39 Works

Data from: Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Michael Reinhart, Tara Carney, Andrew G. Clark & Anthony C. Fiumera
Drosophila melanogaster females commonly mate with multiple males establishing the opportunity for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Traits impacting sexual selection can be affected by a complex interplay of the genotypes of the competing males, the genotype of the female, and compatibilities between the males and females. We scored males from 96 2nd and 94 3rd chromosome substitution lines for traits affecting reproductive success when mated with females from 3 different genetic backgrounds. The traits...

Supplemental Online Materials of Trends in Land Surface Phenology across the Conterminous United States (1982-2016) Analyzed by NEON Domains

Liang Liang, Geoffrey Henebry, lingling liu, Xiaoyang Zhang & Li-Chih Hsu
This research investigated land surface phenology trends across the conterminous United States (1982-2016)by National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) domains. The Supplemental Online Materials (SOM) contain two Appendices. Appendix S1 contains NEON domain-specific results, supplemental tables and figures. Appendix S2 contains datasets of the analysis results. Users can utilize these data to perform customized analysis in lieu of the published outcomes.

Assessing chemical mechanisms underlying the effects of sunflower pollen on a gut pathogen in bumble bees

Lynn Adler, Alison Fowler, Rosemary Malfi, Patrick Anderson, Lily Coppinger, Pheobe Deneen, Stephanie Lopez, Rebecca Irwin, Iain Farrell & Philip Stevenson
Many pollinator species are declining due to a variety of interacting stressors including pathogens, sparking interest in understanding factors that could mitigate these outcomes. Diet can affect host-pathogen interactions by changing nutritional reserves or providing bioactive secondary chemicals. Recent work found that sunflower pollen (Helianthus annuus) dramatically reduced cell counts of the gut pathogen Crithidia bombi in bumble bee workers (Bombus impatiens), but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Here we analyzed methanolic extracts...

Data from: Clothing color mediates lizard responses to humans in a tropical forest

Andrea Fondren, Lindsey Swierk & Breanna Putman
Identifying how ecotourism affects wildlife can lower its environmental impact. Human presence is an inherent component of ecotourism, which can impact animal behavior because animals often perceive humans as predators and, consequently, spend more time on human-directed antipredator behaviors and less on other fitness-relevant activities. We tested whether human clothing color affects water anole (Anolis aquaticus) behavior at a popular ecotourism destination in Costa Rica, testing the hypothesis that animals are more tolerant of humans...

Data from: Interactions between seed-dispersing ant species affect plant community composition in field mesocosms

Kirsten Prior, Shannon Meadley-Dunphy & Megan Frederickson
1. In generalized mutualisms, species vary in the quality of services they provide to their partners directly via traits that affect partner fitness and indirectly via traits that influence interactions with mutualist species that play similar functional roles. Myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, is a generalized mutualism with ant species varying in the quality of dispersal services they provide to their plant partners. Variation in ant species identity can directly impact seed dispersal patterns...

Positive genetic covariance and limited thermal tolerance constrain tropical insect responses to global warming

Carlos García-Robledo & Christina Baer
Tropical ectotherms are particularly vulnerable to global warming because their physiologies are assumed to be adapted to narrow temperature ranges. This study explores three mechanisms potentially constraining thermal adaptation to global warming in tropical insects: 1. tradeoffs in genotypic performance at different temperatures (the jack-of-all-trades hypothesis) 2. positive genetic covariance in performance, with some genotypes performing better than others at viable temperatures (the ‘winner and ‘loser genotypes hypothesis) or 3. limited genetic variation as the...

The effects of novel leaf litter deposition on competitive, predator–prey and host–parasite interactions of American toad larvae

Devin DiGiacopo & Jessica Hua
Wetland plant communities are changing rapidly due to a wide range of human activities. The deposition of leaf litter from novel plant communities can alter both the chemical and physical habitat of aquatic ecosystems. Lesser understood are the ecological consequences of novel leaf litter inputs in aquatic communities. Towards this goal, we used two plant invasion scenarios (comparing native black huckleberry to exotic autumn olive and native swamp loosestrife to exotic purple loosestrife) to simulate...

Positive genetic covariance and limited thermal tolerance constrain tropical insect responses to global warming

Carlos García-Robledo & Christina Baer
Tropical ectotherms are particularly vulnerable to global warming because their physiologies are assumed to be adapted to narrow temperature ranges. This study explores three mechanisms potentially constraining thermal adaptation to global warming in tropical insects: 1. tradeoffs in genotypic performance at different temperatures (the jack-of-all-trades hypothesis) 2. positive genetic covariance in performance, with some genotypes performing better than others at viable temperatures (the ‘winner and ‘loser genotypes hypothesis) or 3. limited genetic variation as the...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Data from: Evolved pesticide tolerance influences susceptibility to parasites in amphibians

Jessica Hua, Vanessa P. Wuerthner, Devin K. Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D. Cothran, Rick A. Relyea & Jason T. Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result...

Data from: Geographic cline analysis as a tool for studying genome-wide variation: a case study of pollinator-mediated divergence in a monkeyflower

Sean Stankowski, James M. Sobel & Matthew A. Streisfeld
A major goal of speciation research is to reveal the genomic signatures that accompany the speciation process. Genome scans are routinely used to explore genome-wide variation and identify highly differentiated loci that may contribute to ecological divergence, but they do not incorporate spatial, phenotypic or environmental data that might enhance outlier detection. Geographic cline analysis provides a potential framework for integrating diverse forms of data in a spatially explicit framework, but has not been used...

Retention fraction of 15N-labelled deposited ammonium and nitrate in forests

Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Ang Wang, Shanlong Li, Shushi Peng, Wim De Vries, Per Gundersen, Philippe Ciais, Oliver L Phillips, Erik Hobbie, Weixing Zhu, Knute Nadelhoffer, Yi Xi, Edith Bai, Tao Sun, Dexiang Chen, Wenjun Zhou, Yiping Zhang, Yingrong Guo, Jiaojun Zhu, Lei Duan, Dejun Li, Keisuke Koba, Enzai Du, Guoyi Zhou, Xingguo Han … & Yunting Fang
The impacts of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition on global forest carbon (C) sink and other ecosystem services may depend on whether N is deposited in reduced (mainly as ammonium) or oxidized forms (mainly as nitrate) and the subsequent fate of each. However, the fates of the two key reactive N forms and its contribution to forest C sink is unclear. We conducted ecosystem-scale paired 15N-labelling experiments in nine forests across China to quantify N retention...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Data from: Variation in seasonal timing traits and life history along a latitudinal transect in Mimulus ringens

James Sobel & Kelly Vest
Seasonal timing traits are commonly under recurrent, spatially-variable selection, and are therefore predicted to exhibit clinal variation. Temperate perennial plants often require vernalization to prompt growth and reproduction; however, little is known about whether vernalization requirements change across the range of a broadly distributed species. We performed a critical vernalization duration study in Mimulus ringens, coupled with population genomic analysis. Plants from 8 populations spanning the latitudinal range were exposed to varying durations of 4°C...

Counts of two sperm types during migration in female Manduca sexta reproductive system after mating

Julian Shepherd & Janis Dickinson
During mating in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), sperm are passed to the female via a copulation in which the male transfers a large and often complex spermatophore over the major part of an hour or more. Subsequently, over the course of an hour or often considerably more, the sperm exit the spermatophore and travel over a relatively complex route to the spermatheca, where the sperm are stored and then used as the eggs are...

Data from: Asynchrony between ant seed dispersal activity and fruit dehiscence of myrmecochorous plants

Susan C. C. Gordon, Shannon A. Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M. Prior & Megan E. Frederickson
Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. Methods We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. We examined the timing of...

Data from: An alternative approach to reduce algorithm-derived biases in monitoring soil organic carbon changes

Weixin Zhang, Yuanqi Chen, Leilei Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Yongwen Liu, Rong Mao, Xingquan Rao, Yongbiao Lin, Yuanhu Shao, Xiaobo Li, Cancan Zhao, Shengjie Liu, Shilong Piao, Weixing Zhu, Xiaoming Zou & Shenglei Fu
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes is a fundamental issue in ecology and sustainable agriculture. However, the algorithm-derived biases in comparing SOC status have not been fully addressed. Although the methods based on equivalent soil mass (ESM) and mineral-matter mass (EMMM) reduced biases of the conventional methods based on equivalent soil volume (ESV), they face challenges in ensuring both data comparability and accuracy of SOC estimation due to unequal basis for comparison and using un-conserved...

Data from: Variation in ecophysiological traits might contribute to ecogeographic isolation and divergence between parapatric ecotypes of Mimulus aurantiacus

James M. Sobel, Sean Stankowski & Matthew A. Streisfeld
Many forms of reproductive isolation contribute to speciation, and early acting barriers may be especially important, because they have the first opportunity to limit gene flow. Ecogeographic isolation occurs when intrinsic traits of taxa contribute to disjunct geographic distributions, reducing the frequency of inter‐taxon mating. Characterizing this form of isolation requires knowledge of both the geographic arrangement of suitable habitats in nature and the identification of phenotypes involved in shaping geographic distributions. In Mimulus aurantiacus,...

Data from: A pollen fatty acid enhances learning and survival in bumblebees

Felicity Muth, Phillip R. Breslow, Pavel Masek & Anne S. Leonard
Learning associations between food-related stimuli and nutrients allows foragers to collect resources efficiently. In turn, the nutrients foragers consume can themselves affect learning performance, through innate preferences for pre-ingestive stimuli, as well as post-ingestive reinforcement. Bees are insect models of learning and memory, yet the vast majority of this research concerns nectar (carbohydrate) rather than pollen (protein/lipid) rewards, despite the fact that many bees collect both simultaneously. We asked how one component of pollen surface...

Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flow

Gregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...

Data from: The effects of different cold-temperature regimes on development, growth, and susceptibility to an abiotic and biotic stressor

Matthew Wersebe, Paradyse Blackwood, Ying T. Guo, Jared Jaeger, Dyllan May, George Meindl, Sean N. Ryan, Vivian Wong & Jessica Hua
1. Global climate change is expected to both increase average temperatures as well as temperature variability. 2. Increased average temperatures has led to earlier breeding in many spring-breeding organisms. However, individuals breeding earlier will also face increased temperature fluctuations, including exposure to potentially harmful cold temperature regimes during early developmental stages. 3. Using a model spring-breeding amphibian, we investigated how embryonic exposure to different cold-temperature regimes (control, cold-pulse, and cold-press) affected (1) compensatory larval development...

Phylogenomic analyses in Phrymaceae reveal extensive gene tree discordance in relationships among major clades

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Nan Lin, Eileen Huang, Dena Grossenbacher, James Sobel, Caroline Gilmore, David Tank & Ya Yang
• Premise of the study: Phylogenomic datasets using genomes and transcriptomes provide rich opportunities beyond resolving bifurcating phylogenetic relationships. Monkeyflower (Phrymaceae) is a model system for evolutionary ecology. However, it lacks a well-supported phylogeny for a stable taxonomy and for macroevolutionary comparisons. • Methods: We sampled 24 genomes and transcriptomes in Phrymaceae and closely related families, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes. We reconstructed the phylogeny using IQ-TREE and ASTRAL, evaluated gene tree discordance using PhyParts,...

Data from: Divergent diapause life history timing drives both allochronic speciation and reticulate hybridization in an adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis flies

Meredith Doellman, Katherine Inskeep, Thomas Powell, Stewart Berlocher, Nicholas Seifert, Glen Hood, Gregory Ragland, Peter Meyers & Jeff Feder
Divergent adaptation to new ecological opportunities can be an important factor initiating speciation. However, as niches are filled during adaptive radiations, trait divergence driving reproductive isolation between sister taxa may also result in trait convergence with more distantly related taxa, increasing the potential for reticulated gene flow across the radiation. Here, we demonstrate such a scenario in a recent adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis fruit flies, specialized on different host plants. Throughout this radiation, shifts to...

Data to accompany: Rapid body color change provides lizards with facultative crypsis in the eyes of their avian predators

Kelly Wuthrich, Amber Nagel & Lindsey Swierk
Color change serves many antipredator functions and may allow animals to better match environments or disrupt outlines to prevent detection. Rapid color change could potentially provide camouflage to animals that frequently move among microhabitats. Determining the adaptiveness of whole-animal rapid color changes in natural habitats with respect to predator visual systems would greatly broaden our fundamental understanding of the evolution of rapid color change. We tested whether whole-body color change provides water anoles (Anolis aquaticus)...

Natural 15N abundance of bulk soil N, ammonium, and nitrate in soil profiles

Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Erik A Hobbie, Shasha Zhang, Ang Wang, Feifei Zhu, Weixing Zhu, Keisuke Koba, Muneoki Yoh, Chuankuan Wang, Qiuliang Zhang & Yunting Fang
Assessment of nitrogen (N) saturation of forests is critical to evaluate how ecosystems will respond to current and future global changes such as N deposition. However, quantifying N saturation remains a challenge. We developed a conceptual model of N saturation stages in forest ecosystems based on i) a hypothetical relative rate of ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification, ii) concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in the soil, and iii) 15N enrichment pattern of bulk soil N, ammonium,...

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