22 Works

Systematic review reveals multiple sexually antagonistic polymorphisms affecting human disease and complex traits

Jon Alexander Harper
An evolutionary model for sex differences in disease risk posits that alleles conferring higher risk in one sex may be protective in the other. These sexually antagonistic (SA) alleles are predicted to be maintained at frequencies higher than expected under purifying selection against unconditionally deleterious alleles, but there are apparently no examples in humans. Discipline-specific terminology, rather than a genuine lack of such alleles, could explain this disparity. We undertook a two-stage review of evidence...

Large herbivore biomass in protected areas

Camilla Fløjgaard, Pil Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen, Christopher Sandom, Jens-Christian Svenning & Rasmus Ejrnæs
Large herbivores provide key ecosystem processes, but have experienced massive historical losses and are under intense pressure, leaving current ecosystems with dramatically simplified faunas relative to the long-term evolutionary norm. Hampered by a shifting baseline, natural levels of large-herbivore biomass are poorly understood and seldom targeted. Here, we present a collation of large-herbivore biomass data from published sources as well as personal communication. The data includes continent, ecosystem name, latitude, longitude, large herbivore biomass in...

Larval nutrition impacts the scaling of adult metabolic rate with body mass in honeybees

Elizabeth Nicholls, Marta Rossi & Jeremy Niven
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a fundamental physiological measure linked to numerous aspects of organismal function, including lifespan. Although dietary restriction in insects during larval growth/development affects adult RMR, the impact of larval diet quality on adult RMR has not been studied. Using in vitro rearing to control larval diet quality, we determined the effect of dietary protein and carbohydrate on honeybee survival-to-adulthood, time-to-eclosion, body mass/size and adult RMR. High carbohydrate larval diets increased survival-to-adulthood...

Larval nutrition impacts survival to adulthood, body size, and the allometric scaling of metabolic rate in adult honeybees

Elizabeth Nicholls, Marta Rossi & Jeremy Niven
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a fundamental physiological measure linked to numerous aspects of organismal function, including lifespan. Although dietary restriction in insects during larval growth/development affects adult RMR, the impact of larval diet quality on adult RMR has not been studied. Using in vitro rearing to control larval diet quality, we determined the effect of dietary protein and carbohydrate on honeybee survival-to-adulthood, time-to-eclosion, body mass/size and adult RMR. High carbohydrate larval diets increased survival-to-adulthood...

Data from: Spectral inference reveals principal cone-integration rules of the zebrafish inner retina

Tom Baden, Philipp Bartel, Takeshi Yoshimatsu & Filip K Janiak
In the vertebrate retina, bipolar cells integrate the signals from different cone types at two main sites: directly, via dendritic inputs in the outer retina, and indirectly, via axonal inputs in the inner retina. Of these, the functional wiring of the indirect route, involving diverse amacrine cell circuits, remains largely uncharted. However, because cone-photoreceptor types differ in their spectral sensitivities, insights into the total functional cone-integration logic of bipolar cell might be gained by linking...

Two-photon calcium recordings of cones

Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Philipp Bartel, Cornelius Schröder, Filip Janiak, Francois St-Pierre, Philipp Berens & Tom Baden
For colour vision, retinal circuits separate information about intensity and wavelength. This requires circuit-level comparison of at least two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. However, many vertebrates use all four ‘ancestral’ photoreceptors (‘red’, ‘green’, ‘blue’, ‘UV’), and in those cases the nature and implementation of this computation remains poorly understood. Here, we establish the complete circuit architecture of outer retinal circuits underlying colour processing in the tetrachromatic larval zebrafish, which involves all four ancestral cone types and...

GCRF African SWIFT White Paper Policy Brief: The future of African weather forecasting

Lorraine Youds, Douglas Parker, Elijah A Adefisan , Philip Antwi-Agyei, Caroline L Bain , Emily Black, Alan Blyth, Andrew Dougill, Linda C Hirons , Victor S Indasi, Benjamin L Lamptey, Fionne Marshall, John Marsham, Thorwald H M Stein, Christopher M Taylor , Martin C Todd, Emma L Visman & Steven Woolnough
There is a huge opportunity for the African continent to benefit from the ‘silent revolution’ in weather forecasting that has been realised in the mid-latitudes throughout the twentieth century. While there are tremendous societal and economic benefits from advancing the science behind weather forecasting in sub-Saharan Africa, there are also significant barriers to realising advances. This policy brief examines the value of investment in African weather forecasting science and the technical & communication challenges that...

Multivesicular Release LIF Spike Data

Benjamin James & Leon Lagnado
The statistics of vesicle release determine how information is transferred in neural 12 circuits. The classical model is of Poisson synapses releasing vesicles 13 independently but ribbon synapses transmit early sensory signals by 14 multivesicular release (MVR) when two or more vesicles are coordinated as a single 15 synaptic event. To investigate the impact of MVR on the spike code we used leaky 16 integrate-and-fire models with inputs simulating the statistics of vesicle release 17...

Data from: Rapid evolution of a floral trait following acquisition of novel pollinators

Christopher R. Mackin, Julián F. Peña, Mario A. Blanco, Nicholas J. Balfour & Maria Clara Castellanos
1. Changes in the pollinator assemblage visiting a plant can have consequences for reproductive success and floral evolution. We studied a recent plant trans-continental range expansion to test whether the acquisition of new pollinator functional groups can lead to rapid adaptive evolution of flowers. 2. In Digitalis purpurea, we compared flower visitors, floral traits and natural selection between native European populations and those in two Neotropical regions, naturalised after independent introductions. Bumblebees are the main...

Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) recognise meaningful content in monotonous streams of read speech

Holly Root-Gutteridge, Victoria Ratcliffe, Anna Korzeniowska & David Reby
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can recognize basic phonemic information from human speech and respond to commands. Commands are typically presented in isolation with exaggerated prosody known as dog-directed speech (DDS) register. Here, we investigate whether dogs can spontaneously identify meaningful phonemic content in a stream of putatively irrelevant speech spoken in monotonous prosody, without congruent prosodic cues. To test this ability, dogs were played recordings of their owners reading a meaningless text in which we...

Categorical differences in the false starts of speakers of English as a Second Language: Further evidence for developmental disfluency

Simon A. Williams
Although much is known about the formal properties of L2 repair in general and error corrections in particular, less in known about other subtypes, here collectively referred to as false starts. Unlike L2 self-corrections, false starts are psycholinguistically more comparable with NS equivalents and are of particular interest as possible sites of learner monitoring and modified output. Consistent with previous research on L2 repairs, this study found that lower-intermediate and advanced L2 speakers produced similar...

Using a new video rating tool to crowd-source analysis of behavioural reaction to stimuli

Holly Root-Gutteridge, Jemma Forman, Louise Brown, Anna Korzeniowska, Julia Simner & David Reby
Quantifying the intensity of animals’ reaction to stimuli is notoriously difficult as classic unidimensional measures of responses such as latency or duration of looking, can fail to capture the overall strength of behavioural responses. More holistic rating can be useful but have the inherent risks of subjective bias and lack of repeatability. Here, we explored whether crowdsourcing could be used to efficiently and reliably overcome these potential flaws. A total of 396 participants watched online...

Evidence shortfalls in the recommendations and guidance underpinning ecological mitigation for infrastructure developments

Sara Bronwen Hunter, Sophus Zu Ermgassen, Harriet Downey, Richard Griffiths & Caroline Howe
1. In the UK and European Union, legal protection of species from the impacts of infrastructure development depends upon a number of ecological mitigation and compensation (EMC) measures to moderate the conflict between development and conservation. However, the scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness has not yet been comprehensively assessed. 2. This study compiled the measures used in practice, identified and explored the guidance that informed them and, using the Conservation Evidence database, evaluated the empirical...

The awareness, visibility and support for young carers across Europe: a Delphi study

Henk Herman Nap, Renske Hoefman, Nynke De Jong, Lieke Lovink, Ludo Glimmerveen, Feylyn Lewis, Sara Santini, Barbara D’Amen, Marco Socci, Licia Boccaletti, Giulia Casu, Alessandra Manattini, Rosita Brolin, Karina Sirk, Valentina Hlebec, Tatjana Rakar, Tjasa Hudobivnik, Agnes Leu, Fabian Berger, Lennart Magnusson & Elizabeth Hanson
Across Europe, young carers (YCs) and their need for support receive limited attention in the media, policy and empirical research, even though, similar to adult carers, they also provide care to ill family members. The Delphi study, a qualitative research methodology, which provides the focus for this article, had the overall aim of exploring existing successful strategies to support YCs. Compared to YCs, even less is known about adolescent young carers (AYCs), a group that...

Dancing on Violent Ground

Arabella Stanger
o The politics of theater dance are commonly theorized in relation to its articulations of bodily freedom, resistance, agitation, or repair. However, as Arabella Stanger argues in Dancing on Violent Ground, canonical Euro-American choreographies are also political by the way their utopian imaginaries are grounded in processes of material dispossession and racialized violence. Developing a new theory of choreographic space, Stanger shows how embodied forms of hope promised in ballet and progressive dance modernisms conceal...

Larval zebrafish H2B bulk spectral sensitivity

Philipp Bartel, Filip Janiak, Daniel Osorio & Tom Baden
The encoding of light increments and decrements by separate On- and Off- systems is a fundamental ingredient of vision, which supports edge detection and makes efficient use of the limited dynamic range of visual neurons. Theory predicts that the neural representation of On- and Off-signals should be balanced, including across an animals’ visible spectrum. Here we find that larval zebrafish violate this textbook expectation: in the zebrafish brain, UV-stimulation near exclusively gives On-responses, blue/green stimulation...

CarniDIET 1.0: A database of terrestrial, carnivorous mammal diets

Owen Middleton, Hanna Svensson, Jorn Scharlemann, Soren Faurby & Chris Sandom
Motivation: A species’ diet is central to understanding many aspects of its biology, including its behaviour, movement, and ecological niche. The diets of terrestrial carnivorous mammals, defined here as species primarily consuming other mammals (hereafter, mammal-consumers), have been extensively studied and can vary in the proportion of different food types, and species, consumed across their geographic ranges. Accessibility to data capturing such variation in diets of mammal-consumers across the variety of ecosystems they occur in...

Data from: Sex differences in morphology across an expanding range edge in the flightless ground beetle, Carabus hortensis

Elisabeth Yarwood, Claudia Drees, Jeremy Niven, Marisa Gawel & Wiebke Schuett
Many species experience range shifts, contractions, and/or expansions. Often, morphological traits that increase movement capacity are observed in higher frequencies at the edge of an expanding or shifting range. Although traits observed at the range edge may differ between the sexes, sex differences in the distribution of morphological traits across species’ changing ranges are rarely studied. Here, we report pronotum width (as a proxy for body size) and body condition data from individual Carabus hortensis...

Reservoir dynamics of rabies in Southeast Tanzania and the roles of cross-species transmission and domestic dog vaccination

Kennedy Lushasi, Sarah Hayes, Elaine A Ferguson, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Nicodem J Govella, Daniel T Haydon, Sambo Maganga, Geofrey J Mchau, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Zacharia Mtema, Hesron E Nonga, Rachel Steenson, Pierre Nouvellet, Christl A Donnelly & Katie Hampson
Understanding the role of different species in the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as rabies virus, is vital for effective control strategies. Across most of sub-Saharan Africa domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered the reservoir for rabies, but the role of wildlife has been long debated. Here we explore the multi-host transmission dynamics of rabies across southeast Tanzania. Between January 2011 and July 2019 data on probable rabies cases were collected in the regions of...

Distinct synaptic transfer functions in same-type photoreceptors

Cornelius Schröder, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Jonathan Oesterle, Philipp Berens & Tom Baden
Many sensory systems use ribbon-type synapses to transmit their signals to downstream circuits. The properties of this synaptic transfer fundamentally dictate which aspects in the original stimulus will be accentuated or suppressed, thereby partially defining the detection limits of the circuit. Accordingly, sensory neurons have evolved a wide variety of ribbon geometries and vesicle pool properties to best support their diverse functional requirements. However, the need for diverse synaptic functions does not only arise across...

International biological flora: Nervilia nipponica

Stephan Gale, Ayako Maeda, Ayana Miyashita, Daisuke Sugiura, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita, Akihiko Kinoshita, Shohei Fujimori, Michael Hutchings & Tomohisa Yukawa
This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Nervilia nipponica Makino (mukago-saishin) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the International Biological Flora: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to the environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, conservation and global heterogeneity. Nervilia nipponica is a small, stoloniferous, seasonally dormant herb...

Data from: Novel nectar robbing negatively affects reproduction in Digitalis purpurea

Christopher Mackin, Maria Clara Castellanos & Dave Goulson
With many plant-pollinator interactions undergoing change as species’ distributions shift, we require a better understanding of how the addition of new interacting partners can affect plant reproduction. One such group of floral visitors, nectar robbers, can deplete plants of nectar rewards without contributing to pollination. The addition of nectar robbing to the floral visitor assemblage could therefore have costs to the plant´s reproductive output. We focus on a recent plant colonist, Digitalis purpurea, a plant...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Conference Paper


  • University of Sussex
  • University of Tübingen
  • Imperial College London
  • Jean Monnet University
  • Vilans
  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
  • University of Hamburg
  • Linnaeus University
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • University of Glasgow