156 Works

Data from: Links between environment and stomatal size through evolutionary time in Proteaceae

Gregory Jordan, Raymond Carpenter, Barbara Holland, Nicholas Beeton, Michael Woodhams & Tim Brodribb
The size of plant stomata (adjustable pores that determine uptake of CO2 and loss of water from leaves) is considered to be evolutionarily important. This study uses fossils from the major southern hemisphere family Proteaceae to test whether stomatal cell size responded to Cenozoic climate change. We measured the length and abundance of guard cells (the cells forming stomata), the area of epidermal pavement cells, stomatal index and maximum stomatal conductance from a comprehensive sample...

Data for manuscript: Extinction pulse at Eocene–Oligocene boundary drives diversification dynamics of the two Australian temperate floras

Francis Nge
The diversification dynamics of the Australian temperate flora remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate whether differences in plant richness in the southwest Australian biodiversity hotspot (SWA) and southeast (SEA) regions of the Australian continent can be attributed to higher net diversification, more time for species accumulation, or both. We assembled dated molecular phylogenies for the 21 most species-rich flowering plant families found across mesic temperate Australia, encompassing both SWA and SEA regions, and applied a...

Evidence for speciation underground in diving beetles (Dytiscidae) from a subterranean archipelago

Barbara Langille, Josephine Hyde, Kathleen Saint, Tessa Bradford, Danielle Stringer, Simon Tierney, William Humphreys, Andrew Austin & Steven Cooper
Most subterranean animals are assumed to have evolved from surface ancestors following colonisation of a cave system, however very few studies have raised the possibility of ‘subterranean speciation’ in underground habitats (i.e. obligate cave-dwelling organisms (troglobionts) descended from troglobiotic ancestors). Numerous endemic subterranean diving beetle species from spatially-discrete calcrete aquifers in Western Australia (stygobionts) have evolved independently from surface ancestors; however, several cases of sympatric sister species raises the possibility of subterranean speciation. We tested...

Synthesis of Bi2S3 thin films based on pulse-plating bismuth nanocrystallines and its photoelectrochemical properties

Guochen Zhao, Fangchang Ding, Qiujin Wang, Shaofei Zhou, Ying Ye & Reza Ghomashchi
The solubility of Bi3+ in aqueous solution is an important factor that limits the fabrication of high quality Bi2S3 thin films. In order to find a low–cost method to manufacture high quality Bi2S3 thin films, we are reporting the preparation of the Bi2S3 thin films based on pulse-plating method in this paper for the first time. The nano-bismuth particles were obtained by electroplating on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) coated conducting glass substrates with saturated bismuth...

Data from: Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space

Daniel Hanley, Tomáš Grim, Phillip Cassey & Mark E. Hauber
Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08–0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately...

Data from: Ocean-scale prediction of whale shark distribution

Ana Sequeira, Camille Mellin, David Rowat, Mark G. Meekan & Corey J. A. Bradshaw
Aim: Predicting distribution patterns of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) in the open ocean remains elusive owing to few pelagic records. We developed multivariate distribution models of seasonally variant whale shark distributions derived from tuna purse-seine fishery data. We tested the hypotheses that whale sharks use a narrow temperature range, are more abundant in productive waters and select sites closer to continents than the open ocean. Location: Indian Ocean. Methods: We compared a 17-year...

Data from: Restoring Study 329: efficacy and harms of paroxetine and imipramine in treatment of major depression in adolescence

Joanna C. Le Noury, John M. Nardo, David Healy, Jon Jureidini, Melissa Raven, Catalin Tufanaru & Elia Abi-Jaoude
Objectives: To reanalyse SmithKline Beecham’s Study 329 (published by Keller and colleagues in 2001), the primary objective of which was to compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine with placebo in the treatment of adolescents with unipolar major depression. The reanalysis under the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative was done to see whether access to and reanalysis of a full dataset from a randomised controlled trial would have clinically relevant implications...

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Data from: Fine-scale diet of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) using DNA-based analysis of faeces.

Kristian J. Peters, Kathy Ophelkeller, Nathan J. Bott, Bruce E. Deagle, Simon N. Jarman & Simon D. Goldsworthy
We applied DNA-based faecal analysis to determine the diet of female Australian sea lions (n = 12) from two breeding colonies in South Australia. DNA dietary components of fish and cephalopods were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and mitochondrial DNA primers targeting the short (~100 base pair) section of the 16S gene region. Prey diversity was determined by sequencing ~50 amplicons generated from clone libraries developed for each individual. Faecal DNA was also combined...

Data from: Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia

Robert C. Cope, Thomas A. A. Prowse, Joshua V. Ross, Talia A. Wittmann & Phillip Cassey
Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast...

Data from: An early Cambrian chelicerate from the Emu Bay Shale, South Australia

James B. Jago, Diego C. García-Bellido & James G. Gehling
The Emu Bay Shale Lagerstätte (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) occurs on the north coast of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Over 50 species are known from here, including trilobites and non-biomineralized arthropods, palaeoscolecids, a lobopodian, a polychaete, vetulicolians, nectocaridids, hyoliths, brachiopods, sponges and chancelloriids. A new chelicerate, Wisangocaris barbarahardyae gen. et sp. nov., is described herein, based on a collection of some 270 specimens. It is up to 60 mm long, with the length of...

Data from: Coupling biogeochemical tracers with fish growth reveals physiological and environmental controls on otolith chemistry

Gretchen L. Grammer, John R. Morrongiello, Christopher Izzo, Peter J. Hawthorne, John F. Middleton & Bronwyn M. Gillanders
Biogeochemical tracers found in the hard parts of organisms are frequently used to answer key ecological questions by linking the organism with the environment. However, the biogeochemical relationship between the environment and the biogenic structure becomes less predictable in higher organisms as physiological processes become more complex. Here, we use the simultaneous combination of biogeochemical tracers and fish growth analyzed with a novel modeling framework to describe physiological and environmental controls on otolith chemistry in...

Data from: Across the Indian Ocean: a remarkable example of trans-oceanic dispersal in an austral mygalomorph spider

Sophie E. Harrison, Mark S. Harvey, Steven J.B. Cooper, Andrew D. Austin, Michael G. Rix & Steve J. B. Cooper
The Migidae are a family of austral trapdoor spiders known to show a highly restricted and disjunct distribution pattern. Here, we aim to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the group, which was previously thought to be vicariant in origin, and examine the biogeographic origins of the genus Moggridgea using a dated multi-gene phylogeny. Moggridgea specimens were sampled from southern Australia and Africa, and Bertmainus was sampled from Western Australia. Sanger sequencing methods were...

Data from: The evolution of sexes: a specific test of the disruptive selection theory

Jack Da Silva
The disruptive selection theory of the evolution of anisogamy posits that the evolution of a larger body or greater organismal complexity selects for a larger zygote, which in turn selects for larger gametes. This may provide the opportunity for one mating type to produce more numerous, small gametes, forcing the other mating type to produce fewer, large gametes. Predictions common to this and related theories have been partially upheld. Here, a prediction specific to the...

Data from: Investigating the impact of feedback update interval on the efficacy of restorative brain–computer interfaces

Sam Darvishi, Michael C. Ridding, Brenton Hordacre, Derek Abbott & Mathias Baumert
Restorative brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed to enhance stroke rehabilitation. Restorative BCIs are able to close the sensorimotor loop by rewarding motor imagery (MI) with sensory feedback. Despite the promising results from early studies, reaching clinically significant outcomes in a timely fashion is yet to be achieved. This lack of efficacy may be due to suboptimal feedback provision. To the best of our knowledge, the optimal feedback update interval (FUI) during MI remains unexplored....

Data from: Ecological intensification and arbuscular mycorrhizas: a meta-analysis of tillage and cover crop effects

Timothy M. Bowles, Louise E. Jackson, Malina Loeher & Timothy R. Cavagnaro
1. Reliance on ecosystem services instead of synthetic, non-renewable inputs is increasingly seen as key to achieving food security in an environmentally sustainable way. This process, known as ecological intensification, will depend in large part on enhancing below-ground biological interactions that facilitate resource use efficiency. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), associations formed between the roots of most terrestrial plant species and a specialized group of soil fungi, provide valuable ecosystem services, but the full magnitude of these...

Data from: Evolutionary radiations of Proteaceae are triggered by the interaction between traits and climates in open habitats

Renske E. Onstein, Gregory J. Jordan, Hervé Sauquet, Peter H. Weston, Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi, Ian J. Wright, Raymond J. Carpenter & H. Peter Linder
Aim: Ecologically driven diversification can create spectacular diversity in both species numbers and form. However, the prediction that the match between intrinsic (e.g. functional trait) and extrinsic (e.g. climatic niche) variables may lead to evolutionary radiation has not been critically tested. Here, we test this hypothesis in the Southern Hemisphere plant family Proteaceae, which shows a spectacular diversity in open mediterranean shrublands in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) and the Cape Floristic Region (CFR)....

Data from: Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos

Kieren J. Mitchell, Agustín Scanferla, Esteban Soibelzon, Ricardo Bonini, Javier Ochoa & Alan Cooper
Glyptodonts were giant (some of them up to ~2400 kg), heavily armoured relatives of living armadillos, which became extinct during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene alongside much of the South American megafauna. Although glyptodonts were an important component of Cenozoic South American faunas, their early evolution and phylogenetic affinities within the order Cingulata (armoured New World placental mammals) remain controversial. In this study, we used hybridization enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to obtain a partial mitochondrial genome...

Data from: Global biodiversity assessment and hyper-cryptic species complexes: more than one species of elephant in the room?

Mark Adams, Tarmo A. Raadik, Christopher P. Burridge & Arthur Georges
Several recent estimates of global biodiversity have concluded that the total number of species on Earth lies near the lower end of the wide range touted in previous decades. However, none of these recent estimates formally explore the real ‘elephant in the room’, namely, what proportion of species are taxonomically invisible to conventional assessments, and thus, as undiagnosed cryptic species, remain uncountable until revealed by multi-gene molecular assessments. Here we explore the significance and extent...

Data from: Disentangling synergistic disease dynamics: Implications for the viral biocontrol of rabbits

Konstans Wells, Damien A. Fordham, Barry W. Brook, Phillip Cassey, Tarnya Cox, Robert B. O’Hara, Nina I. Schwensow & Robert B. O'Hara
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been exposed to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and myxoma virus (MYXV) in their native and invasive ranges for decades. Yet, the long‐term effects of these viruses on rabbit population dynamics remain poorly understood. In this context, we analysed 17 years of detailed capture–mark–recapture data (2000–2016) from Turretfield, South Australia, using a probabilistic state‐space hierarchical modelling framework to estimate rabbit survival and epidemiological dynamics. While RHDV infection and disease‐induced death...

Data from: Eradicating abundant invasive prey could cause unexpected and varied biodiversity outcomes: the importance of multi-species interactions

Miguel Lurgi, Euan G. Ritchie & Damien A. Fordham
1. Abundant and widely-distributed invasive prey can negatively affect co-occurring native species by competing for food and/or shelter, removing vegetation cover and reducing habitat complexity (changing predation risk), and by sustaining elevated abundances of invasive mesopredators. However, information regarding the community and trophic consequences of controlling invasive prey, and their temporal dynamics, remain poorly understood. 2. We used multi-species ecological network models to simulate the consequences of changing European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus abundance in an...

Data from: Impacts of inference method and dataset filtering on phylogenomic resolution in a rapid radiation of ground squirrels (Xerinae: Marmotini)

Bryan S. McLean, Kayce C. Bell, Julia M. Allen, Kristofer M. Helgen, Joseph A. Cook & Julie M Allen
Phylogenomic datasets are illuminating many areas of the Tree of Life. However, the large size of these datasets alone may be insufficient to resolve problematic nodes in the most rapid evolutionary radiations, because inferences in zones of extraordinarily low phylogenetic signal can be sensitive to the model and method of inference, as well as the information content of loci employed. We used a dataset of >3,950 ultraconserved element (UCE) loci from a classic mammalian radiation,...

Data from: Rates of population differentiation and speciation are decoupled in sea snakes

Charlotte R. Nitschke, Mathew Hourston, Vinay Udyawer & Kate L. Sanders
Comparative phylogeography can inform many macroevolutionary questions, such as whether species diversification is limited by rates of geographic population differentiation. We examined the link between population genetic structure and species diversification in the fully aquatic sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) by comparing mitochondrial phylogeography in 16 species from two closely related clades that show contrasting diversification dynamics across northern Australia. Contrary to expectations from theory and several empirical studies, our results show that, at the geographic scale...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Data from: Rise of the machines – recommendations for ecologists when using next generation sequencing for microsatellite development.

Michael G Gardner, Alison J Fitch, Terry Bertozzi & Andrew J Lowe
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing molecular ecology by simplifying the development of molecular genetic markers, including microsatellites. Here we summarize the results of the large scale development of microsatellites for 54 non-model species using NGS and show there are clear differences amongst plants, invertebrates and vertebrates for the number and proportion of motif types recovered that are able to be utilised as markers. We highlight that the heterogeneity within each group is very large....

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