatus have access to resources from aquaculture, fisheries, and mink farms, but the relative influence of industry on local gull populations is unknown. In 2014, 2015, and 2019, we acquired and processed tracking data from GPS devices on 39 incubating herring gulls at...

Searching for genetic evidence of demographic decline in an arctic seabird: beware of overlapping generations

Emeline Charbonnel, Claire Daguin, Lucille Caradec, Eléonore Moittié, Olivier Gilg, Maria Gavrilo, Hallvard Strom, Mark L Mallory, Grant Gilchrist, R. I. Guy Morrisson, Raphael Leblois, Camille Roux, Jonathan M Yearsley, Glenn Yannic & Thomas Broquet
Genetic data are useful for detecting sudden population declines in species that are difficult to study in the field. Yet this indirect approach has its own drawbacks, including population structure, mutation patterns, and generation overlap. The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), a long-lived Arctic seabird, is currently suffering from rapid alteration of its primary habitat (i.e., sea ice), and dramatic climatic events affecting reproduction and recruitment. However, ivory gulls live in remote areas, and it is...

Data from: Variable sea-ice conditions influence trophic dynamics in an Arctic community of marine top predators

Isabeau Pratte, Birgit M. Braune, Keith A. Hobson & Mark L. Mallory
Sea‐ice coverage is a key abiotic driver of annual environmental conditions in Arctic marine ecosystems and could be a major factor affecting seabird trophic dynamics. Using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in eggs of thick‐billed murres (Uria lomvia), northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and black‐legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), we investigated the trophic ecology of prebreeding seabirds nesting at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, and its relationship with sea‐ice conditions....

Data from: Nocturnal departure timing in songbirds facing distinct migratory challenges

Florian Müller, Cas Eikenaar, Zoe J. Crysler, Philip D. Taylor & Heiko Schmaljohann
1. Most migratory songbirds travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds through a series of nocturnal flights. The timing of their departures defines the potential flight duration and thus the distance covered during a migratory night. Yet, migratory songbirds show substantial variation in their nocturnal departure timing. 2. With this study we aim to assess whether the respective challenges of the migration route, namely its distance and nature, help to explain this variation. 3....

Data from: Social cues can push amphibious fish to their thermal limits

Suzanne Currie & Glenn J. Tattersall
Social context can impact how animals respond to changes in their physical environment. We used an aggressive, amphibious fish, the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) with environmentally-determined sociality to test the hypothesis that social interactions would push fish to their thermal limits. We capitalized on the propensity of rivulus to emerse from warming water and demonstrated that social stimuli, produced by their reflection, increased emersion threshold without changing critical thermal maximum, effectively diminishing thermal safety margins....

Data from: Geographic variation and environmental correlates of apparent survival rates in adult tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor

Robert G. Clark, David W. Winkler, Russell D. Dawson, Dave Shutler, David J. T. Hussell, Michael P. Lombardo, Patrick A. Thorpe, Peter O. Dunn & Linda A. Whittingham
Determining demographic rates in wild animal populations and understanding why rates vary are important challenges in population ecology and conservation. Whereas reproductive success is reported frequently for many songbird species, there are relatively few corresponding estimates of annual survival for widespread populations of the same migratory species. We incorporated mark-recapture data into Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to estimate annual apparent survival and recapture rates of adult male and female tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in eight local breeding...

Data from: Differential octopaminergic modulation of olfactory receptor neuron responses to sex pheromones in Heliothis virescens

N. Kirk Hillier & Rhys M. B. Kavanagh
Octopamine is an important neuromodulator of neural function in invertebrates. Octopamine increases male moth sensitivity to female sex pheromones, however, relatively little is known as to the role of octopamine in the female olfactory system, nor its possible effects on the reception of non-pheromone odorants. The purpose of this study was to determine relative effects of octopamine on the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in male and female Heliothis virescens. Single sensillum recording was...

Data from: Plant essential oils synergize and antagonize toxicity of different conventional insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Nicoletta Faraone, N. Kirk Hillier & G. Christopher Cutler
Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated...

Genomic population structure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Cape Fear River

Nathalie LeBlanc, Benjamin Gahagan, Samuel Andrews, Trevor Avery, Gregory Puncher, Benjamin Reading, Colin Buhariwalla, R Allen Curry, Andrew Whitely & Scott Pavey
Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792), is an anadromous fish species that supports fisheries throughout North America and is native to the North American Atlantic Coast. Due to long coastal migrations that span multiple jurisdictions, a detailed understanding of population genomics is required to untangle demographic patterns, understand local adaptation, and characterize population movements. This study used 1256 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci to investigate genetic structure of 477 Striped Bass sampled from 15 locations...

Data from: Fish and tetrapod communities across a marine to brackish salinity gradient in the Pennsylvanian (early Moscovian) Minto Formation of New Brunswick, Canada, and their palaeoecological and palaeogeographical implications

Aodhán Ó Gogáin, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, David K. Carpenter, Randall F. Miller, Michael J. Benton, Peir K. Pufahl, Marcello Ruta, Thomas G. Davies, Steven J. Hinds & Matthew R. Stimson
Euryhaline adaptations in Pennsylvanian vertebrates allowed them to inhabit the marine to freshwater spectrum. This is illustrated by new assemblages of fish and tetrapods from the early Moscovian Minto Formation of New Brunswick, Canada. Fish include chondrichthyans (xenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids and acanthodiforms), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids and dipnoans), and actinopterygians (eurynotiforms). Tetrapods include small- to medium-sized, and largely aquatic, stem tetrapods (colosteids) and anthracosaurs (embolomeres). A key finding is that the parautochthonous...

Data from: Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations

Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T. Alisauskas, J. Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler & Mark R. Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow...

Data from: Evaluation of sex differences in the stopover behavior and postdeparture movements of wood-warblers

Yolanda E. Morbey, Christopher G. Guglielmo, Philip D. Taylor, Ivan Maggini, Jessica Deakin, Stuart A. Mackenzie, J. Morgan Brown & Lin Zhao
Sex differences in the behaviors underlying avian protandry, where males arrive at breeding areas earlier than females, are still poorly understood for most species. We tested for sex differences in stopover behavior, refueling rates, and post-departure movements during spring migration in two consecutive years in wood-warblers (Parulidae) at a coastal site on Lake Erie, Ontario, using automated radio telemetry (black-throated blue warblers Setophaga caerulescens and magnolia warblers S. magnolia) and analysis of plasma metabolites as...

Data from: Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice

Nora C. Spencer, H. Grant Gilchrist & Mark L. Mallory
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual...

Migration and apparent survival of postspawning alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy

Elizabetha Tsitrin & Michael Stokesbury
The anadromous alewife is a commercially fished clupeid in Atlantic Canada, whose oceanic migration is poorly understood. Few acoustic telemetry studies have been performed on this species as they are sensitive to handling, and are often compromised by surgical tag implantation. This research assesses the feasibility of a surgically tagging alewives using novel, V5 acoustic tags; first, a baseline assessment of short-term tagging effects was established based on reflex impairment and necropsies through a series...

GIS data for mapping the Leigh Fermors' journey through the southern Mani Peninsula, Greece, in 1951

Rebecca Seifried & Chelsea Gardner
GIS data created by mapping Patrick (Paddy) and Joan Leigh Fermor's journey through the Mani peninsula in 1951. The zip file contains 6 layers (in GeoJSON format) that can be used to display least-cost models of portions of their route, the hikes we carried out to recreate them, and our final interpretation of their route from start to finish.

An inventory of crop wild relatives and wild-utilized plants in Canada

Jens Christian Ulrich, Tara Moreau, Erika Luna-Perez, Kephra I.S. Beckett, Lili K. Simon, Zoë Migicovsky, Axel Diederichsen & Colin K. Khoury
In the face of global pressures of change and biodiversity loss, crop wild relatives (CWR) and wild-utilized plants (WUS) urgently require conservation attention. To advance conservation, we assembled a national inventory of CWR and WUS in Canada. To assess current ex situ conservation, we gathered a virtual metacollection of CWR and WUS accession data from national genebanks and from botanical gardens. The inventory includes 779 CWR and WUS taxa (658 distinct species), with 263 (222...

Color preference of the spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

Kirk Hillier, Catherine Little, Thomas Chapman, Lise Charbonneau & Rebecca Rizzato
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a significant invasive pest in soft-skin fruits and berries in Asia, Europe, and North and South America. Many herbivorous insects use multiple cues for host selection, particularly olfactory and visual stimuli. The visual system of closely-related Drosophila melanogaster is well-documented, expressing strong sensitivity to short-wavelength colors (ultraviolet to green) and only limited sensitivity to long-wavelength colors (red to infrared). Our results suggest that D. suzukii have limited ability to...

American black duck PTT data from Atlantic Canada

Matthew English, Liam Peck, Gregory Robertson, Shawn Craik & Mark Mallory
American black ducks, native to eastern North America, have been the focus of significant international conservation and management programs. The combined USA and Canadian population has traditionally been managed as a single population; however black duck demographics may vary by region. To help understand potential regional differences in black ducks, we used satellite telemetry to assess migratory chronology and movements of black ducks wintering near Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada, near the northern limits of their...

Data from: Diet dichotomy between two migrant seabirds breeding near a high Arctic polynya

Isabeau Pratte, Kelly A. Boadway, Shanti E. Davis, Mark Maftei & Mark L. Mallory
High Arctic polynyas are predictable areas of open water, which offer long-distance migrant seabirds a reliable source of food during a period when they have to replenish and accumulate energy for reproduction. Investigating the interaction between species nesting sympatrically in the vicinity of polynyas should provide insights into the role that such oceanographic features play for pre-breeding seabirds. We used stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to compare the diet of two ground-nesting seabirds, Sabine's gull...

Data from: A range-wide domino effect and resetting of the annual cycle in a migratory songbird

Elizabeth A. Gow, Lauren Burke, David W. Winkler, Samantha M. Knight, Robert G. Clark, Marc Bélisle, Lisha L. Berzins, Tricia Blake, Eli S. Bridge, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Dany Garant, Geoff Holroyd, Andrew G. Horn, David J.T. Hussell, Olga Lansdorp, Andrew J. Laughlin, Marty L. Leonard, Fanie Pelletier, Dave Shutler, Lynn Siefferman, Caz M. Taylor, Helen Trefry, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck … & D. Ryan Norris
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographic variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) originating from 12 North American breeding populations. A swallow’s breeding latitude influenced timing of breeding, which then carried over to affect...

Data from: Rethinking refugia: tree topology, divergence dates, and demographic history trace the distribution of the endangered Plymouth gentian (Sabatia kennedyana) from the Pleistocene glaciation to present day

Adriana Suarez-Gonzalez, Jolene T. Sutton, Andrew J. Trant, Elena Zamlynny & Sara V. Good
Premise of study: Molecular population genetics is a powerful tool to infer how species responded to past environmental change. In the northern hemisphere, interest is increasing in how species responded to changes in ice coverage and temperature during the last glaciation maximum (LGM, between 18000–21000 yr ago) with a common assumption that glacial refugia were located at the southern edge of a species range. Methods: We reconstructed the glacial and postglacial phylogeography of Sabatia kennedyana,...

Variation and correlation in the timing of breeding of North Atlantic seabirds across multiple scales

Katharine Keogan, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Richard Phillips, David Alvarez, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Robert Barrett, Claus Bech, Peter Becker, Per-Arvid Berglund, Sandra Bouwhuis, Zofia Burr, Olivier Chastel, Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Sébastien Descamps, Tony Diamond, Kyle Elliott, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mike Harris, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Martin Heubeck, Magdalene Langset, Svein Lorentsen, Heather Major, Mark Mallory … & Stephen Kress
Timing of breeding, an important driver of fitness in many populations, is widely studied in the context of global change, yet despite considerable efforts to identify environmental drivers of seabird nesting phenology, for most populations we lack evidence of strong drivers. Here we adopt an alternative approach, examining the degree to which different populations positively covary in their annual phenology to infer whether phenological responses to environmental drivers are likely to be (i) shared across...

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