20 Works

Data reported in: Effects of ozone isotopologue formation on the clumped-isotope composition of atmospheric O2

Laurence Yeung
Tropospheric 18O18O is an emerging proxy for past tropospheric ozone and free-tropospheric temperatures. The basis of these applications is the idea that isotope-exchange reactions in the atmosphere drive 18O18O abundances toward isotopic equilibrium. However, previous work used an offline box-model framework to explain the 18O18O budget, approximating the interplay of atmospheric chemistry and transport. This approach, while convenient, has poorly characterized uncertainties. To investigate these uncertainties, and to broaden the applicability of the 18O18O proxy,...

The Impact of Professional Coaching on Emerging Leaders

Ryan P. Brown, Lebena Varghese, Sarah Sullivan & Sandy Parsons

Individual-based networks reveal the highly skewed interactions of a frugivore mutualist with individual plants in a diverse community

Jadelys Tonos
While plant-animal interactions occur fundamentally at the individual level, the bulk of research examining the mechanisms that drive interaction patterns has focused on the species or population level. In seed-dispersal mutualisms between frugivores and plants, little is known about the role of space and individual-level variation among plants in structuring patterns of frugivore foraging and, thus, seed dispersal in a plant community. Here we use an animal perspective to examine how space and variation between...

Reliability Generalization Analysis of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale

Jisoo Ock, Samuel T. McAbee, Seydahmet Ercan, Amy Shaw & Frederick L. Oswald
As a multifaceted construct reflecting one’s self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability, core self-evaluations has become popular to measure in applied psychology research, especially given its conceptual importance and empirical usefulness for understanding the dispositional effects on employee attitudes and behaviors. Yet, less attention has been paid to the internal properties of its measurement, relative to its criterion-related validity evidence. Thus, we believe that it is useful and timely to report on...

Tropical mammal functional diversity increases with productivity but decreases with anthropogenic disturbance

Daniel Gorczynski, Chia Hsieh, Jadelys Tonos Luciano, Jorge Ahumada, Santiago Espinosa, Steig Johnson, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Mahandry Hugues Andrianarisoa, Johanna Hurtado Astaiza, Patrick A. Jansen, Charles Kayijamahe, Marcela Guimarães Moreira Lima, Julia Salvador & Lydia Beaudrot
A variety of factors can affect the biodiversity of tropical mammal communities, but their relative importance and directionality remain uncertain. Previous global investigations of mammal functional diversity have relied on range maps instead of observational data to determine community composition. We test the effects of species pools, habitat heterogeneity, primary productivity and human disturbance on the functional diversity (dispersion and richness) of mammal communities using the largest standardized tropical forest camera trap monitoring system, the...

Ontogenetic diversity buffers communities against consequences of species loss

Volker Rudolf & Lauren Eveland
Biodiversity can be measured at multiple organizational scales. While traditional studies have focused at taxonomic diversity, recent studies have emphasized the ecological importance of diversity within populations. However, it is unclear how these different scales of diversity interact to determine the consequence of species loss. Here we asked how predator diversity and presence of ontogenetic diversity within predator populations influences community structure. Ontogenetic diversity arises from shifts in the traits and ecology of individuals during...

Symbiodiniaceae cell densities in feces of coral reef fish, sediments and seawater in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, July-August 2019

Carsten Grupstra, Kristen Rabbitt, Lauren Howe-Kerr & Adrienne Correa
Background: The microbiomes of foundation (habitat-forming) species such as corals and sponges underpin the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of ecosystems. Consumers shape communities of foundation species through trophic interactions, but the role of consumers in dispersing the microbiomes of such species is rarely examined. For example, stony corals rely on a nutritional symbiosis with single-celled endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) to construct reefs. Most corals acquire Symbiodiniaceae from the environment, but the processes that make Symbiodiniaceae...

Night warming alters mean warming effects on predator-prey interactions by modifying predator demographics and interaction strengths

Gang Ma, Chun-Ming Bai, Volker Rudolf & Chun-Sen Ma
Temperatures are increasing globally, but this increase is not symmetrical: instead, nighttime minimum air temperatures increase faster than daytime maximum temperatures. However, we still know little about when and how this differential increase in maximum vs. minimum air temperatures affects ecological interactions between species. Understanding the connection between different types (night vs day) of warming and interspecific interactions is essential to predict the ecological consequences of climate change for natural ecosystems. Here we used experiments...

Describing biodiversity in the genomics era: Description of a new species of Nearctic Cynipidae gall wasp and its genome

Pedro Ferreira Pinto Brandão-Dias, Y. Miles Zhang, Stacy Pirro, Camila C Vinson, Kelly L Weinersmith, Anna KG Ward, Andrew Forbes & Scott P Egan
Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) specializing on live oaks in the genus Quercus (subsection Virentes) are a relatively diverse and well-studied community with 14 species described to date, albeit with incomplete information on their biology, life history, and genetic structure. Incorporating an integrative taxonomic approach, we combine morphology, phenology, behavior, genetics, and genomics to describe a new species, Neuroterus valhalla sp. nov. The alternating generations of this species induce galls on the catkins and stem nodes...

Context-dependent reproductive isolation: host plant variability drives fitness of hybrid herbivores

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Isaac Carroo, James Ott & Scott Egan
The role of divergent selection between alternative environments is well-recognized to promote reproductive isolation (RI) between lineages. However, most studies view each divergent environment as homogenous, thereby overlooking the potential role of within environment variation on RI between differentiating lineages. Here we test the importance of microenvironmental variation on RI using individual trees of two host plants each harboring locally adapted populations of the cynipid wasp, Belonocnema treatae. We compared the fitness surrogate (survival) of...

SimPhy configuration scripts for simulations reported in the study titled: Species tree inference methods intended to deal with incomplete lineage sorting are robust to the presence of paralogs

Luay Nakhleh
Many recent phylogenetic methods have focused on accurately inferring species trees when there is gene tree discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). For almost all of these methods, and for phylogenetic methods in general, the data for each locus is assumed to consist of orthologous, single-copy sequences. Loci that are present in more than a single copy in any of the studied genomes are excluded from the data. These steps greatly reduce the number...

Novel integrative modeling of molecules and morphology across evolutionary timescales

Huw A. Ogilvie, Fábio K. Mendes, Timothy G. Vaughan, Nicholas J. Matzke, Tanja Stadler, David Welch & Alexei J. Drummond
Evolutionary models account for either population or species-level processes, but usually not both. We introduce a new model, the FBD-MSC, which makes it possible for the first time to integrate both the genealogical and fossilization phenomena, by means of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) and the fossilized birth-death (FBD) processes. Using this model, we reconstruct the phylogeny representing all extant and many fossil Caninae, recovering both the relative and absolute time of speciation events. We quantify...

Can the Common-Factor Hypothesis Explain the Observed Housing Wealth Effect?

Narayan Bulusu, Jefferson Duarte & Carles Vergara-Alert
The common-factor hypothesis is one possible explanation for the housing wealth effect. Under this hypothesis, house price appreciation is related to changes in consumption as long as the available proxies for the common driver of housing and non-housing demand are noisy and housing supply is not perfectly elastic. We simulate a model in which a common factor drives the relation between house prices and consumption to examine the extent to which the common-factor hypothesis can...

Magnitude and timing of resource pulses interact to affect plant invasion

Zhibin Tao, Changchao Shen, Wenchao Qin, Yinfeng Gui, Evan Siemann, Yi Wang & Wei Huang
Human activities can cause resource fluctuations through reducing uptake by the resident vegetation (e.g., disturbance) or through changing external resource supply (e.g., fertilization). Resource fluctuations often occur as pulses which are low frequency, large magnitude and short duration, and now are recognized as an important driver of plant invasions. However, resource pulses often vary dramatically in a number of attributes, yet how these attributes mediate the impacts of resource pulses on plant invasions remains unclear....

Embodiment in the history of depth perception

Don Oxtoby
Background in philosophy. The philosophy of perception has traditionally focused on visual perception. In recent decades, philosophical thought about auditory perception has gained momentum, seeking to supplement visual models of perception (O'Callaghan, 2011, pp. 143- 160). A key difference between vision and audition concerns spatial acuity. Vision is usually thought to present the location, especially depth, of what is seen with greater acuity than audition presents the location of what one hears (Culling & Akeroyd,...

Developmental change in predators drives different community configurations

Benjamin Toscano & Volker Rudolf
Theoreticians who first observed alternative stable states in simple ecological models warned of grave implications for unexpected and irreversible collapses of natural systems (i.e., regime shifts). Recent ecosystem-level shifts engendering considerable economic losses have validated this concern, positioning bistability at the vanguard of coupled human-environment systems management. While the perturbations that induce regime shifts are known, the ecological forces that uphold alternative stable states are often unresolved or complex and system-specific. Thus, the search continues...

Brewster angle optical reflection observation of self-limiting nanoparticle monolayer self-assembly at a liquid/liquid interface

Jiayang Hu, Brady Pan, Takuma Makihara, Roy D. J. Garcia & Irving P. Herman
Real-time optical reflection of incident p-polarized light near Brewster’s angle shows that after drop-casting iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in heptane on top of a diethylene glycol (DEG) liquid substrate, an iron oxide NP layer forms at the DEG/heptane interface, and it self-limits to a monolayer even when there are excess NPs dispersed in the upper heptane phase. Most modes of NP self-assembly do not self-limit growth after the formation of a single monolayer. Observations are...

Ontogenetic development underlies population response to mortality

Benjamin Toscano, Alexandra Figel & Volker Rudolf
Understanding demographic responses to mortality is crucial to predictive ecology. While classic ecological theory posits reductions in population biomass in response to extrinsic mortality, models containing realistic developmental change predict the potential for counterintuitive increase in stage-specific biomass, i.e., biomass overcompensation. Patterns of biomass overcompensation should be predictable based on differences in the relative energetic efficiencies of juvenile maturation and adult reproduction. Specifically, in populations where reproduction is the limiting process, adult-specific mortality should enhance...

Data collected for paper: Ecological drivers of intraspecific variation in seed dispersal services of a common neotropical palm

Therese Lamperty, Jordan Karubian & Amy Dunham
Through frugivory and seed dispersal, vertebrates influence plant demography and forest regeneration. Variation in local habitat surrounding fruiting plants can influence frugivore foraging decisions, thereby creating intraspecific variation in seed dispersal services. However, we have little knowledge of drivers of local variation in frugivory. Here, we investigate factors that may influence frugivore diversity and fruit removal at the level of individual plants. We focus on a common understory palm within a continuous Chocó forest with...

Comparing single-species and mixed-species groups in fruit flies: differences in group dynamics but not group formation

Julia Saltz, Anna Girardeau & Brad Foley
Mixed-species groups describe active associations among individuals of two or more species at the same trophic level. Mixed-species groups are important to key ecological and evolutionary processes such as competition and predation; and ignoring the presence of other species risks ignoring a key aspect of the environment in which social behavior is expressed and selected. Despite the defining emphasis of active formation for mixed-species groups, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms by which mixed-species...

Registration Year

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