157 Works

Trade-off between deep learning for species identification and inference about predator-prey co-occurrence

Olivier Gimenez, Maëlis Kervellec, Jean-Baptiste Fanjul, Anna Chaine, Lucile Marescot, Yoann Bollet & Christophe Duchamp
Deep learning is used in computer vision problems with important applications in several scientific fields. In ecology for example, there is a growing interest in deep learning for automatizing repetitive analyses on large amounts of images, such as animal species identification. However, there are challenging issues toward the wide adoption of deep learning by the community of ecologists. First, there is a programming barrier as most algorithms are written in Python while most ecologists are...

Estimating the extended and hidden species diversity from environmental DNA in hyper-diverse regions

Jean-Baptiste Juhel, Virginie Marques, Rizkie Utama, Indra Vimono, Hagi Sugeha, Kadarusman Kadarusman, Christophe Cochet, Tony Dejean, Andrew Hoey, David Mouillot, Régis Hocdé & Laurent Pouyaud
Species inventories are the building blocks of our assessment of biodiversity patterns and human impact. Yet, historical inventories based on visual observations are often incomplete impairing subsequent analyses of ecological mechanisms, extinction risk and management success. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is an emerging tool that can provide wider biodiversity assessments than classical visual-based surveys. However, eDNA-based inventories remain limited by sampling effort and reference database incompleteness. In this study, we propose a new framework coupling...

Long distance migration is a major factor driving local adaptation at continental scale in a Pacific Salmon

Quentin Rougemont
Inferring the genomic basis of local adaptation is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology. Beyond its fundamental evolutionary implications, such knowledge can guide conservation decisions for populations of conservation and management concern. Here, we investigated the genomic basis of local adaptation in the Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) across its entirety North American range. We hypothesized that extensive spatial variation in environmental conditions and the species’ homing behavior may promote the establishment of local adaptation. We...

The quantitative genetics of fitness in a wild seabird

Maria Moiron, Anne Charmantier & Sandra Bouwhuis
Additive genetic variance in fitness is a prerequisite for adaptive evolution, as a trait must be genetically correlated with fitness to evolve. Despite its relevance, additive genetic variance in fitness has not often been estimated in nature. Here, we investigate additive genetic variance in lifetime and annual fitness components in common terns (Sterna hirundo). Using 28 years of data comprising ca. 6000 pedigreed individuals, we find that additive genetic variances in the Zero-inflated and Poisson...

Natural selection drives genome-wide evolution via chance genetic associations

Zachariah Gompert, Jeff Feder & Patrik Nosil
Understanding selection's impact on the genome is a major theme in biology. Functionally-neutral genetic regions can be affected indirectly by natural selection, via their statistical association with genes under direct selection. The genomic extent of such indirect selection, particularly across loci not physically linked to those under direct selection, remains poorly understood, as does the time scale at which indirect selection occurs. Here we use field experiments and genomic data in stick insects, deer mice...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Species ecology explains the various spatial components of genetic diversity in tropical reef fishes

Giulia Francesca Azzurra Donati, Niklaus Zemp, Stéphanie Manel, Maude Poirier, Thomas Claverie, Franck Ferraton, Théo Gaboriau, Rodney Govinden, Oskar Hagen, Shameel Ibrahim, David Mouillot, Julien Leblond, Pagu Julius, Laure Velez, Irthisham Zareer, Adam Ziyad, Fabien Leprieur, Camille Albouy & Loïc Pellissier
Generating genomic data for 19 tropical reef fish species of the Western Indian Ocean, we investigate how species ecology influences genetic diver- sity patterns from local to regional scales. We distinguish between the α, β and γ components of genetic diversity, which we subsequently link to six ecological traits. We find that the α and γ components of genetic diversity are strongly correlated so that species with a high total regional genetic diversity display systematically...

Data from: Quantifying the effects of migration and mutation on adaptation and demography in spatially heterogeneous environments

Florence Débarre, Ophélie Ronce & Sylvain Gandon
How do mutation and gene flow influence population persistence, niche expansion, and local adaptation in spatially heterogeneous environments? In this article, we analyse a demographic and evolutionary model of adaptation to an environment containing two habitats in equal frequencies, and we bridge the gap between different theoretical frameworks. Qualitatively, our model yields four qualitative types of outcomes: (i) global extinction of the population (ii) adaptation to one habitat only, but also adaptation to both habitats...

Data from: Combining chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites to investigate origin and dispersal of New World sweet potato landraces

Caroline Roullier, Vincent Lebot, Doyle McKey, David Tay & Genoveva Rossel
We analyzed a representative collection of New World sweet potato landraces (329 accessions from Mexico to Peru) with both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers. Both kinds of markers supported the existence of two geographically restricted genepools, corresponding to accessions from the north-western part of South America and accessions from the Caribbean and Central America super-region. Our conservative cpSSRs markers revealed that the divergence between the two haplotype groups is associated with numerous mutation events concerning...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of seed excretion by wild ungulates: implications for plant dispersal

Mélanie Picard, Julien Papaïx, Frédéric Gosselin, Denis Picot, Eric Bideau & Christophe Baltzinger
Dispersal is a key process in metapopulation dynamics as it conditions species' spatial responses to gradients of abiotic and biotic conditions and triggers individual and gene flows. In the numerous plants that are dispersed through seed consumption by herbivores (endozoochory), the distance and effectiveness of dispersal is determined by the combined effects of seed retention time in the vector's digestive system, the spatial extent of its movements, and the ability of the seeds to germinate...

Data from: Joint evolution of differential seed dispersal and self-fertilization

Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou & P.-O. Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression. We considered...

Data from: Genetic load, inbreeding depression and hybrid vigor covary with population size: an empirical evaluation of theoretical predictions

Jennifer N. Lohr & Christoph R. Haag
Reduced population size is thought to have strong consequences for evolutionary processes as it enhances the strength of genetic drift. In its interaction with selection, this is predicted to increase the genetic load, reduce inbreeding depression, and increase hybrid vigour, and in turn affect phenotypic evolution. Several of these predictions have been tested, but comprehensive studies controlling for confounding factors are scarce. Here we show that populations of Daphnia magna, which vary strongly in genetic...

Data from: Nest height is affected by lamppost lighting proximity in addition to nestbox size in urban great tits

Marie-Jeanne Holveck, Arnaud Gregoire, Claire Doutrelant & Marcel M. Lambrechts
Both natural and artificial light have proximate influences on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. To date artificial light at night is mostly considered as being a nuisance disrupting for instance sleep and reproduction of diurnal species. Here, we investigate if lamppost night lighting affects cavity-nesting bird species inside their breeding cavity. Nest height in secondary cavity-nesting species is the result of trade-offs between several selective forces. Predation is the prevailing force leading...

Data from: Population genetics of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia gives insight into past distribution of xeric vegetation in a postulated forest refugium area in northern Amazonia

Anne Duputié, Marc Delêtre, Jean-Jacques De Granville & Doyle McKey
The Guianas have often been proposed as a forest refugium; however, this view has received little testing. Studies of population genetics of forest taxa suggest that the central part of French Guiana remained forested, while the southern part (currently forested) may have harboured more open vegetation. Insights into the population structure of species restricted to non-forested habitats can help test this hypothesis. Using six microsatellite loci, we investigated the population genetics of French Guianan accessions...

Data from: The evolution of communication in two ant-plant mutualisms

Marion Vittecoq, Champlain Djieto-Lordon, Bruno Buatois, Laurent Dormont, Doyle McKey & Rumsaïs Blatrix
Myrmecophytes are plants that provide nesting sites and food to ants that protect them against herbivores. Plant signals function to synchronize ant patrolling with the probability of herbivory. We compared the communication signals in two symbioses involving ant and plant pairs that are closely related. The two plants emitted the same volatile compounds upon damage. These compounds are simple molecules common in the plant kingdom. Electroantennography revealed that the two symbiotic ants, as well as...

Data from: Habitat-linked population genetic differentiation in the Blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus

Melody Porlier, Dany Garant, Philippe Perret & Anne Charmantier
Although the recent emergence of the field of landscape genetics has led to several studies investigating the effects of habitat composition between populations on genetic differentiation, much less is known on the impact of within-habitat ecological characteristics on levels of gene flow and genetic differentiation among populations. Using data on 840 individuals sampled in 8 sites in Corsica and 1 in southern France and analyzed at 10 microsatellite loci, we assessed the spatial and temporal...

Data from: Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range

Gemma V. Clucas, Jane L. Younger, Damian Kao, Alex D. Rogers, Jonathan Handley, Gary D. Miller, Pierre Jouventin, Paul Nolan, Karim Gharbi, Karen J. Miller & Tom Hart
Background: Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population...

Data from: Sex-specific inbreeding depression depends on the strength of male-male competition

Tim Janicke, Nikolas Vellnow, Violette Sarda & Patrice David
Inbreeding depression has become a central theme in evolutionary biology and is considered to be a driving force for the evolution of reproductive morphology, physiology, behavior, and mating systems. Despite the overwhelming body of empirical work on the reproductive consequences of inbreeding, relatively little is known on whether inbreeding depresses male and female fitness to the same extent. However, sex-specific inbreeding depression has been argued to affect the evolution of selfing rates in simultaneous hermaphrodites...

Data from: Do trace metals influence visual signals? Effects of trace metals on iridescent and melanic feather colouration in the feral pigeon

Marion Chatelain, Anaïs Pessato, Adrien Frantz, Julien Gasparini & Sarah Leclaire
Trace metals are chemical pollutants of prime concern nowadays given their implication in several human diseases and their noxious effects on wildlife. Previous studies demonstrated their negative (e.g. lead, cadmium) or positive (e.g. zinc) effects on body condition, immunity and reproductive success in birds. Because of their effects on bird condition, trace metals are likely to influence the production of condition-dependent plumage colours, that may be used in mate choice. In the feral pigeon Columba...

Data from: Nonlinear phenotypic variation uncovers the emergence of heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana

François Vasseur, Louise Fouqueau, Dominique De Vienne, Thibault Nidelet, Cyrille Violle & Detlef Weigel
Heterosis describes the phenotypic superiority of hybrids over their parents in traits related to agronomic performance and fitness. Understanding and predicting nonadditive inheritance such as heterosis is crucial for evolutionary biology as well as for plant and animal breeding. However, the physiological bases of heterosis remain debated. Moreover, empirical data in various species have shown that diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms are likely to explain heterosis, making it difficult to predict its emergence and amplitude...

Data from: Multiple extreme climatic events strengthen selection for earlier breeding in a wild passerine

Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant & Anne Charmantier
Global climate warming results in an increase in mean temperatures and in the frequency of extreme climatic events (ECEs), which could both strongly impact ecosystems and populations. Most studies assessing the impact of global warming on ecosystems have focused on warming trends while neglecting ECEs. In particular, the effects of multiple ECEs on fitness, and their consequences for selection, are still missing. Here we explored the effects of daily extreme rainfalls, as well as the...

Evidence for synergistic cumulative impacts of marking and hunting in a wildlife species.

Frédéric LeTourneux, Gilles Gauthier, Roger Pradel, Josée Lefebvre & Pierre Legagneux
Non-additive effects from multiple interacting stressors can have unpredictable outcomes on wildlife. Stressors that initially have negligible impacts may become significant if they act in synergy with novel stressors. Wildlife markers can be a source of physiological stress for animals and are ubiquitous in ecological studies. Their potential impacts on vital rates may vary over time, particularly when changing environments impose new stressors. In this study, we evaluated the temporal changes in the combined impact...

Genetic evidence further elucidates the history and extent of badger introductions from Great Britain into Ireland

Adrian Allen, Jimena Guerrero, Andrew Byrne, John Lavery, Eleanor Presho, Emily Courcier, James O'Keeffe, Ursula Fogarty, Richard Delahay, Gavin Wilson, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Matthew Silk, Denise O'Meara, Robin Skuce, Roman Biek & Robbie A. McDonald
The colonization of Ireland by mammals, has been the subject of extensive study using genetic methods, and forms a central problem in understanding the phylo-geography of European mammals after the Last Glacial Maximum. Ireland exhibits a de-pauperate mammal fauna relative to Great Britain and continental Europe, and a range of natural and anthropogenic processes have given rise to its modern fauna. Previous Europe-wide surveys of the European badger (Meles meles) have found conflicting microsatellite and...

A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology

Ana P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...

Data and code from: Phenotypic memory drives population growth and extinction risk in a noisy environment

Marie Rescan, Daphné Grulois, Enrique Ortega-Aboud & Luis-Miguel Chevin
Random environmental fluctuations pose major threats to wild populations. As patterns of environmental noise are themselves altered by global change, there is growing need to identify general mechanisms underlying their effects on population dynamics. This notably requires understanding and predicting population responses to the color of environmental noise, i.e. its temporal autocorrelation pattern. Here, we show experimentally that environmental autocorrelation has a large influence on population dynamics and extinction rates, which can be predicted accurately...

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  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Oxford
  • Université de Sherbrooke
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • Marine Biodiversity Exploitation and Conservation
  • University of Montpellier
  • Sorbonne University
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Groningen