97 Works

GCRF African SWIFT White Paper Policy Brief: The future of African weather forecasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan , Philip Antwi-Agyei, Caroline L Bain , Emily Black, Alan Blyth, Andrew Dougill, Linda C Hirons , Victor S Indasi, Benjamin L Lamptey, Fionne Marshall, John Marsham, Thorwald H M Stein, Christopher M Taylor , Martin C Todd, Emma L Visman & Steven Woolnough
There is a huge opportunity for the African continent to benefit from the ‘silent revolution’ in weather forecasting that has been realised in the mid-latitudes throughout the twentieth century. While there are tremendous societal and economic benefits from advancing the science behind weather forecasting in sub-Saharan Africa, there are also significant barriers to realising advances. This policy brief examines the value of investment in African weather forecasting science and the technical & communication challenges that...

Bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of measurements of bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014. Soil cores were sampled from a peatland plateau and thawing features of the peatland plateau, and from an unburnt and burnt black spruce forest, and additional sites in Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset contains measures of soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. The radiocarbon content of soil respired CO2 and CH4 was measured during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus and unburnt and burnt black spruce forests.

How do parents respond to OFSTED reports?

Ellen Greaves, Iftikhar Hussain, Birgitta Rabe & Imran Rasul

Lateralisation of short- and long-term visual memories in an insect

Ana Sofia David Fernandes & Jeremy Niven
The formation of memories within the vertebrate brain is lateralised between hemispheres across multiple modalities, however, in invertebrates evidence for lateralisation is restricted to olfactory memories, primarily from social bees. Here we use a classical conditioning paradigm with a visual conditioned stimulus to show that visual memories are lateralised in the wood ant, Formica rufa. We show that a brief contact between a sugar reward and either the right or left antenna (reinforcement) is sufficient...

Larval nutrition impacts the scaling of adult metabolic rate with body mass in honeybees

Elizabeth Nicholls, Marta Rossi & Jeremy Niven
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a fundamental physiological measure linked to numerous aspects of organismal function, including lifespan. Although dietary restriction in insects during larval growth/development affects adult RMR, the impact of larval diet quality on adult RMR has not been studied. Using in vitro rearing to control larval diet quality, we determined the effect of dietary protein and carbohydrate on honeybee survival-to-adulthood, time-to-eclosion, body mass/size and adult RMR. High carbohydrate larval diets increased survival-to-adulthood...

Larval nutrition impacts survival to adulthood, body size, and the allometric scaling of metabolic rate in adult honeybees

Elizabeth Nicholls, Marta Rossi & Jeremy Niven
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a fundamental physiological measure linked to numerous aspects of organismal function, including lifespan. Although dietary restriction in insects during larval growth/development affects adult RMR, the impact of larval diet quality on adult RMR has not been studied. Using in vitro rearing to control larval diet quality, we determined the effect of dietary protein and carbohydrate on honeybee survival-to-adulthood, time-to-eclosion, body mass/size and adult RMR. High carbohydrate larval diets increased survival-to-adulthood...

Data from: Reintroducing extirpated herbivores could partially reverse the late Quaternary decline of large and grazing species

Simon D. Schowanek, Matt Davis, Erick J. Lundgren, Owen Middleton, John Rowan, Rasmus Ø. Pedersen, Daniel Ramp, Christopher J. Sandom & Jens-Christian Svenning
Aim: Reinstating large, native herbivores is an essential component of ecological restoration efforts, as these taxa can be important drivers of ecological processes. However, many herbivore species have gone globally or regionally extinct during the last 50,000 years, leaving simplified herbivore assemblages and trophically downgraded ecosystems. Here, we discuss to what extent trophic rewilding can undo these changes by reinstating native herbivores. Location: Global Time Period: We report functional trait changes from the Late Pleistocene...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Two-photon calcium recordings of cones

Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Philipp Bartel, Cornelius Schröder, Filip Janiak, Francois St-Pierre, Philipp Berens & Tom Baden
For colour vision, retinal circuits separate information about intensity and wavelength. This requires circuit-level comparison of at least two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. However, many vertebrates use all four ‘ancestral’ photoreceptors (‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’, ‘UV’), and in those cases the nature and implementation of this computation remains poorly understood. Here, we establish the complete circuit architecture of outer retinal circuits underlying colour processing in the tetrachromatic larval zebrafish, which involves all four ancestral cone types and...

Data from: Spectral inference reveals principal cone-integration rules of the zebrafish inner retina

Tom Baden, Philipp Bartel, Takeshi Yoshimatsu & Filip K Janiak
In the vertebrate retina, bipolar cells integrate the signals from different cone types at two main sites: directly, via dendritic inputs in the outer retina, and indirectly, via axonal inputs in the inner retina. Of these, the functional wiring of the indirect route, involving diverse amacrine cell circuits, remains largely uncharted. However, because cone-photoreceptor types differ in their spectral sensitivities, insights into the total functional cone-integration logic of bipolar cell might be gained by linking...

Data from: Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic General Ecosystem Model

Michael Brian James Harfoot, Tim Newbold, Derek P. Tittensor, Stephen Emmott, Jon Hutton, Vassily Lyutsarev, Matthew J. Smith, Jorn P. W. Scharlemann & Drew W. Purves
Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM) of ecosystem structure and function that is both global, and...

Data from: Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG

Georg Schauer, Acer Chang, David Schwartzman, Charlotte L. Rae, Heather Iriye, Anil K. Seth & Ryota Kanai
When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of...

Data from: Sexual selection and assortative mating: an experimental test

Allan Debelle, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Mate choice and mate competition can both influence the evolution of sexual isolation between populations. Assortative mating may arise if traits and preferences diverge in step, and, alternatively, mate competition may counteract mating preferences and decrease assortative mating. Here, we examine potential assortative mating between populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that have experimentally evolved under either increased (‘polyandry’) or decreased (‘monogamy’) sexual selection intensity for 100 generations. These populations have evolved differences in numerous traits, including...

Data from: Ultraviolet and yellow reflectance but not fluorescence is important for visual discrimination of conspecifics by Heliconius erato

Susan D. Finkbeiner, Dmitry A. Fishman, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Toxic Heliconius butterflies have yellow hindwing bars that – unlike their closest relatives – reflect ultraviolet (UV) and long wavelength light, and also fluoresce. The pigment in the yellow scales is 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK), found also in the hair and scales of a variety of animals. In other butterflies like pierids with color schemes characterized by independent sources of variation in UV and human-visible yellow/orange, behavioral experiments have generally implicated the UV component as most relevant...

Data from: Rewilding in the English Uplands: policy and practice

Christopher J. Sandom, Benedict Dempsey, David Bullock, Adrian Ely, Paul Jepson, Stefan Jimenez-Wisler, Adrian Newton, Nathalie Pettorelli & Rebecca A. Senior
Rewilding is gaining momentum as a new approach to restore and conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services, despite being imprecisely defined, controversial, and with limited explicit empirical supporting evidence (Lorimer et al., 2015; Pettorelli et al., 2018; Svenning et al., 2016). In a case study region (the English uplands), we discuss what rewilding means to practitioners and policy makers; the risks, opportunities, and barriers to implementation, and potential paths for policy and practice.

Soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This datasets contains measures of soil thaw depth from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil thaw depth was measured in 2013 and 2014 in sites from Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soil temperature profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil temperature profiles were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Data from: Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, David Goulson, Matthew C. Tinsley, Dave Goulson & Matthew. C. Tinsley
Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition...

Data from: Enhanced flight performance by genetic manipulation of wing shape in Drosophila

Robert P. Ray, Toshiyuki Nakata, Per Henningsson & Richard J. Bomphrey
Insect wing shapes are remarkably diverse and the combination of shape and kinematics determines both aerial capabilities and power requirements. However, the contribution of any specific morphological feature to performance is not known. Using targeted RNA interference to modify wing shape far beyond the natural variation found within the population of a single species, we show a direct effect on flight performance that can be explained by physical modelling of the novel wing geometry. Our...

Data from: Heritability of symbiont density reveals distinct regulatory mechanisms in a tripartite symbiosis

Jasmine F. Parkinson, Bruno Gobin & William O. H. Hughes
Beneficial eukaryotic–bacterial partnerships are integral to animal and plant evolution. Understanding the density regulation mechanisms behind bacterial symbiosis is essential to elucidating the functional balance between hosts and symbionts. Citrus mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso), present an excellent model system for investigating the mechanisms of symbiont density regulation. They contain two obligate nutritional symbionts, Moranella endobia, which resides inside Tremblaya princeps, which has been maternally transmitted for 100–200 million years. We investigate whether host genotype may...

Data from: Colony-level differences in the scaling rules governing wood ant compound eye structure

Craig D. Perl & Jeremy E. Niven
Differential organ growth during development is essential for adults to maintain the correct proportions and achieve their characteristic shape. Organs scale with body size, a process known as allometry that has been studied extensively in a range of organisms. Such scaling rules, typically studied from a limited sample, are assumed to apply to all members of a population and/or species. Here we study scaling in the compound eyes of workers of the wood ant, Formica...

Data from: Nest inheritance is the missing source of direct fitness in a primitively eusocial insect

Ellouise Leadbeater, Jonathan M. Carruthers, Jonathan P. Green, Neil S. Rosser & Jeremy P. Field
Animals that co-operate with non-relatives represent a challenge to inclusive fitness theory, unless co-operative behavior is shown to provide direct fitness benefits. Inheritance of breeding resources could provide such benefits, but this route to co-operation has been little investigated in the social insects. We show that nest inheritance can explain the presence of unrelated helpers in a classic social insect model, the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes dominulus. We found that subordinate helpers produced more direct...

Data from: Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel Gibson, Andrew Polaszek, Rebecca J. Morris, Paul G. Craze, Robert Planqué, William O.C. Symondson & Jane Memmott
While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network...

Data from: Data reliability in citizen science: learning curve and the effects of training method, volunteer background and experience on identification accuracy of insects visiting ivy flowers

Francis L. W. Ratnieks, Felix Schrell, Rebecca C. Sheppard, Emmeline Brown, Oliver E. Bristow & Mihail Garbuzov
Citizen science, the involvement of volunteers in collecting of scientific data, can be a useful research tool. However, data collected by volunteers are often of lower quality than those collected by professional scientists. We studied the accuracy with which the volunteers identified insects visiting ivy (Hedera) flowers in Sussex, England. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of training method, volunteer background and prior experience. Fifty-three participants were trained for the same duration using...

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