191 Works

DESENVOLVIMENTO DE HIDROGÉIS NANOCOMPÓSITOS DE POLISSACARÍDEO COM ZEÓLITAS PARA APLICAÇÃO AGRONÔMICA

Fernando Putti
As mudanças dos regimes de chuvas têm ocasionado períodos de estiagem que culminam no início da época de semeadura de diversas culturas. Sendo considerado um dos momentos mais críticos em disponibilidade hídrica, eventos como este podem impactar todo o ciclo da cultura, e têm provocado redução na produção de alimentos. Dessa forma, os hidrogéis nanocompósitos de polissacarídeos vem sendo utilizado como retentor de água no solo, sendo seu uso principalmente na produção de mudas de...

Data from: Molecular responses to freshwater limitation in the mangrove tree Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae)

Mariana Vargas Cruz, Gustavo Maruyama Mori, Dong-Ha Oh, Maheshi Dassanayake, Maria Imaculada Zucchi, Rafael Silva Oliveira & Anete Pereira De Souza
Environmental variation along the geographical space can shape populations by natural selection. In the context of global warming and changing precipitation regimes, it is crucial to understand the role of environmental heterogeneity in tropical trees adaptation, given their disproportional contribution to water and carbon biogeochemical cycles. Here, we investigated how heterogeneity in freshwater availability along tropical wetlands has influenced molecular variations of the Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans). Fifty-seven trees were sampled in seven sites differing...

Abundance predominates over niche factors as determinant of the frequency of interactions between frugivorous birds and plants

Marco Aurelio Pizo, Tomas Carlo, Aarón González-Castro & Antonio Fontanella
Neutral and niche factors influence the structure of frugivory and seed dispersal networks. While the former refers to the abundance of interacting species, niche factors refer to traits that mediate interactions between species (e.g., morphology). The challenge is to unravel in which circumstances one kind of factor predominates over the other, or how much variation is explained by each factor. We investigated the relative contributions of abundance and trait-matching (considering fruit’s size, pulp mass to...

Dataset for: Short flowers for long tongues: functional specialization in a nocturnal pollination network of an asclepiad in long-tongued hawkmoths (Biotropica)

Felipe W. Amorim, Salvador Marino, Priscila Andre Sanz-Veiga, Jeff Ollerton & Paulo E. Oliveira
Since Darwin, very long and narrow floral tubes have been known to represent the main floral morphological feature for specialized long-tongued hawkmoth pollination. However, specialization may be driven by other contrivances instead of floral tube morphology. Asclepiads are plants with a complex floral morphology where primary hawkmoth pollination had never been described. We detailed here the intricate pollination mechanism of the South American asclepiad Schubertia grandiflora, where functional specialization on long-tongued hawkmoth pollinators occurs despite...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of Aphyocharacinae (Characiformes, Characidae) with morphological diagnoses for the subfamily and recognized genera

Victor A. Tagliacollo, Rosana Souza-Lima, Ricardo C. Benine & Claudio Oliveira
The subfamily Aphyocharacinae was recently redefined to comprise eight genera: Aphyocharax, Prionobrama, Paragoniates, Phenagoniates, Leptagoniates, Xenagoniates, Rachoviscus and Inpaichthys. This new composition, however, is partly incongruent with results of published molecular studies especially with regards to the positions of Rachoviscus and Inpaichthys. Our goal was to investigate the monophyly of Aphyocharacinae and its interrelationships using three distinct phylogenetic methodologies: Maximum–likelihood and Bayesian analyses of molecular data, and also Parsimony analysis of a concatenated molecular and...

Data from: Rare frost events reinforce tropical savanna-forest boundaries

William A. Hoffmann, Samuel W. Flake, Rodolfo C.R. Abreu, Natashi A.L. Pilon, Davi R. Rossatto, Giselda Durigan & Rodolfo C. R. Abreu
1) The ability of vegetation to ameliorate or exacerbate environmental extremes can generate feedbacks that mediate the distribution of biomes. It has been suggested that feedbacks between vegetation and frost damage may be important for maintaining savanna, particularly at the edge of the tropics. 2) We quantified frost damage and air temperature across a network of 30 permanent plots distributed across tropical savanna-forest boundaries in Brazil during an uncommonly hard frost. 3) Tree cover strongly...

Data from: A new species of Allophryne (Anura: Allophrynidae) from the Atlantic Rain Forest biome of eastern Brazil

Ulisses Caramaschi, Victor G. D. Orrico, Julián Faivovich, Iuri R. Dias & Mirco Solé
A new species of the genus Allophryne is described and, in contrast to its congeners that occur in the Amazon Basin, is based on specimens obtained in Uruçuca, State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of eastern Brazil. Allophryne relicta sp. nov. is characterized by a medium body size for the genus (snout–vent length range 19.9–21.9 mm in males); large head (head width about 35% of SVL); large, red-orange eyes, with a large black...

Data from: Persistence of the effect of frugivore identity on post-dispersal seed fate: consequences for the assessment of functional redundancy

Ana Paula Lugon, Marion Boutefeu, Emilie Bovy, Fernando Z. Vaz-De-Mello, Marie-Claude Huynen, Mauro Galetti & Laurence Culot
Large frugivores play an important role as seed dispersers and their extinction may affect plant regeneration. The consequences of such extinctions depend on the likelihood of other species being functionally redundant and on how post-dispersal events are affected. We assess the functional redundancy of two seed dispersers of the Atlantic Forest, the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) and the tapir (Tapirus terrestris) through the comparison of their seed dispersal quality, taking into account post-dispersal events. We compare...

Data from: Identification of the notothenioid sister lineage illuminates the biogeographic history of an Antarctic adaptive radiation

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg, Richard C. Harrington, Claudio Oliveira, Theodore W. Pietsch, Christine E. Thacker, Takashi P. Satoh, Eri Katayama, Peter C. Wainwright, Joseph T. Eastman & Jeremy M. Beaulieu
Background: Antarctic notothenioids are an impressive adaptive radiation. While they share recent common ancestry with several species-depauperate lineages that exhibit a relictual distribution in areas peripheral to the Southern Ocean, an understanding of their evolutionary origins and biogeographic history is limited as the sister lineage of notothenioids remains unidentified. The phylogenetic placement of notothenioids among major lineages of perciform fishes, which include sculpins, rockfishes, sticklebacks, eelpouts, scorpionfishes, perches, groupers and soapfishes, remains unresolved. We investigate...

Phylogenomic reconstruction reveals new insights into the evolution and biogeography of Atta leaf-cutting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Corina Barrera, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ted Schultz, Christian Rabeling & Maurício Bacci
Atta Fabricius is an ecologically dominant leaf-cutting ant genus, the major herbivore of the Neotropics, and an agricultural pest of great economic importance. Phylogenetic relationships within Atta have until now remained uncertain, and the delimitation and identification of a subset of Atta species are problematic. To address these phylogenetic uncertainties, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogenetic estimate to date of Atta by employing ultraconserved elements (UCEs). We recovered 2340 UCE loci from 224 Atta specimens,...

Data from: Frugivore diversity increases evenness in the seed rain on deforested tropical landscapes

Paulo Henrique Santos Camargo, Tomás A. Carlo, Pedro H. S. Brancalion & Marco A. Pizo
The diversity of tropical forests is strongly shaped by mutualistic interactions involving plants and frugivores that disperse their seeds. However, it is little known how decreases in the diversity of frugivores can affect seed dispersal patterns, plant community composition and species' coexistence in tropical forest landscapes. Here, we investigated the effects of bird frugivore diversity on seed dispersal of rare plant species and on the magnitude of equalizing effects on the seed rain in open...

Underlying microevolutionary processes parallel macroevolutionary patterns in ancient Neotropical Mountains - Ecological Niche Modeling and Corridors files

Marcos Vinicius Dantas-Queiroz, Tami Da Costa Cacossi, Bárbara Simões Santos Leal, Cleber Juliano Neves Chaves, Thais Vasconcelos, Leonardo De Melo Versieux & Clarisse Palma-Silva
Aim Ancient climatic fluctuations are invoked as the main driving force that generates the astonishing biodiversity in ancient mountains. As a result, endemism and spatial turnover are usually high and few species are widespread among entire mountain ranges, precluding the understanding of origins of macroevolutionary patterns. Here, we used a species endemic to, but widespread in, one of the most species-rich ancient mountains on the globe to test how environmental changes acted on them and...

Frugivory underpins the nitrogen cycle

Nacho Villar, Claudia Paz, Valesca Zipparro, Sergio Nazareth, Leticia Bulascoschi, Elisabeth Bakker & Mauro Galetti
1. Tropical rainforests are populated by large frugivores that feed upon fruit-producing woody species, yet their role in regulating the cycle of globally important biogeochemical elements such as nitrogen is still unknown. This is particularly relevant because tropical forests play a prominent role in the nitrogen cycle and are becoming rapidly defaunated. Furthermore, frugivory is not considered in current plant-large herbivore-nutrient cycling frameworks exclusively focused on grazers and browsers. 2. Here we used a long-term...

Morphological and molecular characterization of tropical Meloidogyne species in Brazil

Vanessa Rafaela De Carvalho, Julio Cesar Antunes Ferreira, Daniel Dalvan Do Nascimento, Pedro Luiz Martins Soares, José Cola Zanuncio, Bárbara Monteiro De Castro Castro & Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken
The identification of Meloidogyne species, based on the perineal pattern of females and the morphology of the anterior portion of males, requires knowledge of the characteristics of each species and, mainly, training and practice. Molecular techniques, applying the concept of integrative taxonomy, have validated the diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes through DNA analysis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of molecular techniques to identify and discriminate Meloidogyne species that...

Solventes eutéticos naturais: Síntese, caracterização e aplicações na determinação de As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Se e V em amostras ambientais por ICP-MS

Mario Henrique Gonzalez
O desenvolvimento de métodos de preparo de amostras que priorizam a redução e substituição de reagentes e solventes, manipulação mínima das amostras, emprego de fontes energéticas mais eficientes e menor risco ao operador e meio ambiente são temas relacionados à Química Analítica Verde. O emprego de solventes pode causar impacto ambiental e por isso há uma grande preocupação e busca em desenvolver novos materiais com menor toxicidade, baixo custo e mais seguros aos analistas. Os...

Data from: Successful carnivore identification with faecal DNA across a fragmented Amazonian landscape

Fernanda Michalski, Fernanda Pedone Valdez, Darren Norris, Chris Zieminski, Cyntia Kayo Kashivakura, Cristine S. Trinca, Heath B. Smith, Carly Vynne, Samuel K. Wasser, Jean Paul Metzger & Eduardo Eizirik
The use of scat surveys to obtain DNA has been well documented in temperate areas, where DNA preservation may be more effective than in tropical forests. Samples obtained in the tropics are often exposed to high humidity, warm temperatures, frequent rain, and intense sunlight, all of which can rapidly degrade DNA. Despite these potential problems, we demonstrate successful DNA amplification and sequencing for faeces of carnivores collected in tropical conditions and quantify how sample condition...

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