62 Works

Data from: Brachiopod shell thickness links environment and evolution

Uwe Balthasar, Jisuo Jin, Linda Hints & Maggie Cusack
While it is well established that the shapes and sizes of shells are strongly phylogenetically controlled, little is known about the phylogenetic constraints on shell thickness. Yet, shell thickness is likely to be sensitive to environmental fluctuations and has the potential to illuminate environmental perturbations through deep time. Here we systematically quantify the thickness of the anterior brachiopod shell which protects the filtration chamber and is thus considered functionally homologous across higher taxa of brachiopods....

Data from: The influence of data resolution on predicted distribution and estimates of extent of current protection of three ‘listed’ deep-sea habitats

Lauren K. Ross, Rebecca E. Ross, Heather A. Stewart & Kerry L. Howell
Modelling approaches have the potential to significantly contribute to the spatial management of the deep-sea ecosystem in a cost effective manner. However, we currently have little understanding of the accuracy of such models, developed using limited data, of varying resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of predictive models constructed using non-simulated (real world) data of different resolution. Predicted distribution maps for three deep-sea habitats were constructed using MaxEnt modelling methods...

Data from: How does environment influence fighting? The effects of tidal flow on resource value and fighting costs in sea anemones

Alexandre V. Palaoro, Mariana Velasque, Sandro Santos & Mark Briffa
An animal's decision to enter into a fight depends on the interaction between perceived resource value (V) and fighting costs (C). Both could be altered by predictable environmental fluctuations. For intertidal marine animals, such as the sea anemone Actinia equina, exposure to high flow during the tidal cycle may increase V by bringing more food. It may also increase C via energy expenditure needed to attach to the substrate. We asked whether simulated tidal cycles...

Data from: Revisiting Brownian motion as a description of animal movement: a comparison to experimental movement data

Daniel Bearup, Carly M. Benefer, Sergei V. Petrovskii & Rod P. Blackshaw
Characterization of patterns of animal movement is a major challenge in ecology with applications to conservation, biological invasions and pest monitoring. Brownian random walks, and diffusive flux as their mean field counterpart, provide one framework in which to consider this problem. However, it remains subject to debate and controversy. This study presents a test of the diffusion framework using movement data obtained from controlled experiments. Walking beetles (Tenebrio molitor) were released in an open circular...

Data from: Climate structuring of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the threatened amphibians of the northern Western Ghats, India

Christopher J. Thorpe, Todd R. Lewis, Matthew C. Fisher, Claudia J. Wierzbicki, Siddharth Kulkarni, David Pryce, Lewis Davies, Aparna Watve & Mairi E. Knight
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogen killing amphibians worldwide. Its impact across much of Asia is poorly characterised. This study systematically surveyed amphibians for Bd across rocky plateaus in the northern section of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India, including for the first surveys of the plateaus in the coastal region. These ecosystems offer an epidemiological model system since they are characterised by differing levels of connectivity, edaphic and climatic conditions, and anthropogenic stressors. One...

Data from: Perceptual teleology: expectations of action efficiency bias social perception

Matthew Hudson, Katrina L. McDonough, Rhys Edwards & Patric Bach
Primates interpret conspecific behaviour as goal-directed and expect others to achieve goals by the most efficient means possible. While this teleological stance is prominent in evolutionary and developmental theories of social cognition, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In predictive models of social cognition, a perceptual prediction of an ideal efficient trajectory would be generated from prior knowledge against which the observed action is evaluated, distorting the perception of unexpected inefficient actions. To test...

FlowCam Macro Noctiluca scintillans library, Station L4, 2018, sample run #1

Christian Bamber
FlowCam Macro library of Noctiluca scintillans from vertical plankton net hauls collected in 2018 from station L4 using 335um mesh plankton net, 50cm diameter. Fluid Imaging VisualSpreadsheet software required.

Dataset for paper pair 'Soil erosion and sediment transport in Tanzania'

M Wynants, A Patrick, L Munishi, K Mtei, S Bode, A Taylor, G Millward, N Roberts, D Gilvear, P Ndakidemi, P Boeckx & W.H Blake
Soil resources in Tanzania are rapidly being depleted by increased rates of soil erosion and downstream sediment transport, threatening ecosystem health, water- and livelihood security in the region. However, a lack of understanding into the dynamics of soil erosion and sediment transport is undermining the mitigation of this type of soil degradation. By integrating geochemical and biochemical fingerprints in sediment source tracing techniques, this study demonstrated links between land use, soil erosion and downstream sediment...

Integrated Greening of Grey Infrastructure (IGGI) to enhance biodiversity on engineered shorelines in Malaysia

Abigail McQuatters-Gollop & Louise Firth

Policy Brief - Implementing Nature-based Solutions for enhancing coastal resilience in Malaysia

Abigail McQuatters-Gollop

Phil Trans R Soc A dataset

Alison Raby

Wave Structure Interaction Computation and Experiment Roadmap Part 1: A Report on the 1st CCP-WSI Focus Group Workshop

Edward Ransley, Catherine Jones, Qingwei Ma, Poulter Gemma, Ling Qian, Gavin Tabor, Shiqiang Yan, Jun Zang & Deborah Greaves

Population fragmentation drives up genetic diversity in signals of individual identity

Calvin Dytham & Michael Thom
Many species advertise their unique identity to conspecifics using dedicated individuality signals: one familiar example is human faces. But how unique in the global population do these signals need to be? While human faces are highly variable, each person interacts with many fewer individuals than are found in the total population. This raises the question of how evolutionary mechanisms drive up population-wide diversity when selection occurs at such a local level. We use an individual-based...

Data from: Weak rappers rock more: Hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour

Elizabeth Edmonds & Mark Briffa
Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps...

Data from: Weaponry and defenses in fighting animals: how allometry can alter predictions from contest theory

Alexandre Palaoro & Mark Briffa
Theoretical models have been developed to understand how animals decide to withdraw from a contest. They provide testable predictions regarding the relationship between resource holding potential (RHP) and contest duration that assume linear relationships among RHP traits. However, RHP traits might scale with body size according to power laws. Furthermore, investment across different RHP traits may vary. Herein, we provide a model that encompasses the allometric relationship between body size and other RHP traits. First,...

Perceived and actual fighting ability: determinants of success via decision, knockout or submission in human combat sports

Sarah Lane & Mark Briffa
Animal contest theory assumes individuals to possess accurate information about their own fighting ability or resource holding potential (RHP) and, under some models, that of their opponent. However, due to the difficulty of disentangling perceived and actual RHP in animals, how accurately individuals are able to assess RHP remains relatively unknown. Furthermore, it is not just individuals within a fight that evaluate RHP. Third party observers evaluate the fight performance of conspecifics in order to...

Data from: Individual quality and personality: bolder males are less fecund in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus

Danielle Bridger, Simon J. Bonner & Mark Briffa
One explanation for animal personality is that different behavioural types derive from different life-history strategies. Highly productive individuals, with high growth rates and high fecundity, are assumed to live life at a fast pace showing high levels of boldness and risk taking, compared with less productive individuals. Here, we investigate among-individual differences in mean boldness (the inverse of the latency to recover from a startling stimulus) and in the consistency of boldness, in male hermit...

Data from: Faunal response to sea-level and climate change in a short-lived seaway: Jurassic of the Western Interior, USA

Silvia Danise & Steven M. Holland
Understanding how regional ecosystems respond to sea-level and environmental perturbations is a main challenge in palaeoecology. Here we use quantitative abundance estimates, integrated within a sequence stratigraphic and environmental framework, to reconstruct benthic community changes through the 13 myr history of the Jurassic Sundance Seaway in the western United States. Sundance Seaway communities are notable for their low richness and high dominance relative to most areas globally in the Jurassic, and this probably reflects steep...

Data from: A bird’s eye view on turbulence: Seabird foraging associations with evolving surface flow features

Lilian Lieber, Roland Langrock & William Alex Michael Nimmo-Smith
Understanding physical mechanisms underlying seabird foraging is fundamental to predict responses to coastal change. For instance, turbulence in the water arising from natural or anthropogenic structures can affect foraging opportunities in tidal seas. Yet, identifying ecologically important localised turbulence features (e.g. upwellings ~10-100 m) is limited by observational scale and this knowledge gap is magnified in volatile predators. Here, using a drone-based approach, we present the tracking of surface-foraging terns (143 trajectories belonging to three...

Data from: Year-round sexual harassment as a behavioral mediator of vertebrate population dynamics

Victoria Wearmouth, Emily Southall, David Morritt, Richard C. Thompson, Innes C. Cuthill, Julian Partridge, David W. Sims & Julian C. Partridge
Within-species sexual segregation is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates but its causes remain a topic of much debate. Female avoidance of male coercive mating attempts has the potential to influence the social structure of animal populations, yet it has been largely overlooked as a driver of sexual separation. Indeed, its potential role in long-term structuring of natural populations has not been studied. Here we use a comparative approach to examine the suitability of multiple hypotheses...

Data from: Host-associated genomic differentiation in congeneric butterflies: now you see it, now you don’t

Alexander S. Mikheyev, Carolyn S. McBride, Ulrich G. Mueller, Camille Parmesan, Melanie R. Smee, Constanti Stefanescu, Brian Wee & Michael C. Singer
Ecotypic variation among populations may become associated with widespread genomic differentiation, but theory predicts that this should happen only under particular conditions of gene flow, selection and population size. In closely related species, we might expect the strength of host-associated genomic differentiation (HAD) to be correlated with the degree of phenotypic differentiation in host-adaptive traits. Using microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and controlling for isolation by distance between populations, we sought HAD...

Data from: Coexistence and the niche in a nurse-cactus interaction: is cyclic dynamics justified?

Arnoldo Flores-Torres, Carlos Montaña & Miguel Franco
1. The interaction between the nurse plant Larrea tridentata and the cacti Cylindropuntia leptocaulis is thought to follow cyclical-replacement dynamics. However, the required changing nature of their interaction, from facilitation to competition, has not been investigated through their full life cycle. 2. In order to test the hypothesised cyclical dynamics, we compared the demography of four sub-populations (LA = Larrea associated to Cylindropuntia; CA = Cylindropuntia associated to Larrea, LS = solitary Larrea; CS =...

Data from: Universal metabolic constraints shape the evolutionary ecology of diving in animals

Wilco Verberk, Piero Calosi, Francois Brischoux, John Spicer, Theodore Garland & David Bilton
Diving as a lifestyle has evolved on multiple occasions when air-breathing terrestrial animals invaded the aquatic realm, and diving performance shapes the ecology and behaviour of all air-breathing aquatic taxa, from small insects to great whales. Using the largest dataset yet assembled, we show that maximum dive duration increases predictably with body mass in both ectotherms and endotherms. Compared to endotherms, ectotherms can remain submerged for longer, but the mass scaling relationship for dive duration...

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