228 Works

Data from: Macaque monkeys perceive the flash lag illusion

Manivannan Subramaniyan, Alexander S. Ecker, Philipp Berens & Andreas S. Tolias
Transmission of neural signals in the brain takes time due to the slow biological mechanisms that mediate it. During such delays, the position of moving objects can change substantially. The brain could use statistical regularities in the natural world to compensate neural delays and represent moving stimuli closer to real time. This possibility has been explored in the context of the flash lag illusion, where a briefly flashed stimulus in alignment with a moving one...

Data from: The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum

David W. Hall, Sara Fox, Joan E. Strassman, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann & Jennie J. Kuzdzal-Fick
We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation, or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution...

Data from: Parsimonious inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting

Yun Yu, Robert Matthew Barnett & Luay Nakhleh
Hybridization plays an important evolutionary role in several groups of organisms. A phylogenetic approach to detect hybridization entails sequencing multiple loci across the genomes of a group of species of interest, reconstructing their gene trees, and taking their differences as indicators of hybridization. However, methods that follow this approach mostly ignore population effects, such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Given that hybridization occurs between closely related organisms, ILS may very well be at play and,...

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow

Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Lauren Assour, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Glen R. Hood, Scott Emrich, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H.Q. Powell
Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple...

Data from: The effect of demographic correlations on the stochastic population dynamics of perennial plants

Aldo Compagnoni, Andrew J. Bibian, Brad M. Ochocki, Haldre S. Rogers, Emily L. Schultz, Michelle E. Sneck, Bret D. Elderd, Amy M. Iler, David W. Inouye, Hans Jacquemyn, Tom E.X. Miller & Tom E. X. Miller
Understanding the influence of environmental variability on population dynamics is a fundamental goal of ecology. Theory suggests that, for populations in variable environments, temporal correlations between demographic vital rates (e.g., growth, survival, reproduction) can increase (if positive) or decrease (if negative) the variability of year-to-year population growth. Because this variability generally decreases long-term population viability, vital rate correlations may importantly affect population dynamics in stochastic environments. Despite long-standing theoretical interest, it is unclear whether vital...

Data from: Legacy effects of developmental stages determine the functional role of predators

Volker H.W. Rudolf & Benjamin G. Van Allen
Predators are instrumental in structuring natural communities and ecosystem processes. The strong effects of predators are often attributed to their high trophic position in the food web. However, most predators have to grow and move up the food chain before reaching their final trophic position and during this developmental process, their traits, interactions, and abundances change. Here we show that this process of “moving up” the food chain during development strongly determines the ecological role...

Data from: Can't live with them, can't live without them? Balancing mating and competition in two-sex populations

Aldo Compagnoni, Kenneth Steigman & Tom E. X. Miller
Two-sex populations are usually studied through frequency-dependent models that describe how sex ratio affects mating, recruitment, and population growth. However, in two-sex populations, mating and recruitment should also be affected by density and by its interactions with sex ratio. Density may have positive effects on mating (Allee effects) but negative effects on other demographic processes. In this study, we quantified how positive and negative inter-sexual interactions balance in two-sex populations. Using a dioecious grass (Poa...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

Hurricane Harvey Registry [4/14/2018-3/30/2019] - Select Variables Summarized By Houston Super Neighborhood

Results for selected variables from the Hurricane Harvey Registry aggregated by super neighborhood in Houston.

Data from: Root feeding larvae increase their performance by inducing leaf volatiles that attract aboveground conspecific adults

Xiao Sun, Evan Siemann, Zhen Liu, Qiyun Wang, Dingli Wang, Wei Huang, Chujun Zhang & Jianqing Ding
1.Herbivore‐induced changes in plant volatile emissions mediate above‐belowground interactions by determining host plant colonization of different herbivores. By changing shoot‐emitted volatiles, belowground herbivores may use the plant to extend their capacity to interact with aboveground con‐ and heterospecifics. 2.We investigated the attractiveness of Triadica sebifera plants infested by larvae of a specialist beetle or root‐knot nematodes to aboveground herbivores. We then determined the contribution of leaf volatiles to the observed recruitment patterns using olfactometer experiments....

Data from: Shifts in phenological mean and synchrony interact to shape competitive outcomes

Shannon K. Carter & Volker H. Rudolf
Climate change-induced phenological shifts are ubiquitous and have the potential to disrupt natural communities by changing the timing of species interactions. Shifts in first and/or mean phenological date are well documented, but recent studies indicate that shifts in synchrony (individual variation around these metrics) can be just as common. However, we know little about how both types of phenological shifts interact to affect species interactions and natural communities. Here, we experimentally manipulated the hatching phenologies...

Data from: Within-host priority effects systematically alter pathogen coexistence

Patrick A. Clay, Kailash Dhir, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Coinfection of host populations alters pathogen prevalence, host mortality, and pathogen evolution. Because pathogens compete for limiting resources, whether multiple pathogens can coexist in a host population can depend on their within-host interactions which, in turn, can depend on the order in which pathogens infect hosts (within-host priority effects). However, the consequences of within-host priority effects for pathogen coexistence have not been tested. Using laboratory studies with a coinfected zooplankton system, we found that pathogens...

Ant community dynamics in the Big Thicket National Preserve of east Texas

Thomas Miller & Scott Solomon
Rare and extreme climatic events can leave important but difficult-to-study legacies for ecological communities. Theory suggests that the relative abundance and even presence of species in communities may be driven as much by historical contingencies associated with rare events as by filtering from average environmental conditions. Much of what we know about the consequences of extreme events comes from opportunistic studies, where ecologists were in the right place at the right time. Climate change forecasts...

Data from: Zooming in on mechanistic predator-prey ecology: integrating camera traps with experimental methods to reveal the drivers of ecological interactions

Justine Smith, Justin Suraci, Jennifer Hunter, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Carson Keller, Meredith Palmer, Justine Atkins, Irene Castañeda, Michael Cherry, Patrick Garvey, Sarah Huebner, Dana Morin, Lisa Teckentrup, Martijn Weterings & Lydia Beaudrot
1. Camera trap technology has galvanized the study of predator-prey ecology in wild animal communities by expanding the scale and diversity of predator-prey interactions that can be analyzed. While observational data from systematic camera arrays have informed inferences on the spatiotemporal outcomes of predator-prey interactions, the capacity for observational studies to identify mechanistic drivers of species interactions is limited. 2. Experimental study designs that utilize camera traps uniquely allow for testing hypothesized mechanisms that drive...

Within-host priority effects and epidemic timing determine outbreak severity in coinfected populations

Patrick Clay, Meghan Duffy & Volker Rudolf
Coinfections of hosts by multiple pathogen species are ubiquitous, but predicting their impact on disease remains challenging. Interactions between coinfecting pathogens within hosts can alter pathogen transmission, with the impact on transmission typically dependent on the relative arrival order of pathogens within hosts (within-host priority effects). However, it is unclear how these within-host priority effects influence multi-pathogen epidemics, particularly when the arrival order of pathogens at the host population scale varies. Here we combined models...

Data-driven models reveal mutant cell behaviors important for myxobacterial aggregation

Oleg Igoshin, Zhaoyang Zhang, Christopher R. Cotter, Lawrence J. Shimkets & Zhe Lyu
Single mutations frequently alter several aspects of cell behavior but rarely reveal whether a particular statistically significant change is biologically significant. To determine which behavioral changes are most important for multicellular self-organization, we devised a new methodology using Myxococcus xanthus as a model system. During development, myxobacteria coordinate their movement to aggregate into spore-filled fruiting bodies. We investigate how aggregation is restored in two mutants, csgA and pilC, that cannot aggregate unless mixed with wild...

Tropical mammal functional diversity increases with productivity but decreases with anthropogenic disturbance

Daniel Gorczynski, Chia Hsieh, Jadelys Tonos Luciano, Jorge Ahumada, Santiago Espinosa, Steig Johnson, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Mahandry Hugues Andrianarisoa, Johanna Hurtado Astaiza, Patrick A. Jansen, Charles Kayijamahe, Marcela Guimarães Moreira Lima, Julia Salvador & Lydia Beaudrot
A variety of factors can affect the biodiversity of tropical mammal communities, but their relative importance and directionality remain uncertain. Previous global investigations of mammal functional diversity have relied on range maps instead of observational data to determine community composition. We test the effects of species pools, habitat heterogeneity, primary productivity and human disturbance on the functional diversity (dispersion and richness) of mammal communities using the largest standardized tropical forest camera trap monitoring system, the...

Ontogenetic diversity buffers communities against consequences of species loss

Volker Rudolf & Lauren Eveland
Biodiversity can be measured at multiple organizational scales. While traditional studies have focused at taxonomic diversity, recent studies have emphasized the ecological importance of diversity within populations. However, it is unclear how these different scales of diversity interact to determine the consequence of species loss. Here we asked how predator diversity and presence of ontogenetic diversity within predator populations influences community structure. Ontogenetic diversity arises from shifts in the traits and ecology of individuals during...

Symbiodiniaceae cell densities in feces of coral reef fish, sediments and seawater in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, July-August 2019

Carsten Grupstra, Kristen Rabbitt, Lauren Howe-Kerr & Adrienne Correa
Background: The microbiomes of foundation (habitat-forming) species such as corals and sponges underpin the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of ecosystems. Consumers shape communities of foundation species through trophic interactions, but the role of consumers in dispersing the microbiomes of such species is rarely examined. For example, stony corals rely on a nutritional symbiosis with single-celled endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) to construct reefs. Most corals acquire Symbiodiniaceae from the environment, but the processes that make Symbiodiniaceae...

Herbivory of a biocontrol agent on a native plant causes an indirect trait-mediated non-target effect on a native insect

Minyan He, Jialiang Zhang, Evan Siemann, Jiahui Yi, Wenchao Qin, Xiao Sun, Jianqing Ding & Wei Huang
Identifying food web linkages between biocontrol agents of invasive plants and native species is crucial for predicting indirect non-target effects. Biocontrol insects can integrate into food webs within recipient habitats and influence native insects through apparent competition (altering shared natural enemies) or density-mediated exploitation competition (changing density of native plants). However, whether and how trait-mediated exploitation competition (modifying native plant chemical defenses and volatiles profiles) can produce indirect non-target effects remains largely overlooked, despite plant...

Night warming alters mean warming effects on predator-prey interactions by modifying predator demographics and interaction strengths

Gang Ma, Chun-Ming Bai, Volker Rudolf & Chun-Sen Ma
Temperatures are increasing globally, but this increase is not symmetrical: instead, nighttime minimum air temperatures increase faster than daytime maximum temperatures. However, we still know little about when and how this differential increase in maximum vs. minimum air temperatures affects ecological interactions between species. Understanding the connection between different types (night vs day) of warming and interspecific interactions is essential to predict the ecological consequences of climate change for natural ecosystems. Here we used experiments...

Reliability Generalization Analysis of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale

Jisoo Ock, Samuel T. McAbee, Seydahmet Ercan, Amy Shaw & Frederick L. Oswald
As a multifaceted construct reflecting one’s self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability, core self-evaluations has become popular to measure in applied psychology research, especially given its conceptual importance and empirical usefulness for understanding the dispositional effects on employee attitudes and behaviors. Yet, less attention has been paid to the internal properties of its measurement, relative to its criterion-related validity evidence. Thus, we believe that it is useful and timely to report on...

Describing biodiversity in the genomics era: Description of a new species of Nearctic Cynipidae gall wasp and its genome

Pedro Ferreira Pinto Brandão-Dias, Y. Miles Zhang, Stacy Pirro, Camila C Vinson, Kelly L Weinersmith, Anna KG Ward, Andrew Forbes & Scott P Egan
Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) specializing on live oaks in the genus Quercus (subsection Virentes) are a relatively diverse and well-studied community with 14 species described to date, albeit with incomplete information on their biology, life history, and genetic structure. Incorporating an integrative taxonomic approach, we combine morphology, phenology, behavior, genetics, and genomics to describe a new species, Neuroterus valhalla sp. nov. The alternating generations of this species induce galls on the catkins and stem nodes...

Data from: Restoration of native saltmarshes can reverse arthropod assemblages and trophic interactions changed by a plant invasion

Jia-Jia Jiang, Yu-Jie Zhao, Yao-Lin Guo, Lei Gao, Christina Richards, Evan Siemann, Jihua Wu, Bo Li & Rui-Ting Ju
Plant invasions profoundly impact both natural and managed ecosystems, and removal of the invasive plants addresses only part of the problem of restoring impacted areas. The rehabilitation of diverse communities and their ecosystem functions following removal of invasive plants is an important goal of ecological restoration. Arthropod assemblages and trophic interactions are important indicators of the success of restoration, but have largely been overlooked in saltmarshes. We determined how arthropod assemblages and trophic interactions changed...

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