73 Works

The use of psychedelics in the treatment of disorders of consciousness. An interview with Olivia Gosseries by Charlotte Martial.

Olivia Gosseries & Charlotte Martial
In this interview, we discuss the use of psychedelic drugs as a promising treatment in disorders of consciousness. Psilocybin, a classic psychedelic, is currently undergoing substantial clinical investigations in healthy volunteers, but also in clinical populations. Recently, experts in the field of psychedelics have addressed the attractive possibility to use such psychedelics on patients suffering from disorders of consciousness. Building on her empirical and theoretical research on disorders of consciousness, Olivia Gosseries gives us her...

Data from: Bayesian analysis of hybridization and introgression between the endangered european mink (Mustela lutreola) and the polecat (Mustela putorius)

Maria Teresa Cabria, Johan R Michaux, Benjamín J Gómez-Moliner, Dimitry Skumatov, Tiit Maran, Pascal Fournier, Javier López De Luzuriaga & Rafael Zardoya
Human-mediated global change will probably increase the rates of natural hybridization and genetic introgression between closely related species, and this will have major implications for conservation of the taxa involved. In this study, we analyse both mitochondrial and nuclear data to characterize ongoing hybridization and genetic introgression between two sympatric sister species of mustelids, the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and the more abundant polecat (M. putorius). A total of 317 European mink, 114 polecats...

Data from: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification and characterization in a non-model organism, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), using next generation sequencing

Nathalie Smitz, Pim Van Hooft, Rasmus Heller, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Robert Kraus, Ben J. Greyling, Richard Crooijmans, Martien Groenen, Johan Michaux & Ben Greyling
This study aimed to develop a set of SNP markers with high resolution and accuracy within the African buffalo. Such a set can be used, among others, to depict subtle population genetic structure for a better understanding of buffalo population dynamics. In total, 18.5 million DNA sequences of 76 bp were generated by next generation sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II from a reduced representation library using DNA from a panel of 13 African...

Data from: Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning

Nathalie Jeanray, Raphaël Marée, Benoist Pruvot, Olivier Stern, Pierre Geurts, Louis Wehenkel & Marc Muller
Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on...

Data from: Phylotranscriptomic consolidation of the jawed vertebrate timetree

Iker Irisarri, Denis Baurain, Henner Brinkmann, Frédéric Delsuc, Jean-Yves Sire, Alexander Kupfer, Jörn Petersen, Michael Jarek, Axel Meyer, Miguel Vences & Hervé Philippe
Phylogenomics is extremely powerful but introduces new challenges as no agreement exists on “standards” for data selection, curation and tree inference. We use jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) as model to address these issues. Despite considerable efforts in resolving their evolutionary history and macroevolution, few studies have included a full phylogenetic diversity of gnathostomes and some relationships remain controversial. We tested a novel bioinformatic pipeline to assemble large and accurate phylogenomic datasets from RNA sequencing and find...

Data from: Seed and pollen dispersal distances in two African legume timber trees and their reproductive potential under selective logging

Olivier J. Hardy, Boris Delaide, Hélène Hainaut, Jean-François Gillet, Pauline Gillet, Esra Kaymak, Nina Vankerckhove, Jérôme Duminil & Jean-Louis Doucet
The natural regeneration of tree species depends on seed and pollen dispersal. To assess if limited dispersal could be critical for the sustainability of selective logging practices, we performed parentage analyses in two Central African legume canopy species displaying contrasted floral and fruit traits: Distemonanthus benthamianus and Erythrophleum suaveolens. We also developed new tools linking forward dispersal kernels with backward migration rates to better characterize long-distance dispersal. Much longer pollen dispersal in D. benthamianus (mean...

Data from: Body shape convergence driven by small size optimum in marine angelfishes

Bruno Frédérich, Francesco Santini, Nicolai Konow, Joseph Schnitzler, David Lecchini & Michael E. Alfaro
Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective pressures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of phenotype undergo convergent evolution in miniaturized lineages. Here we present a comparative analysis of body size and shape evolution in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae), a reef fish family characterized by repeated transitions to small body size. We ask if lineages that evolve small sizes show convergent evolution...

Perineuronal nets in HVC and plasticity in male canary song

Jacques Balthazart
Songbirds learn their vocalizations during developmental sensitive periods of song memorization and sensorimotor learning. Some seasonal songbirds, called open-ended learners, recapitulate transitions from sensorimotor learning and song crystallization on a seasonal basis during adulthood. In adult male canaries, sensorimotor learning occurs each year in autumn and leads to modifications of the syllable repertoire during successive breeding seasons. We previously showed that perineuronal nets (PNN) expression in song control nuclei decreases during this sensorimotor learning period....

Data from: Shale-hosted biota from the Dismal Lakes Group in Arctic Canada supports an early Mesoproterozoic diversification of eukaryotes

Corentin C. Loron, Galen P. Halverson, Robert H. Rainbird, Tom Skulski, Elizabeth C. Turner & Emmanuelle J. Javaux
The Mesoproterozoic is an important era for the development of eukaryotic organisms in oceans. The earliest unambiguous eukaryotic microfossils are reported in late Paleoproterozoic shales from China and Australia. During the Mesoproterozoic, eukaryotes diversified in taxonomy, metabolism and ecology, with the advent of eukaryotic photosynthesis, osmotrophy, multicellularity, and predation. Despite these biological innovations, their fossil record is scarce before the late Mesoproterozoic. Here, we document an assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1590-1270 Ma Dismal...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary morphology of the axial skeleton as a potential key innovation in modern cetaceans

Amandine Gillet, Bruno Frederich & Eric Parmentier
Cetaceans represent the most diverse clade of extant marine tetrapods. Although restructuring of oceans could have contributed to their diversity, other factors might also be involved. Similar to ichthyosaurs and sharks, variation of morphological traits could have promoted the colonization of new ecological niches and supported their diversification. By combining morphological data describing the axial skeleton of 73 cetacean species with phylogenetic comparative methods, we demonstrate that the vertebral morphology of cetaceans is associated to...

CGRN 1: Fragments of the sacrificial calendar of Corinth

Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels & Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

A closer look at Malaita's lithics. Preliminary results of a functional study of the lithic tools from Apunirereha and Ria, Solomon Islands

Julia Tomasso & Johannes Moser
Journal of Global Archaeology, 2020

Bibliopol@: The Book Market in the Renaissance between France and the Low Countries

Renaud Adam & Chiara Lastraioli

Data from: Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales: Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

Matt A. M. Renner, Nicolas Devos, Jairo Patiño, Elizabeth A. Brown, Andrew Orme, Michael Elgy, Trevor Wilson, Lindsey J. Gray, Matt J. Von Konrat, Lindsey Gray, Matt Renner, Elizabeth Brown & Matt Von Konrat
Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph....

Data from: Persistence of the effect of frugivore identity on post-dispersal seed fate: consequences for the assessment of functional redundancy

Ana Paula Lugon, Marion Boutefeu, Emilie Bovy, Fernando Z. Vaz-De-Mello, Marie-Claude Huynen, Mauro Galetti & Laurence Culot
Large frugivores play an important role as seed dispersers and their extinction may affect plant regeneration. The consequences of such extinctions depend on the likelihood of other species being functionally redundant and on how post-dispersal events are affected. We assess the functional redundancy of two seed dispersers of the Atlantic Forest, the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) and the tapir (Tapirus terrestris) through the comparison of their seed dispersal quality, taking into account post-dispersal events. We compare...

Data from: The ‘male escape hypothesis’: sex-biased metamorphosis in response to climatic drivers in a facultatively paedomorphic amphibian

Anthony G.E. Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël & Anthony G. E. Mathiron
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is...

Data from: Testing the divergent adaptation of two congeneric tree species on a rainfall gradient using eco-physio-morphological traits

Anaïs-Pasiphaé Gorel, Kathy Steppe, Hans Beeckman, Niels J.F. De Baerdemaeker, Jean-Louis Doucet, Gauthier Ligot, Kasso Daïnou & Adeline Fayolle.
In tropical Africa, evidence of widely distributed genera transcending biomes or habitat boundaries has been reported. The evolutionary processes that allowed these lineages to disperse and adapt into new environments are far from being resolved. To better understand these processes, we propose an integrated approach, based on the eco-physio-morphological traits of two sister species with adjacent distributions along a rainfall gradient. We used wood anatomical traits, plant hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation, wood volumetric water content...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Maintenance of genetic and morphological identity in two sibling Syrrhopodon species (Calymperaceae, Bryopsida) despite extensive introgression

Marta R. Pereira, Alice Ledent, Patrick Mardulyn, Charles E. Zartman & Alain Vanderpoorten
Bryophytes are a group of land plants wherein the role of hybridization has long been challenged. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to circumvent the lack of molecular variation at selected loci previously used for phylogeny and morphology, we determine the level of genetic and morphological divergence and reproductive isolation between the sibling Syrrhopodon annotinus and S. simmondsii (Calymperaceae, Bryopsida) that occur in sympatry but in different habitats in lowland Amazonian rainforests. A clear morphological differentiation and...

Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest‐associated taxa in Europe

Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Luc Barbaro, Hervé Jactel, Lander Baeten, Johanna Boberg, Monique Carnol, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Seid Muhie Dawud, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Hans De Wandeler, Virginie Guyot, Stephan Hättenschwiler, François‐Xavier Joly, Julia Koricheva, Harriet Milligan, Bart Muys, Diem Nguyen, Sophia Ratcliffe, Karsten Raulund‐Rasmussen, Michael Scherer‐Lorenzen, Fons Plas, J. Van Keer … & Lars Vesterdal
Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest‐associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in...

Highlighting convergent evolution in morphological traits in response to climatic gradient in African tropical tree species: the case of genus Guibourtia Benn

Felicien Tosso, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Adeline Fayolle, Alain Hambuckers, Charles Doumenge, Honoré Agbazahou, Piet Stoffelen & Olivier Hardy
Adaptive evolution is a major driver of organism diversification but the links between phenotypic traits and environmental niche remains little documented in tropical trees. Moreover, trait-niche relationships are complex because a correlation between the traits and environmental niches displayed by a sample of species may result from (1) convergent evolution if different environmental conditions have selected different sets of traits, and/or (2) phylogenetic inertia if niche and morphological differences between species are simply function of...

Data from: Multiple glacial refugia and contemporary dispersal shape the genetic structure of an endemic amphibian from the Pyrenees

Federica Lucati, Manon Poignet, Alexandre Miró, Audrey Trochet, Fabien Aubret, Laurent Barthe, Romain Bertrand, Teresa Buchaca, Olivier Calvez, Jenny Caner, Elodie Darnet, Mathieu Denoël, Olivier Guillaume, Hugo Le Chevalier, Albert Martínez-Silvestre, Marc Mossoll-Torres, David O’Brien, Víctor Osorio, Gilles Pottier, Murielle Richard, Ibor Sabás, Jérémie Souchet, Jan Tomàs & Marc Ventura
Historical factors (colonization scenarios, demographic oscillations) and contemporary processes (population connectivity, current population size) largely contribute to shaping species’ present-day genetic diversity and structure. In this study, we use a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to understand the role of Quaternary climatic oscillations and present-day gene flow dynamics in determining the genetic diversity and structure of the newt Calotriton asper (Al. Dugès, 1852), endemic to the Pyrenees. Mitochondrial DNA did not show a...

A Collection of Greek Ritual Norms

Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels & Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

Data package from 'Pantropical variability in tree crown allometry' Global Ecology and Biogeography 2021. DOI: 10.1111/geb.13231

Grace Jopaul Loubota Panzou, Adeline Fayolle, Tommaso Jucker, Oliver Phillips, Stephanie Bohlman, Lindsay F. Banin, Simon L. Lewis, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Luciana F. Alves, Cécile Antin, Eric Arets, Luzmila Arroyo, Timothy R. Baker, Nicolas Barbier, Hans Beeckman, Uta Berger, Yannick Enock Bocko, Frans Bongers, Sam Bowers, Thom Brade, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Arthur Chantrain, Jerome Chave, Halidou Compaore & David Coomes

First use of acoustic calls to distinguish cryptic fish species: Dascyllus aruanus complex as a case study

Eric Parmentier, Eric Parmentier, Robin Scalbert, Xavier Raick, Camille Gache, Bruno Frédérich, Frederic Bertucci & David Lecchini
From a practical point of view, the determination of species in the wild is based on their phenotypes. Consequently, many species remain unknown because they are visually indistinguishable from described species. Although molecular methods and advances in bioacoustical analysis have been extensively used to uncover cryptic species, the combination of both methodologies is still rare and concerns only some terrestrial taxa such as insects, bats, frogs and birds. In this study, we aim to determine...

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