28 Works

Supplemental Online Materials of Trends in Land Surface Phenology across the Conterminous United States (1982-2016) Analyzed by NEON Domains

Liang Liang, Geoffrey Henebry, lingling liu, Xiaoyang Zhang & Li-Chih Hsu
This research investigated land surface phenology trends across the conterminous United States (1982-2016)by National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) domains. The Supplemental Online Materials (SOM) contain two Appendices. Appendix S1 contains NEON domain-specific results, supplemental tables and figures. Appendix S2 contains datasets of the analysis results. Users can utilize these data to perform customized analysis in lieu of the published outcomes.

Data from: Characterizing male-female interactions using natural genetic variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Michael Reinhart, Tara Carney, Andrew G. Clark & Anthony C. Fiumera
Drosophila melanogaster females commonly mate with multiple males establishing the opportunity for pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Traits impacting sexual selection can be affected by a complex interplay of the genotypes of the competing males, the genotype of the female, and compatibilities between the males and females. We scored males from 96 2nd and 94 3rd chromosome substitution lines for traits affecting reproductive success when mated with females from 3 different genetic backgrounds. The traits...

Assessing chemical mechanisms underlying the effects of sunflower pollen on a gut pathogen in bumble bees

Lynn Adler, Alison Fowler, Rosemary Malfi, Patrick Anderson, Lily Coppinger, Pheobe Deneen, Stephanie Lopez, Rebecca Irwin, Iain Farrell & Philip Stevenson
Many pollinator species are declining due to a variety of interacting stressors including pathogens, sparking interest in understanding factors that could mitigate these outcomes. Diet can affect host-pathogen interactions by changing nutritional reserves or providing bioactive secondary chemicals. Recent work found that sunflower pollen (Helianthus annuus) dramatically reduced cell counts of the gut pathogen Crithidia bombi in bumble bee workers (Bombus impatiens), but the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. Here we analyzed methanolic extracts...

Data from: Evolved pesticide tolerance influences susceptibility to parasites in amphibians

Jessica Hua, Vanessa P. Wuerthner, Devin K. Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D. Cothran, Rick A. Relyea & Jason T. Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result...

Data from: Clothing color mediates lizard responses to humans in a tropical forest

Andrea Fondren, Lindsey Swierk & Breanna Putman
Identifying how ecotourism affects wildlife can lower its environmental impact. Human presence is an inherent component of ecotourism, which can impact animal behavior because animals often perceive humans as predators and, consequently, spend more time on human-directed antipredator behaviors and less on other fitness-relevant activities. We tested whether human clothing color affects water anole (Anolis aquaticus) behavior at a popular ecotourism destination in Costa Rica, testing the hypothesis that animals are more tolerant of humans...

Data from: Interactions between seed-dispersing ant species affect plant community composition in field mesocosms

Kirsten Prior, Shannon Meadley-Dunphy & Megan Frederickson
1. In generalized mutualisms, species vary in the quality of services they provide to their partners directly via traits that affect partner fitness and indirectly via traits that influence interactions with mutualist species that play similar functional roles. Myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, is a generalized mutualism with ant species varying in the quality of dispersal services they provide to their plant partners. Variation in ant species identity can directly impact seed dispersal patterns...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Data from: Can the genomics of ecological speciation be predicted across the divergence continuum from host races to species? A case study in Rhagoletis

Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether host-related selection on diapause timing anticipates genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species...

Evaluating the fitness consequences of plasticity in tolerance to pesticides

Devin DiGiacopo & Jessica Hua
In a rapidly changing world, phenotypic plasticity may be a critical mechanism allowing populations to rapidly acclimate when faced with novel anthropogenic stressors. Theory predicts that if exposure to anthropogenic stress is heterogeneous, plasticity should be maintained as it allows organisms to avoid unnecessary expression of costly traits (i.e. phenotypic costs) when stressors are absent. Conversely, if exposure to stressors becomes constant, costs or limits of plasticity may lead to evolutionary trait canalization (i.e. genetic...

Data from: The geography of divergence-with-gene-flow facilitates multi-trait adaptation and the evolution of pollinator isolation in Mimulus aurantiacus

Sean Stankowski, Matthew A. Streisfeld & James M. Sobel
Ecological adaptation is the driving force during divergence-with-gene-flow and generates reproductive isolation early in speciation. Although gene flow opposes divergence, local adaptation can be facilitated by factors that prevent the breakup of favorable allelic combinations. We investigated how selection, genetic architecture, and geography have contributed to the maintenance of floral trait divergence and pollinator isolation between parapatric ecotypes of Mimulus aurantiacus. Combining greenhouse, field, and genomic studies, we show that sharp clines in floral traits...

Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flow

Gregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...

Data from: The effects of different cold-temperature regimes on development, growth, and susceptibility to an abiotic and biotic stressor

Matthew Wersebe, Paradyse Blackwood, Ying T. Guo, Jared Jaeger, Dyllan May, George Meindl, Sean N. Ryan, Vivian Wong & Jessica Hua
1. Global climate change is expected to both increase average temperatures as well as temperature variability. 2. Increased average temperatures has led to earlier breeding in many spring-breeding organisms. However, individuals breeding earlier will also face increased temperature fluctuations, including exposure to potentially harmful cold temperature regimes during early developmental stages. 3. Using a model spring-breeding amphibian, we investigated how embryonic exposure to different cold-temperature regimes (control, cold-pulse, and cold-press) affected (1) compensatory larval development...

Data from: Divergent diapause life history timing drives both allochronic speciation and reticulate hybridization in an adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis flies

Meredith Doellman, Katherine Inskeep, Thomas Powell, Stewart Berlocher, Nicholas Seifert, Glen Hood, Gregory Ragland, Peter Meyers & Jeff Feder
Divergent adaptation to new ecological opportunities can be an important factor initiating speciation. However, as niches are filled during adaptive radiations, trait divergence driving reproductive isolation between sister taxa may also result in trait convergence with more distantly related taxa, increasing the potential for reticulated gene flow across the radiation. Here, we demonstrate such a scenario in a recent adaptive radiation of Rhagoletis fruit flies, specialized on different host plants. Throughout this radiation, shifts to...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Counts of two sperm types during migration in female Manduca sexta reproductive system after mating

Julian Shepherd & Janis Dickinson
During mating in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), sperm are passed to the female via a copulation in which the male transfers a large and often complex spermatophore over the major part of an hour or more. Subsequently, over the course of an hour or often considerably more, the sperm exit the spermatophore and travel over a relatively complex route to the spermatheca, where the sperm are stored and then used as the eggs are...

Data from: Geographic cline analysis as a tool for studying genome-wide variation: a case study of pollinator-mediated divergence in a monkeyflower

Sean Stankowski, James M. Sobel & Matthew A. Streisfeld
A major goal of speciation research is to reveal the genomic signatures that accompany the speciation process. Genome scans are routinely used to explore genome-wide variation and identify highly differentiated loci that may contribute to ecological divergence, but they do not incorporate spatial, phenotypic or environmental data that might enhance outlier detection. Geographic cline analysis provides a potential framework for integrating diverse forms of data in a spatially explicit framework, but has not been used...

Data from: Asynchrony between ant seed dispersal activity and fruit dehiscence of myrmecochorous plants

Susan C. C. Gordon, Shannon A. Meadley-Dunphy, Kirsten M. Prior & Megan E. Frederickson
Phenological mismatch has received attention in plant-pollinator interactions, but less so in seed dispersal mutualisms. We investigated whether the seasonal availability of myrmecochorous seeds is well matched to the seasonal activity patterns of seed-dispersing ants. Methods We compared seasonal timing of seed removal by a keystone seed-dispersing ant, Aphaenogaster rudis, and fruit dehiscence of several species of plants whose seeds it disperses in a deciduous forest in southern Ontario, Canada. We examined the timing of...

Data from: A pollen fatty acid enhances learning and survival in bumblebees

Felicity Muth, Phillip R. Breslow, Pavel Masek & Anne S. Leonard
Learning associations between food-related stimuli and nutrients allows foragers to collect resources efficiently. In turn, the nutrients foragers consume can themselves affect learning performance, through innate preferences for pre-ingestive stimuli, as well as post-ingestive reinforcement. Bees are insect models of learning and memory, yet the vast majority of this research concerns nectar (carbohydrate) rather than pollen (protein/lipid) rewards, despite the fact that many bees collect both simultaneously. We asked how one component of pollen surface...

Data from: Variation in ecophysiological traits might contribute to ecogeographic isolation and divergence between parapatric ecotypes of Mimulus aurantiacus

James M. Sobel, Sean Stankowski & Matthew A. Streisfeld
Many forms of reproductive isolation contribute to speciation, and early acting barriers may be especially important, because they have the first opportunity to limit gene flow. Ecogeographic isolation occurs when intrinsic traits of taxa contribute to disjunct geographic distributions, reducing the frequency of inter‐taxon mating. Characterizing this form of isolation requires knowledge of both the geographic arrangement of suitable habitats in nature and the identification of phenotypes involved in shaping geographic distributions. In Mimulus aurantiacus,...

Data from: An alternative approach to reduce algorithm-derived biases in monitoring soil organic carbon changes

Weixin Zhang, Yuanqi Chen, Leilei Shi, Xiaoli Wang, Yongwen Liu, Rong Mao, Xingquan Rao, Yongbiao Lin, Yuanhu Shao, Xiaobo Li, Cancan Zhao, Shengjie Liu, Shilong Piao, Weixing Zhu, Xiaoming Zou & Shenglei Fu
Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes is a fundamental issue in ecology and sustainable agriculture. However, the algorithm-derived biases in comparing SOC status have not been fully addressed. Although the methods based on equivalent soil mass (ESM) and mineral-matter mass (EMMM) reduced biases of the conventional methods based on equivalent soil volume (ESV), they face challenges in ensuring both data comparability and accuracy of SOC estimation due to unequal basis for comparison and using un-conserved...

Data from: Rapid and Repeatable Host Plant Shifts Drive Reproductive Isolation Following a Recent Human-Mediated Introduction of the Apple Maggot Fly, Rhagoletis pomonella

Glen R. Hood, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Doellman, Sheina B. Sim, Mary Glover, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz & Jeffrey L. Feder
Ecological speciation via host-shifting is often invoked as a mechanism for insect diversification, but the relative importance of this process is poorly understood. The shift of Rhagoletis pomonella in the 1850s from the native downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced apple, Malus pumila, is a classic example of sympatric host race formation, a hypothesized early stage of ecological speciation. The accidental human-mediated introduction of R. pomonella into the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late-1970’s allows...

Data from: Estimating dispersal and evolutionary dynamics in diploporan blastozoans (Echinodermata) across the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

Adriane Lam, Sarah Sheffield & Nicholas Matzke
Echinoderms make up a substantial component of Ordovician marine invertebrates, yet their speciation and dispersal history as inferred within a rigorous phylogenetic and statistical framework is lacking. We use Biogeographic Stochastic Mapping (BSM; implemented in the R package BioGeoBEARS) to infer ancestral area relationships and the number and type of dispersal events through the Ordovician for diploporan blastozoans and related species. The BSM analysis was divided into three time slices to analyze how dispersal paths...

Data from: A rapidly evolved shift in life history timing during ecological speciation is driven by the transition between developmental phases

Thomas Powell, Andrew Nguyen, Qinwen Xia, Jeffrey Feder, Gregory Ragland & Daniel Hahn
For insect species in temperate environments, seasonal timing is often governed by the regulation of diapause, a complex developmental program that allows insects to weather unfavorable conditions and synchronize their lifecycles with available resources. Diapause development consists of a series of distinct phases including initiation, maintenance, termination, and post-diapause development. The evolution of insect seasonal timing depends in part on how these phases of diapause development and post-diapause development interact to affect variation in phenology....

δ15N of nitric oxide produced under aerobic or anaerobic conditions from seven soils and their associated N isotope fractionations

Chenxia Su, Ronghua Kang, Weixing Zhu, Wentao Huang, Linlin Song, Ang Wang, Dongwei Liu, Zhi Quan, Feifei Zhu, Pingqing Fu & Yunting Fang
Measuring the nitrogen isotope compositions (δ15N) of nitric oxide (NO) from different sources helps to quantify the relative contributions of atmospheric NOx. Soil is one of the most important sources of atmospheric NOx, but only limited measurements on the δ15N of soil emitted NO exist, hampering our ability to partition sources to air pollution. Here we conducted soil incubations to measure the δ15N-NO under defined aerobic or anaerobic conditions, favoring either nitrification or denitrification. Soils...

Data from: Divergent subgenome evolution after allopolyploidization in African clawed frogs (Xenopus)

Benjamin L.S. Furman, Utkarsh J. Dang, Ben J. Evans, G. Brian Golding & Benjamin L. S. Furman
Whole genome duplication (WGD), the doubling of the nuclear DNA of a species, contributes to biological innovation by creating genetic redundancy. One mode of WGD is allopolyploidization, wherein each genome from two ancestral species becomes a 'subgenom' of a polyploid descendant species. The evolutionary trajectory of a duplicated gene that arises from WGD is influenced both by natural selection, creating new or partitioning functions, and by gene silencing (pseudogenization). Here, we explored how these two...

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