Two decades of research suggest social relationships have a common evolutionary basis in humans and other gregarious mammals. Critical to the support of this idea is growing evidence that mortality is influenced by social integration, but when these effects emerge and how long they last is mostly unknown. Here, we report in adult female macaques that the impact of number of close adult female relatives, a proxy for social integration, on survival is not experienced...
Data from: Evolution of mutation rates in hypermutable populations of Escherichia coli propagated at very small effective population sizeTanya Singh, Meredith Hyun & Paul Sniegowski
Mutation is the ultimate source of the genetic variation—including variation for mutation rate itself—that fuels evolution. Natural selection can raise or lower the genomic mutation rate of a population by changing the frequencies of mutation rate modifier alleles associated with beneficial and deleterious mutations. Existing theory and observations suggest that where selection is minimized, rapid systematic evolution of mutation rate either up or down is unlikely. Here, we report systematic evolution of higher and lower...
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby...
We experimentally and numerically investigate the evolutionary dynamics of four competing strains of E. coli with differing expansion velocities in radially expanding colonies. We compare experimental measurements of the average fraction, correlation functions between strains, and the relative rates of genetic domain wall annihilations and coalescences to simulations modeling the population as a one-dimensional ring of annihilating and coalescing random walkers with deterministic biases due to selection. The simulations reveal that the evolutionary dynamics can...
Data from: A resource on latitudinal and altitudinal clines of ecologically relevant phenotypes of the Indian DrosophilaSubhash Rajpurohit, Xiaqing Zhao & Paul S. Schmidt
The unique geography of the Indian subcontinent has provided diverse natural environments for a variety of organisms. In this region, many ecological indices such as temperature and humidity vary predictably as a function of both latitude and altitude; these environmental parameters significantly affect fundamental dynamics of natural populations. Indian drosophilids are diverse in their geographic distribution and climate tolerance, possibly as a result of climatic adaptation. These associations with environmental parameters are further reflected in...
Data from: The Victoria West: earliest prepared core technology in the Acheulean at Canteen Kopje and implications for the cognitive evolution of early hominidsHao Li, Kathleen Kuman, Matt G. Lotter, George M. Leader & Ryan J. Gibbon
Prepared core technology illustrates in-depth planning and the presence of a mental template during the core reduction process. This technology is, therefore, a significant indicator in studying the evolution of abstract thought and the cognitive abilities of hominids. Here, we report on Victoria West cores excavated from the Canteen Kopje site in central South Africa, with a preliminary age estimate of approximately 1 Ma (million years ago) for these cores. Technological analysis shows that the...
Data from: Physician assessment of pretest probability of malignancy and adherence with guidelines for pulmonary nodule evaluationNichole T. Tanner, Alexander Porter, Michael K. Gould, Xiao-Jun Li, Anil Vachani & Gerard A. Silvestri
The annual incidence of pulmonary nodules is estimated at 1.57 million. Guidelines recommend using an initial assessment of nodule probability of malignancy (pCA). A previous study found that despite this recommendation, physicians did not follow guidelines. METHODS: Physician assessments (N = 337) and two previously validated risk model assessments of pretest probability of cancer were evaluated for performance in 337 patients with pulmonary nodules based on final diagnosis and compared. Physician-assessed pCA was categorized into...
Biological invasions reshape environments and affect the ecological and economic welfare of states and communities. Such invasions advance on multiple spatial scales, complicating their control. When modeling stochastic dispersal processes, intractable likelihoods and autocorrelated data complicate parameter estimation. As with other approaches, the recent synthetic likelihood framework for stochastic models uses summary statistics to reduce this complexity; however, it additionally provides usable likelihoods, facilitating the use of existing likelihood-based machinery. Here, we extend this framework...
Data from: Emergence of long-term balanced polymorphism under cyclic selection of spatially variable magnitudeDavorka Gulisija & Yuseob Kim
A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is what promotes genetic variation at non-neutral loci, a major precursor to adaptation in changing environments. In particular, balanced polymorphism under realistic evolutionary models of temporally varying environments in finite natural populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we propose a novel mechanism of balancing selection under temporally varying fitnesses. Using forward-in-time computer simulations and mathematical analysis, we show that cyclic selection that spatially varies in magnitude, such as along...
Data from: Pharmacological inactivation does not support a unique causal role for intraparietal sulcus in the discrimination of visual numberNicholas K. DeWind, Jiyun Peng, Andrew Luo, Elizabeth M. Brannon & Michael L. Platt
The “number sense” describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral...
Data from: A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east AfricaRafal S. Sobota, Catherine M. Stein, Nuri Kodaman, Isaac Maro, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Robert P. Igo, Albert Magohe, LaShaunda L. Malone, Keith Chervenak, Noemi B. Hall, Mecky Matee, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses Joloba, Jason H. Moore, William K. Scott, Timothy Lahey, W. Henry Boom, C. Fordham Von Reyn, Scott M. Williams & Giorgio Sirugo
One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts...
A continuing debate in studies of social development in both humans and other animals is the extent to which early life experiences affect adult behavior. Also unclear are the relative contributions of cognitive skills (“intelligence”) and temperament for successful outcomes. Guide dogs are particularly suited to research on these questions. To succeed as a guide dog, individuals must accomplish complex navigation and decision making without succumbing to distractions and unforeseen obstacles. Faced with these rigorous...
University of Pennsylvania12
University of Exeter2
Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology1
University of Washington1
University of Pretoria1
University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus1
University of Cambridge1
University of Wisconsin-Madison1
Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences1