134 Works

Data from: Accounting for interspecific competition and age structure in demographic analyses of density dependence improves predictions of fluctuations in population size

Marlène Gamelon, Stefan J.G. Vriend, Steinar Engen, Frank Adriaensen, Andre A. Dhondt, Simon R. Evans, Erik Matthysen, Ben C. Sheldon & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Understanding species coexistence has long been a major goal of ecology. Coexistence theory for two competing species posits that intraspecific density dependence should be stronger than interspecific density dependence. Great tits and blue tits are two bird species that compete for food resources and nesting cavities. Based on long-term monitoring of these two competing species at sites across Europe, combining observational and manipulative approaches, we show that the strength of density regulation is similar for...

Data from: Actuarial senescence in a dimorphic bird: different rates of aging in morphs with discrete reproductive strategies

Melissa L. Grunst, Andrea S. Grunst, Vincent Formica, Marisa L. Korody, Adam M. Betuel, Margarida Barcelo-Serra, Rusty A. Gonser, Elaina M. Tuttle & Vincent A. Formica
It is often hypothesized that intra-sexual competition accelerates actuarial senescence, or the increase in mortality rates with age. However, an alternative hypothesis is that parental investment is more important to determining senescence rates. We used a unique model system, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), to study variation in actuarial senescence. In this species, genetically-determined morphs display discrete mating strategies and disassortative pairing, providing an excellent opportunity to test the predictions of the above hypotheses. Compared...

Data from: Large and fast human pyramidal neurons associate with intelligence

Natalia A Goriounova, Djai B Heyer, René Wilbers, Matthijs B Verhoog, Michele Giugliano, Christophe Verbist, Joshua Obermayer, Amber Kerkhofs, Harriët Smeding, Maaike Verberne, Sander Idema, Johannes C Baayen, Anton W Pieneman, Christiaan PJ De Kock, Martin Klein & Huibert D Mansvelder
It is generally assumed that human intelligence relies on efficient processing by neurons in our brain. Although gray matter thickness and activity of temporal and frontal cortical areas correlate with IQ scores, no direct evidence exists that links structural and physiological properties of neurons to human intelligence. Here, we find that high IQ scores and large temporal cortical thickness associate with larger, more complex dendrites of human pyramidal neurons. We show in silico that larger...

Data from: Personality and plasticity in neophobia levels vary with anthropogenic disturbance but not toxic metal exposure in urban great tits: urban disturbance, metal pollution and neophobia

Andrea S. Grunst, Melissa L. Grunst, Rianne Pinxten & Marcel Eens
Animal personalities, as defined by repeatable among individual differences in behavior, can vary across urbanization gradients. However, how urbanization affects personalities remains incompletely understood, especially because different urban stressors could affect personality traits in opposing ways, whereas most previous studies have considered only one urban disturbance factor. For instance, novel habitat features could favor reduced neophobia, whereas exposure to pollutants could increase risk sensitivity through neurotoxic or hormonal effects. To address this contingency, we studied...

Data from: Early detection of chronic hepatitis B and risk factor assessment in Turkish migrants, Middle Limburg, Belgium.

Özgür Muhammet Koc, Cécile Kremer, Niel Hens, Rob Bielen, Dana Busschots, Pierre Van Damme & Geert Robaeys
Background Turkey is an intermediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic country. However, prevalence among Turkish migrants in Belgium is unknown, especially in those born in Belgium with a foreign-born parent, i.e. second-generation migrants (SGM). Aims To evaluate the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in Turkish first-generation migrants (FGM), i.e. foreign-born, and SGM. Methods Between September 2017 and May 2019, free outreach testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibodies...

Species abundance along the railway of Kashmir Himalaya

Irfan Rashid, Marifatul Shiekh, Jonas Lembrechts, Anzar Khuroo, Anibal Pauchard & Jeffrey Dukes
1. The significant portion of global terrestrial biodiversity harbored in mountains is under increasing threat from a variety of anthropogenic impacts. Protecting fragile mountain ecosystems requires understanding how these human disturbances affect biodiversity. As roads and railways are extended further into mountain ecosystems, understanding the long-term impacts of this infrastructure on community composition and diversity gains urgency. 2. We used railway corridors constructed across the mountainous landscapes of the Kashmir Himalaya from 1994-2013 to study...

Data from: Temporal stability of chimpanzee social culture

Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen
Culture is a hallmark of the human species, both in terms of the transmission of material inventions (e.g., tool manufacturing) and the adherence to social conventions (e.g., greeting mannerisms). While material culture has been reported across the animal kingdom, indications of social culture in animals are limited. Moreover, there is a paucity in evidencing cultural stability in animals. Here, based on a large dataset spanning 12 years, I show that chimpanzees adhere to arbitrary group-specific...

Data from: Phosphorus alleviation of nitrogen-suppressed methane sink in global grasslands

Lihua Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Junhong Bai, Hongtao Duan, Xueying Gu, Longyu Hou, Yao Huang, Mingan Yang, Jinsheng He, Zhenghua Zhang, Lijun Yu, Changchun Song, David Lipson, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Ivan Janssens & Xiaofeng Xu
Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, while concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modeling approach estimated that contemporary N...

Data from: Potentially peat-forming biomass of fen sedges increases with increasing nutrient levels

Tjorven Hinzke, Guixiang Li, Franziska Tanneberger, Elke Seeber, Camiel Aggenbach, Jelena Lange, Łukasz Kozub, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Juergen Kreyling & Wiktor Kotowski
Peat formation is a key carbon sequestration process in the terrestrial biosphere. In temperate fens, peat is mainly formed by below-ground biomass of vascular plants. Nutrient availability in temperate fens is naturally variable, and nowadays increasing due to atmospheric deposition, runoff from agriculture, and mineralization of peat caused by drainage. To maintain or restore peat formation, it is important to understand how increased nutrient availability influences the main controls of peat formation, i.e., below-ground biomass...

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